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  • Berlin, Germany
    Tuesday Jan 16, 1945

    Martin Bormann

    Hitler Transferred His Headquarters To The Führerbunker

    Berlin, Germany
    Tuesday Jan 16, 1945

    Hitler transferred his headquarters to the Führerbunker ("Leader's bunker") in Berlin on 16 January 1945, where he (along with Bormann, his secretary Else Krüger, and others) remained until the end of April.




  • Germany
    Sunday Jan 21, 1945

    Joseph Goebbels

    Goebbels noted in his diary millions of Germans were fleeing westward.

    Germany
    Sunday Jan 21, 1945

    Goebbels noted in his diary on 21 January that millions of Germans were fleeing westward.




  • Plötzensee Prison, Berlin, Germany
    Tuesday Jan 23, 1945

    Max Planck

    Erwin (His son) was hanged

    Plötzensee Prison, Berlin, Germany
    Tuesday Jan 23, 1945

    In 1944, Planck's son Erwin was arrested by the Gestapo following the attempted assassination of Hitler in the 20 July plot. He was tried and sentenced to death by the People's Court in October 1944. Erwin was hanged at Berlin's Plötzensee Prison in January 1945. The death of his son destroyed much of Planck's will to live.




  • Germany
    Saturday Jan 27, 1945

    Joseph Goebbels

    Goebbels and his wife discussed suicide

    Germany
    Saturday Jan 27, 1945

    He and Magda may have discussed suicide and the fate of their young children in a long meeting on the night of 27 January.




  • Dresden, Germany
    Tuesday Feb 13, 1945

    Winston Churchill

    Bombing of Dresden

    Dresden, Germany
    Tuesday Feb 13, 1945

    On the nights of 13–15 February 1945, some 1,200 British and US bombers attacked the German city of Dresden, which was crowded with wounded and refugees from the Eastern Front. The attacks were part of an area bombing campaign that was initiated by Churchill in January with the intention of shortening the war. Churchill came to regret the bombing because initial reports suggested an excessive number of civilian casualties close to the end of the war, though an independent commission in 2010 confirmed a death toll between 22,700 and 25,000.




  • France, Belgium, Luxembourg, Netherlands and Germany
    Thursday Mar 8, 1945

    World War II

    The Allied advance from Paris to the Rhine

    France, Belgium, Luxembourg, Netherlands and Germany
    Thursday Mar 8, 1945

    The Allied advance from Paris to the Rhine (25 August 1944–7 March 1945), also known as the Siegfried Line campaign, was a phase in the Western European campaign of the World War.




  • Upper Silesia, Germany
    Saturday Mar 31, 1945

    World War II

    Upper Silesian Offensive

    Upper Silesia, Germany
    Saturday Mar 31, 1945

    In February, the Soviets entered Upper Silesia.


  • Germany
    Thursday Apr 12, 1945

    Joseph Goebbels

    Goebbels knew how to play on Hitler's fantasies

    Germany
    Thursday Apr 12, 1945

    Goebbels knew how to play on Hitler's fantasies, encouraging him to see the hand of providence in the death of the United States, President Franklin D. Roosevelt, on 12 April.


  • Berlin, Germany
    Monday Apr 16, 1945

    Martin Bormann

    The Battle of Berlin

    Berlin, Germany
    Monday Apr 16, 1945

    The Battle of Berlin, the final major Soviet offensive of the war, began on 16 April 1945.


  • Berlin, Germany
    Monday Apr 16, 1945

    World War II

    Fall of Berlin

    Berlin, Germany
    Monday Apr 16, 1945

    Soviet forces stormed and captured Berlin in late April. The battle started on 16 April 1945.


  • Ruhr Area, Germany
    Wednesday Apr 18, 1945

    World War II

    Ruhr Pocket

    Ruhr Area, Germany
    Wednesday Apr 18, 1945

    By April, the Western Allies crossed the Rhine north and south of the Ruhr, encircling the German Army Group B. The battle of encirclement took place from 1 to 18 April.


  • Germany
    Wednesday Apr 18, 1945

    Joseph Goebbels

    Goebbels burned his private papers

    Germany
    Wednesday Apr 18, 1945

    He knew how the outside world would view the criminal acts committed by the regime, and had no desire to subject himself to the "debacle" of a trial. He burned his private papers on the night of 18 April.


  • Berlin, Germany
    Thursday Apr 19, 1945

    Martin Bormann

    The Red Army started to Encircle Berlin

    Berlin, Germany
    Thursday Apr 19, 1945

    By 19 April the Red Army started to encircle the city.


  • Berlin, Germany
    Friday Apr 20, 1945

    Adolf Hitler

    Last trip from the Führerbunker

    Berlin, Germany
    Friday Apr 20, 1945

    On 20 April, his 56th birthday, Hitler made his last trip from the Führerbunker (Führer's shelter) to the surface.


  • Berlin, Germany
    Friday Apr 20, 1945

    Martin Bormann

    Hitler's 56th Birthday

    Berlin, Germany
    Friday Apr 20, 1945

    On 20 April, Hitler's 56th birthday, he made his last trip to the surface. In the ruined garden of the Reich Chancellery, he awarded Iron Crosses to boy soldiers of the Hitler Youth. That afternoon, Berlin was bombarded by Soviet artillery for the first time.


  • Berlin, Germany
    Friday Apr 20, 1945

    Joseph Goebbels

    Most of Hitler's inner circle to leave Berlin

    Berlin, Germany
    Friday Apr 20, 1945

    Most of Hitler's inner circle, including Göring, Himmler, Ribbentrop, and Speer, prepared to leave Berlin immediately after Hitler's birthday celebration on 20 April.


  • Seelow Heights, Province of Brandenburg, Prussia, Germany
    Saturday Apr 21, 1945

    Adolf Hitler

    Battle of the Seelow

    Seelow Heights, Province of Brandenburg, Prussia, Germany
    Saturday Apr 21, 1945

    By 21 April, Georgy Zhukov's 1st Belorussian Front had broken through the defenses of General Gotthard Heinrici's Army Group Vistula during the Battle of the Seelow Heights and advanced to the outskirts of Berlin.


  • Obersalzberg, Berchtesgaden, Germany
    Monday Apr 23, 1945

    Martin Bormann

    Albert Bormann Left The Bunker complex and flew to the Obersalzberg

    Obersalzberg, Berchtesgaden, Germany
    Monday Apr 23, 1945

    On 23 April, Albert Bormann left the bunker complex and flew to the Obersalzberg. He and several others had been ordered by Hitler to leave Berlin.


  • Berlin, Germany
    Monday Apr 23, 1945

    Joseph Goebbels

    Goebbels made the last proclamation to the people of Berlin

    Berlin, Germany
    Monday Apr 23, 1945

    On 23 April, Goebbels made the following proclamation to the people of Berlin: I call on you to fight for your city. Fight with everything you have got, for the sake of your wives and your children, your mothers, and your parents. Your arms are defending everything we have ever held dear, and all the generations that will come after us. Be proud and courageous! Be inventive and cunning! Your Gauleiter is amongst you. He and his colleagues will remain in your midst. His wife and children are here as well. He, who once captured the city with 200 men, will now use every means to galvanize the defense of the capital. The battle for Berlin must become the signal for the whole nation to rise up in battle ...".


  • Berlin, Germany
    Sunday Apr 29, 1945

    Adolf Hitler

    Marriage

    Berlin, Germany
    Sunday Apr 29, 1945

    After midnight on the night of 28–29 April, Hitler married Eva Braun in a small civil ceremony in the Führerbunker.


  • Berlin, Germany
    Sunday Apr 29, 1945

    Adolf Hitler

    Hitler removed Göring from all government positions

    Berlin, Germany
    Sunday Apr 29, 1945

    Göring sent a telegram from Berchtesgaden, arguing that since Hitler was isolated in Berlin, Göring should assume leadership of Germany. Göring set a deadline, after which he would consider Hitler incapacitated. Hitler responded by having Göring arrested, and in his last will and testament of 29 April, he removed Göring from all government positions.


  • Obersalzberg, Berchtesgaden, Germany
    Sunday Apr 29, 1945

    Martin Bormann

    Bormann was Named Executor of The Estate

    Obersalzberg, Berchtesgaden, Germany
    Sunday Apr 29, 1945

    In the early morning hours of 29 April 1945, Wilhelm Burgdorf, Goebbels, Hans Krebs, and Bormann witnessed and signed Hitler's last will and testament. Bormann was named executor of the estate. That same night, Hitler married Eva Braun in a civil ceremony.


  • Berlin, Germany
    Sunday Apr 29, 1945

    Joseph Goebbels

    Goebbels and Bormann were witnesses to Hitlers

    Berlin, Germany
    Sunday Apr 29, 1945

    Hitler then took secretary Traudl Junge to another room and dictated his last will and testament. Goebbels and Bormann were two of the witnesses.


  • Berlin, Germany
    Sunday Apr 29, 1945

    World War II

    German forces surrender

    Berlin, Germany
    Sunday Apr 29, 1945

    Soviet and Polish forces stormed and captured Berlin in late April. In Italy, German forces surrendered on 29 April. On 30 April, the Reichstag was captured, signaling the military defeat of Nazi Germany, Berlin garrison surrendered on 2 May.


  • Berlin, Germany
    Sunday Apr 29, 1945

    Joseph Goebbels

    Hitler married Eva Braun before his suicide

    Berlin, Germany
    Sunday Apr 29, 1945

    After midnight on 29 April, with the Soviets advancing ever closer to the bunker complex, Hitler married Eva Braun in a small civil ceremony within the Führerbunker.


  • Germany
    Monday Apr 30, 1945

    Joseph Stalin

    WWII Finished in Europe

    Germany
    Monday Apr 30, 1945

    In April 1945, the Red Army seized Berlin, Hitler committed suicide, and Germany surrendered.


  • Berlin, Germany
    Monday Apr 30, 1945

    Adolf Hitler

    Death

    Berlin, Germany
    Monday Apr 30, 1945

    On 30 April 1945, Soviet troops were within a block or two of the Reich Chancellery when Hitler shot himself in the head and Braun bit into a cyanide capsule.


  • Germany
    Monday Apr 30, 1945

    Martin Bormann

    Bormann was named as Party Minister

    Germany
    Monday Apr 30, 1945

    In accordance with Hitler's last wishes, Bormann was named as Party Minister, thus officially confirming his top position in the Party. Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz was appointed as the new Reichspräsident (President of Germany) and Goebbels became head of government and Chancellor of Germany. Goebbels and his wife Magda committed suicide later that day.


  • Berlin, Germany
    Monday Apr 30, 1945

    Martin Bormann

    Hitler and Braun Committed Suicide

    Berlin, Germany
    Monday Apr 30, 1945

    As Soviet forces continued to fight their way into the centre of Berlin, Hitler and Braun committed suicide on the afternoon of 30 April. Braun took cyanide and Hitler shot himself. Pursuant to Hitler's instructions, their bodies were carried up to the Reich Chancellery garden and burned.


  • Berlin, Germany
    Monday Apr 30, 1945

    World War II

    Hitler Committed Suicide

    Berlin, Germany
    Monday Apr 30, 1945

    Two days later after Mussolini's assassination, Hitler committed suicide in besieged Berlin, and he was succeeded by Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz.


  • Berlin, Germany
    Monday Apr 30, 1945

    Joseph Goebbels

    Goebbels was depressed

    Berlin, Germany
    Monday Apr 30, 1945

    Goebbels was depressed and stated that he would walk around the Chancellery garden until he was killed by the Russian.


  • Berlin, Germany
    Tuesday May 1, 1945

    Joseph Goebbels

    Vice-Admiral Voss saw Goebbels for the last time

    Berlin, Germany
    Tuesday May 1, 1945

    Later on 1 May, Vice-Admiral Voss saw Goebbels for the last time: "... While saying goodbye I asked Goebbels to join us. But he replied: 'The captain must not leave his sinking ship. I have thought about it all and decided to stay here. I have nowhere to go because with little children I will not be able to make it, especially with a leg like mine.


  • Berlin, Germany
    Tuesday May 1, 1945

    Joseph Goebbels

    Goebbels' letter informed Chuikov of Hitler's death

    Berlin, Germany
    Tuesday May 1, 1945

    Goebbels carried out his sole official act as Chancellor. He dictated a letter to General Vasily Chuikov and ordered German General Hans Krebs to deliver it under a white flag. Goebbels' letter informed Chuikov of Hitler's death and requested a ceasefire. After this was rejected, Goebbels decided that further efforts were futile.


  • Berlin, Germany
    Tuesday May 1, 1945

    Joseph Goebbels

    Goebbels arranged to eliminate his children by injected morphine

    Berlin, Germany
    Tuesday May 1, 1945

    On the evening of 1 May, Goebbels arranged for an SS dentist, Helmut Kunz, to inject his six children with morphine so that when they were unconscious, an ampule of cyanide could be then crushed in each of their mouths.


  • Berlin, Germany
    Tuesday May 1, 1945

    Joseph Goebbels

    Goebbels killed himself

    Berlin, Germany
    Tuesday May 1, 1945

    Goebbels and Magda left the bunker and walked up to the garden of the Chancellery, where they killed themselves.


  • Berlin, Germany
    Wednesday May 2, 1945

    Adolf Hitler

    Berlin surrendered

    Berlin, Germany
    Wednesday May 2, 1945

    Berlin surrendered on 2 May.


  • Berlin, Germany
    Wednesday May 2, 1945

    Martin Bormann

    The Battle In Berlin Ended

    Berlin, Germany
    Wednesday May 2, 1945

    On 2 May, the Battle in Berlin ended when General der Artillerie Helmuth Weidling, the commander of the Berlin Defense Area, unconditionally surrendered the city to General Vasily Chuikov, the commander of the Soviet 8th Guards Army.


  • Berlin, Germany
    Wednesday May 2, 1945

    Martin Bormann

    Death

    Berlin, Germany
    Wednesday May 2, 1945

    Bormann's group left the Führerbunker and travelled on foot via a U-Bahn tunnel to the Friedrichstraße station, where they surfaced. Several members of the party attempted to cross the Spree River at the Weidendammer Bridge while crouching behind a Tiger tank. The tank was hit by Soviet artillery and destroyed, and Bormann and Stumpfegger were knocked to the ground. Bormann, Stumpfegger, and several others eventually crossed the river on their third attempt. Bormann, Stumpfegger, and Axmann walked along the railway tracks to Lehrter station, where Axmann decided to leave the others and go in the opposite direction. When he encountered a Red Army patrol, Axmann doubled back. He saw two bodies, which he later identified as Bormann and Stumpfegger, on a bridge near the railway switching yard. He did not have time to check thoroughly, so he did not know how they died. Since the Soviets never admitted to finding Bormann's body, his fate remained in doubt for many years.


  • Germany
    Monday May 7, 1945

    Dwight D. Eisenhower

    Germans finally surrendered

    Germany
    Monday May 7, 1945

    The Soviet Red Army captured Berlin in a very large-scale bloody battle, and the Germans finally surrendered on May 7, 1945.


  • Berlin, Germany
    Wednesday Jul 11, 1945

    World War II

    Allied leaders meet in Potsdam

    Berlin, Germany
    Wednesday Jul 11, 1945

    On 11 July, Allied leaders met in Potsdam, Germany. They confirmed earlier agreements about Germany, and the American, British, and Chinese governments reiterated the demand for the unconditional surrender of Japan, specifically stating that "the alternative for Japan is prompt and utter destruction". During this conference, the United Kingdom held its general election, and Clement Attlee replaced Churchill as Prime Minister.


  • Potsdam, Germany
    Tuesday Jul 17, 1945

    First Indochina War

    the Potsdam Conference

    Potsdam, Germany
    Tuesday Jul 17, 1945

    At the Potsdam Conference in July 1945, the Combined Chiefs of Staff decided that Indochina south of latitude 16° north was to be included in the Southeast Asia Command under British Admiral Mountbatten. Japanese forces located south of that line surrendered to him and those to the north surrendered to Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek.


  • Potsdam, Germany
    Tuesday Jul 17, 1945

    Winston Churchill

    Churchill was Great Britain's representative at the post-war Potsdam Conference

    Potsdam, Germany
    Tuesday Jul 17, 1945

    Churchill was Great Britain's representative at the post-war Potsdam Conference when it opened on 17 July and was accompanied at its sessions not only by Anthony Eden as Foreign Secretary but also, pending the result of the July general election, by Attlee. Potsdam went badly for Churchill. Eden later described his performance as "appalling", saying that he was unprepared and verbose. Churchill upset the Chinese, exasperated the Americans, and was easily led by Stalin, whom he was supposed to be resisting.


  • Potsdam, Germany
    Thursday Jul 26, 1945

    Hirohito

    The Potsdam Declaration

    Potsdam, Germany
    Thursday Jul 26, 1945

    On July 26, 1945, the Allies issued the Potsdam Declaration demanding unconditional surrender. The Japanese government council, the Big Six, considered that option and recommended to the Emperor that it be accepted only if one to four conditions were agreed upon, including a guarantee of the Emperor's continued position in Japanese society. The Emperor decided not to surrender.


  • Nuremberg, Germany
    Tuesday Nov 20, 1945

    Martin Bormann

    The Trial

    Nuremberg, Germany
    Tuesday Nov 20, 1945

    The trial got underway on 20 November 1945. Lacking evidence confirming Bormann's death, the International Military Tribunal tried him in absentia, as permitted under article 12 of their charter. He was charged with three counts: conspiracy to wage a war of aggression, war crimes, and crimes against humanity.


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