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  • Nanking, Jiangsu, China
    Wednesday May 5, 1937

    Mao Zedong

    Telegramming The Military Council of The Nanking National Government

    Nanking, Jiangsu, China
    Wednesday May 5, 1937

    Although despising Chiang Kai-shek as a "traitor to the nation", on May 5, he telegrammed the Military Council of the Nanking National Government proposing a military alliance, a course of action advocated by Stalin.




  • Kaifeng, Henan, China
    Sunday Jun 6, 1937

    Second Sino-Japanese War

    The Japanese captured Kaifeng

    Kaifeng, Henan, China
    Sunday Jun 6, 1937

    In 1937, the Japanese Imperial Army quickly marched into the heart of Chinese territory. On June 6, they captured Kaifeng, the capital of Henan, and threatened to take Zhengzhou, the junction of the Pinghan and Longhai railways.




  • Beijing, China
    Wednesday Jul 7, 1937

    Second Sino-Japanese War

    The Marco Polo Bridge Incident

    Beijing, China
    Wednesday Jul 7, 1937

    On the night of July 7, 1937, Chinese and Japanese troops exchanged fire in the vicinity of the Marco Polo (or Lugou) Bridge, a crucial access-route to Beijing. What began as confused, sporadic skirmishing soon escalated into a full-scale battle in which Beijing and its port city of Tianjin fell to Japanese forces (July–August 1937).




  • Tongzhou, Beijing, China
    Thursday Jul 29, 1937

    Second Sino-Japanese War

    The Tungchow mutiny

    Tongzhou, Beijing, China
    Thursday Jul 29, 1937

    On July 29, some 5,000 troops of the 1st and 2nd Corps of the East Hopei Army mutinied, turning against the Japanese garrison. In addition to Japanese military personnel, some 260 civilians living in Tongzhou in accordance with the Boxer Protocol of 1901, were killed in the uprising (predominantly Japanese including the police force and also some ethnic Koreans). The Chinese then set fire to and destroyed much of the city. Only around 60 Japanese civilians survived, who provided both journalists and later historians with firsthand witness accounts. As a result of the violence of the mutiny against Japanese civilians, the Tungchow mutiny, as it came to be called, strongly shook public opinion within Japan.




  • Shanghai, China
    Thursday Aug 12, 1937

    Second Sino-Japanese War

    The KMT laid a siege to the Japanese area of Shanghai

    Shanghai, China
    Thursday Aug 12, 1937

    The Imperial General Headquarters (GHQ) in Tokyo, content with the gains acquired in northern China following the Marco Polo Bridge Incident, initially showed reluctance to escalate the conflict into full-scale war. The KMT, however, determined that the "breaking point" of Japanese aggression had been reached. Chiang Kai-shek quickly mobilized the central government's army and air force, placed them under his direct command, and laid siege to the Japanese area of Shanghai International Settlement, where 30,000 Japanese civilians lived with 30,000 troops on August 12, 1937.




  • Shanghai, China
    Thursday Aug 12, 1937

    Second Sino-Japanese War

    Accidentally bombed The Shanghai International Settlement

    Shanghai, China
    Thursday Aug 12, 1937

    On August 14, Kuomintang planes accidentally bombed the Shanghai International Settlement, which led to more than 3,000 civilian deaths. In the three days from August 14 through 16, 1937, the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) sent many sorties of the then-advanced long-ranged G3M medium-heavy land-based bombers and assorted carrier-based aircraft with the expectation of destroying the Chinese Air Force. However, the Imperial Japanese Navy encountered unexpected resistance from the defending Chinese Hawk III and P-26/281 Peashooter fighter squadrons.




  • Shanghai, China
    Thursday Aug 12, 1937

    Second Sino-Japanese War

    The Battle of Shanghai

    Shanghai, China
    Thursday Aug 12, 1937

    On August 13, 1937, Kuomintang soldiers and warplanes attacked Japanese Marine positions in Shanghai, leading to the Battle of Shanghai.


  • Nanjing, Jiangsu, China
    Saturday Aug 21, 1937

    Second Sino-Japanese War

    The Sino-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact

    Nanjing, Jiangsu, China
    Saturday Aug 21, 1937

    In September 1937, the Soviet Union and China signed the Sino-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact and approved Operation Zet, the formation of a secret Soviet volunteer air force, in which Soviet technicians upgraded and ran some of China's transportation systems.


  • Nanjing, China
    Saturday Aug 21, 1937

    World War II

    Soviet non-aggression pact with China

    Nanjing, China
    Saturday Aug 21, 1937

    Soviets signed a non-aggression pact with China to lend material support, ending China's co-operation with Germany.


  • northern Shanghai, Shanghai, China
    Monday Aug 23, 1937

    Second Sino-Japanese War

    Japanese Army Reinforcements

    northern Shanghai, Shanghai, China
    Monday Aug 23, 1937

    On August 23, Japanese Army reinforcements succeeded in landing in northern Shanghai. The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) ultimately committed over 200,000 troops, along with numerous naval vessels and aircraft, to capture the city. After more than three months of intense fighting, their casualties far exceeded initial expectations.


  • Dachang, Shanghai, China
    Tuesday Oct 26, 1937

    Second Sino-Japanese War

    Capturing Dachang

    Dachang, Shanghai, China
    Tuesday Oct 26, 1937

    On October 26, the Japanese Army captured Dachang, an important strong-point within Shanghai.


  • Shanghai, China
    Tuesday Nov 9, 1937

    Second Sino-Japanese War

    The NRA began a general retreat

    Shanghai, China
    Tuesday Nov 9, 1937

    On November 5, additional reinforcements of Japan landed from Hangzhou Bay. Finally, on November 9, the NRA began a general retreat.


  • Shanghai, China
    Friday Nov 26, 1937

    World War II

    Battle of Shanghai ended

    Shanghai, China
    Friday Nov 26, 1937

    Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek deployed his best army to defend Shanghai, but, after three months of fighting, Shanghai fell.


  • Nanjing, Jiangsu, China
    Wednesday Dec 1, 1937

    Second Sino-Japanese War

    The Battle of Nanjing

    Nanjing, Jiangsu, China
    Wednesday Dec 1, 1937

    Building on the hard-won victory in Shanghai, the IJA captured the KMT capital city of Nanjing (December 1937) and Northern Shanxi (September–November 1937). These campaigns involved approximately 350,000 Japanese soldiers, and considerably more Chinese.


  • Nanjing, Jiangsu, China
    Monday Dec 13, 1937

    Second Sino-Japanese War

    Nanjing Massacre

    Nanjing, Jiangsu, China
    Monday Dec 13, 1937

    Historians estimate that between December 13, 1937, and late January 1938, Japanese forces killed an estimated 200,000 to 300,000 Chinese (mostly civilians) in the "Nanjing Massacre" (also known as the "Rape of Nanjing"), after its fall but the numbers are uncertain and possibly inflated coupled with the fact that the government of the People's Republic of China has never undertaken a full accounting of the Massacre.


  • China
    Saturday Dec 25, 1937

    Mao Zedong

    The Formation of a United Front

    China
    Saturday Dec 25, 1937

    Although Chiang intended to ignore Mao's message and continue the civil war, he was arrested by one of his own generals, Zhang Xueliang, in Xi'an, leading to the Xi'an Incident; Zhang forced Chiang to discuss the issue with the Communists, resulting in the formation of a United Front with concessions on both sides on December 25, 1937.


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