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  • Roman Empire (now Turkey)
    Friday Dec 13, 115

    Disasters with highest death tolls

    115 Antioch Earthquake

    Roman Empire (now Turkey)
    Friday Dec 13, 115

    The 115 Antioch earthquake occurred on 13 December 115 AD. It had an estimated magnitude of 7.5 on the surface wave magnitude scale and an estimated maximum intensity of XI (Extreme) on the Mercalli intensity scale. The origin of the reported death toll of 260,000 is uncertain, as it only appears in catalogues of about the last hundred years.




  • Rome, Italy
    Tuesday Feb 16, 269

    Valentine's Day

    Saint Valentine's death

    Rome, Italy
    Tuesday Feb 16, 269

    Saint Valentine was martyred by emperor Claudius II Gothicus and was buried in via falminia.




  • Persian Gate, near Persepolis
    Tuesday Jan 21, 330

    Ancient Greece

    Battle of the Persian Gate

    Persian Gate, near Persepolis
    Tuesday Jan 21, 330

    In the winter of 330 BC, at the Battle of the Persian Gate northeast of today's Yasuj in Iran, the Persian satrap Ariobarzanes led a last stand of the Persian forces. As a result, Alexander consolidated control of half of Persia and captures its dynastic center.




  • near Erbil (Present-Day in Iraqi Kurdistan)
    Friday Oct 2, 331

    Ancient Greece

    Battle of Gaugamela

    near Erbil (Present-Day in Iraqi Kurdistan)
    Friday Oct 2, 331

    The Battle of Gaugamela took place in 331 BC in what is now Iraqi Kurdistan, possibly near Erbil, and resulted in a decisive victory for the Macedonians. After the Siege of Gaza, Alexander advanced from Syria towards the heart of the Persian empire, crossing both the Euphrates and the Tigris rivers without any opposition. Darius was building up a massive army, drawing men from the far reaches of his empire, and planned to use sheer numbers to crush Alexander. Though Alexander had conquered part of the Persian empire, it was still vast in area and in manpower reserves, and Darius could recruit more men than Alexander could dream of. Also present in the Persian army, a sign that the Persians were still very powerful, were the feared war elephants. While Darius had a significant advantage in a number of soldiers, most of his troops weren't as organized as Alexander's. As Result, Alexander gained Babylon, half of Persia, and all other parts of Mesopotamia.




  • Issus (Present-Day Hatay, Turkey)
    Sunday Nov 5, 333

    Ancient Greece

    Battle of Issus

    Issus (Present-Day Hatay, Turkey)
    Sunday Nov 5, 333

    The battle of Issus took place in November 333 BC. After Alexander's forces successfully defeated the Persians at the Battle of the Granicus, Darius took personal charge of his army, gathered a large army from the depths of the empire, and maneuvered to cut the Greek line of supply, requiring Alexander to countermarch his forces, setting the stage for the battle near the mouth of the Pinarus River and south of the village of Issus. Darius was apparently unaware that, by deciding to stage the battle on a riverbank, he was minimizing the numerical advantage his army had over Alexander's. As a result, Alexander controlled southern Asia Minor.




  • Chaeronea, Boeotia, Greece
    Wednesday Aug 3, 338

    Ancient Greece

    Battle of Chaeronea (338 BC)

    Chaeronea, Boeotia, Greece
    Wednesday Aug 3, 338

    Decisively defeating an allied army of Thebes and Athens at the Battle of Chaeronea (338 BC), he became de facto hegemon of all of Greece, except Sparta. He compelled the majority of the city-states to join the League of Corinth, allying them to him and imposing peace among them.




  • Crete, Greece
    Saturday Jul 21, 356

    Disasters with highest death tolls

    365 Crete Earthquake

    Crete, Greece
    Saturday Jul 21, 356

    The 365 Crete earthquake occurred at about sunrise on 21 July 365 in the Eastern Mediterranean, with an assumed epicentre near Crete. Geologists today estimate the undersea earthquake to have been a magnitude 8.0 or higher. The Crete earthquake was followed by a tsunami which devastated the southern and eastern coasts of the Mediterranean, particularly Libya, Alexandria and the Nile Delta, killing thousands and hurling ships 3 km (1.9 mi) inland.


  • Boeotia, Greece
    Wednesday Jul 7, 371

    Ancient Greece

    Battle of Leuctra

    Boeotia, Greece
    Wednesday Jul 7, 371

    The Spartan hegemony lasted another 16 years, until, when attempting to impose their will on the Thebans, the Spartans were defeated at Leuctra in 371 BC. The Theban general Epaminondas then led Theban troops into the Peloponnese, whereupon other city-states defected from the Spartan cause. The Thebans were thus able to march into Messenia and free the helot population.


  • Byzantine Empire (now Syria)
    Sunday Nov 29, 533

    Disasters with highest death tolls

    533 Aleppo Earthquake

    Byzantine Empire (now Syria)
    Sunday Nov 29, 533

    533 Aleppo earthquake occurred on November 29, 533 in Byzantine Empire (now Syria), there were an estimated 130,000 deaths.


  • Opis, Babylon (Present-Day Baghdad, Iraq)
    Saturday Sep 26, 539

    Babylon

    Battle of Opis

    Opis, Babylon (Present-Day Baghdad, Iraq)
    Saturday Sep 26, 539

    Cyrus invaded Babylon. Nabonidus sent his son Belshazzar to head off the huge Persian army but the Babylonian forces were overwhelmed at the Battle of Opis.


  • Babylon (Present-Day Iraq)
    Tuesday Oct 13, 539

    Babylon

    Cyrus entered Babylon

    Babylon (Present-Day Iraq)
    Tuesday Oct 13, 539

    Nabonidus fled to Borsippa, and on 12 October, after Cyrus' engineers had diverted the waters of the Euphrates, the soldiers of Cyrus entered Babylon without the need for a battle. Nabonidus surrendered and was deported. Gutian guards were placed at the gates of the great temple of Marduk, where the services continued without interruption.


  • Byzantine Empire (now Turkey)
    Sunday Sep 30, 587

    Disasters with highest death tolls

    587 Antioch Earthquake

    Byzantine Empire (now Turkey)
    Sunday Sep 30, 587

    587 Antioch earthquake occurred on September 30, 587 in Byzantine Empire (now Turkey), there were an estimated 60,000 deaths.


  • Umayyad Caliphate (now Iran)
    Saturday Apr 26, 662

    Disasters with highest death tolls

    662 Damghan Earthquake

    Umayyad Caliphate (now Iran)
    Saturday Apr 26, 662

    662 Damghan earthquake occurred on April 26, 662, in Umayyad Caliphate (now Iran), there were an estimated 40,000 deaths.


  • Holy Roman Empire
    Monday Dec 25, 800

    Holy Roman Empire

    Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne emperor

    Holy Roman Empire
    Monday Dec 25, 800

    On Christmas Day of 800, Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne emperor, restoring the title in the West for the first time in over three centuries.


  • Vatican City (then Rome, Roman Empire)
    Thursday Nov 1, 835

    Halloween

    All Hallows' Day was officially switched to 1 November

    Vatican City (then Rome, Roman Empire)
    Thursday Nov 1, 835

    In 835, All Hallows' Day was officially switched to 1 November, the same date as Samhain, at the behest of Pope Gregory IV.


  • Ingelheim (Present Day in Germany)
    Wednesday Jun 20, 840

    Holy Roman Empire

    Louis the Pious death

    Ingelheim (Present Day in Germany)
    Wednesday Jun 20, 840

    Upon Louis (Louis the Pious)' death in 840, it passed to his son Lothair, who had been his co-ruler.


  • Abbasid Caliphate (now Syria)
    Sunday Sep 18, 844

    Disasters with highest death tolls

    844 Damascus Earthquake

    Abbasid Caliphate (now Syria)
    Sunday Sep 18, 844

    844 Damascus earthquake occurred on September 18, 844, in Abbasid Caliphate (now Syria), there were an estimated 50,000 deaths.


  • Abbasid Caliphate (now Iran)
    Friday Jul 15, 850

    Disasters with highest death tolls

    850 Iran Earthquake

    Abbasid Caliphate (now Iran)
    Friday Jul 15, 850

    850 Iran earthquake occurred on July 15, 850, in Abbasid Caliphate (now Iran), there were an estimated 45,000 deaths.


  • Abbasid Caliphate (now Tunisia)
    Sunday Dec 3, 856

    Disasters with highest death tolls

    856 Tunisia Earthquake

    Abbasid Caliphate (now Tunisia)
    Sunday Dec 3, 856

    856 Tunisia earthquake occurred on December 3, 856, in Abbasid Caliphate (now Tunisia), there were an estimated 45,000 deaths.


  • Abbasid Caliphate (now Iran)
    Friday Dec 22, 856

    Disasters with highest death tolls

    856 Damghan Earthquake

    Abbasid Caliphate (now Iran)
    Friday Dec 22, 856

    The 856 Damghan earthquake or the 856 Qumis earthquake occurred on 22 December 856 (242 AH). The earthquake had an estimated magnitude of 7.9, and a maximum intensity of X (Extreme) on the Mercalli intensity scale. The earthquake's epicenter is estimated to be close to the city of Damghan, which was then the capital of the Persian province of Qumis. It caused approximately 200,000 deaths and is listed by the USGS as the sixth deadliest earthquake in recorded history.


  • Abbasid Caliphate (now Iran)
    Monday Mar 23, 893

    Disasters with highest death tolls

    893 Ardabil Earthquake

    Abbasid Caliphate (now Iran)
    Monday Mar 23, 893

    Several earthquake catalogues and historical sources describe the 893 Ardabil earthquake as a destructive earthquake that struck the city of Ardabil, Iran, on 23 March 893. The magnitude is unknown, but the death toll was reported to be very large. The USGS, in their "List of Earthquakes with 50,000 or More Deaths", give an estimate that 150,000 were killed, which would make it the ninth deadliest earthquake in history.


  • East Francia (Present Day Germany)
    Wednesday May 24, 919

    Holy Roman Empire

    Henry the Fowler

    East Francia (Present Day Germany)
    Wednesday May 24, 919

    On his deathbed, Conrad of Franconia yielded the crown to his main rival, Henry the Fowler of Saxony (r. 919–36), who was elected king at the Diet of Fritzlar in 919.


  • (Present Day Central Germany)
    Sunday Mar 15, 933

    Holy Roman Empire

    Battle of Riade

    (Present Day Central Germany)
    Sunday Mar 15, 933

    Henry (Henry the Fowler) reached a truce with the raiding Magyars, and in 933 he won a first victory against them in the Battle of Riade. The Battle of Riade or Battle of Merseburg was fought between the troops of East Francia under King Henry I and the Magyars at an unidentified location in northern Thuringia along the river Unstrut on 15 March 933. The battle was precipitated by the decision of the Synod of Erfurt to stop paying an annual tribute to the Magyars in 932.


  • Aachen, East Francia
    Monday Jul 2, 936

    Holy Roman Empire

    Otto I king of Aachen (Germany (East Francia))

    Aachen, East Francia
    Monday Jul 2, 936

    Henry died in 936, but his descendants, the Liudolfing (or Ottonian) dynasty, would continue to rule the Eastern kingdom for roughly a century. Upon Henry the Fowler's death, Otto, his son and designated successor, was elected King in Aachen in 936. He overcame a series of revolts from a younger brother and from several dukes. After that, the king managed to control the appointment of dukes and often also employed bishops in administrative affairs.


  • Lechfeld plain, near Augsburg, Bavaria
    Sunday Aug 10, 955

    Holy Roman Empire

    Battle of Lechfeld

    Lechfeld plain, near Augsburg, Bavaria
    Sunday Aug 10, 955

    In 955, Otto won a decisive victory over the Magyars (Hungarians) in the Battle of Lechfeld. The Battle of Lechfeld was a series of military engagements over the course of three days from 10–12 August 955 in which the German forces of King Otto I the Great annihilated a Hungarian army led by harka Bulcsú and the chieftains Lél and Súr. With this German victory, further invasions by the Magyars into Latin Europe were ended.


  • Egypt
    Friday Oct 14, 996

    Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah

    His inauguration

    Egypt
    Friday Oct 14, 996

    Al-Ḥākim's father had intended the eunuch Barjawan to act as regent until Al-Ḥākim was old enough to rule by himself. Ibn 'Ammar and the Qadi Muhammad ibn Nu'man were to assist in the guardianship of the new caliph. Instead, al-Hasan ibn 'Ammar (the leader of the Kutama) immediately seized the office of wasīta "chief minister" from 'Īsa ibn Nestorius. At the time the office of sifāra "secretary of state" was also combined within that office. Ibn 'Ammar then took the title of Amīn ad-Dawla "the one trusted in the empire". This was the first time that the term "empire" was associated with the Fatimid state.


  • Faleria, Holy Roman Empire (Present Day Italy)
    Saturday Jan 23, 1002

    Holy Roman Empire

    Otto III died

    Faleria, Holy Roman Empire (Present Day Italy)
    Saturday Jan 23, 1002

    Otto died young in 1002, and was succeeded by his cousin Henry II, who focused on Germany.


  • Jerusalem
    Thursday Oct 19, 1009

    Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah

    Destruction of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre

    Jerusalem
    Thursday Oct 19, 1009

    Al-Ḥākim's destruction of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in 1009.


  • Göttingen, Germany, Holy Roman Empire
    Tuesday Jul 13, 1024

    Holy Roman Empire

    Henry II Died

    Göttingen, Germany, Holy Roman Empire
    Tuesday Jul 13, 1024

    Henry II died in 1024 and Conrad II, first of the Salian Dynasty, was elected king only after some debate among dukes and nobles. This group eventually developed into the college of Electors.


  • Fatimid Caliphate (now West Bank),
    Tuesday Dec 10, 1033

    Disasters with highest death tolls

    1033 Ramala Earthquake

    Fatimid Caliphate (now West Bank),
    Tuesday Dec 10, 1033

    1033 Ramala earthquake occurred on December 10, 1033 in Fatimid Caliphate (now West Bank), there were an estimated 77,000 deaths.


  • Abbasid Caliphate (now Iran)
    Friday Nov 4, 1042

    Disasters with highest death tolls

    1042 Tabriz Earthquake

    Abbasid Caliphate (now Iran)
    Friday Nov 4, 1042

    1042 Tabriz earthquake occurred on November 4, 1042, in Abbasid Caliphate (now Iran), there were an estimated 50,000 deaths.


  • Utrecht, Germany
    Saturday May 23, 1125

    Holy Roman Empire

    Salian dynasty ended

    Utrecht, Germany
    Saturday May 23, 1125

    When the Salian dynasty ended with Henry V's death in 1125, the princes chose not to elect the next of kin, but rather Lothair, the moderately powerful but already old Duke of Saxony. When he died in 1137, the princes again aimed to check royal power; accordingly they did not elect Lothair's favoured heir, his son-in-law Henry the Proud of the Welf family, but Conrad III of the Hohenstaufen family, the grandson of Emperor Henry IV and thus a nephew of Emperor Henry V. This led to over a century of strife between the two houses. Conrad ousted the Welfs from their possessions, but after his death in 1152, his nephew Frederick I "Barbarossa" succeeded him and made peace with the Welfs, restoring his cousin Henry the Lion to his – albeit diminished – possessions.


  • Zengid dynasty (now Syria)
    Tuesday Oct 11, 1138

    Disasters with highest death tolls

    1138 Aleppo Earthquake

    Zengid dynasty (now Syria)
    Tuesday Oct 11, 1138

    The 1138 Aleppo earthquake was among the deadliest earthquakes in history. Its name was taken from the city of Aleppo, in northern Syria, where the most casualties were sustained. The quake occurred on 11 October 1138 and was preceded by a smaller quake on the 10th. However, the figure of 230,000 dead is based on a historical conflation of this earthquake with earthquakes in November 1137 on the Jazira plain and the large seismic event of 30 September 1139 in the Transcaucasian city of Ganja. The first mention of a 230,000 death toll was by Ibn Taghribirdi in the fifteenth century.


  • Rome, Italy
    Sunday Jan 2, 1155

    Holy Roman Empire

    Frederick Barbarossa was crowned Emperor

    Rome, Italy
    Sunday Jan 2, 1155

    Frederick I, also called Frederick Barbarossa, was crowned Emperor in 1155. He emphasized the "Romanness" of the empire, partly in an attempt to justify the power of the Emperor independent of the (now strengthened) Pope. An imperial assembly at the fields of Roncaglia in 1158 reclaimed imperial rights in reference to Justinian's Corpus Juris Civilis. Imperial rights had been referred to as regalia since the Investiture Controversy but were enumerated for the first time at Roncaglia. This comprehensive list included public roads, tariffs, coining, collecting punitive fees, and the investiture or seating and unseating of office holders. These rights were now explicitly rooted in Roman Law, a far-reaching constitutional act.


  • Pisa, Italy
    Wednesday Jan 5, 1172

    Leaning Tower of Pisa

    Beginning of the Construction

    Pisa, Italy
    Wednesday Jan 5, 1172

    Construction of the tower occurred in three stages over 199 years. On 5 January 1172, Donna Berta di Bernardo, a widow and resident of the house of dell' Opera di Santa Maria, bequeathed sixty soldi to the Opera Campanilis petrarum Sancte Marie. The sum was then used toward the purchase of a few stones which still form the base of the bell tower.


  • Pisa, Italy
    Thursday Aug 9, 1173

    Leaning Tower of Pisa

    The foundations of the tower were Laid

    Pisa, Italy
    Thursday Aug 9, 1173

    On 9 August 1173, the foundations of the tower were laid. Work on the ground floor of the white marble campanile began on 14 August of the same year during a period of military success and prosperity. This ground floor is a blind arcade articulated by engaged columns with classical Corinthian capitals.


  • Saleph River, Cilician Armenia (Present Day Turkey)
    Sunday Jun 10, 1190

    Holy Roman Empire

    Frederick's Death

    Saleph River, Cilician Armenia (Present Day Turkey)
    Sunday Jun 10, 1190

    In 1190, Frederick participated in the Third Crusade and died in the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia.


  • Holy Roman Empire
    Monday Apr 15, 1191

    Holy Roman Empire

    Henry VI

    Holy Roman Empire
    Monday Apr 15, 1191

    Under the son and successor of Frederick Barbarossa, Henry VI, the Hohenstaufen dynasty reached its apex. Henry added the Norman kingdom of Sicily to his domains, held English king Richard the Lionheart captive, and aimed to establish a hereditary monarchy when he died in 1197.


  • Basel, Holy Roman Empire
    Wednesday Sep 26, 1212

    Holy Roman Empire

    Golden Bull of Sicily

    Basel, Holy Roman Empire
    Wednesday Sep 26, 1212

    The Kingdom of Bohemia was a significant regional power during the Middle Ages. In 1212, King Ottokar I (bearing the title "king" since 1198) extracted a Golden Bull of Sicily (a formal edict) from the emperor Frederick II, confirming the royal title for Ottokar and his descendants and the Duchy of Bohemia was raised to a kingdom. Bohemian kings would be exempt from all future obligations to the Holy Roman Empire except for participation in the imperial councils. Charles IV set Prague to be the seat of the Holy Roman Emperor.


  • Germany, Holy Roman Empire
    Sunday Apr 26, 1220

    Holy Roman Empire

    1220 Confoederatio cum principibus ecclesiasticis

    Germany, Holy Roman Empire
    Sunday Apr 26, 1220

    Despite his imperial claims, Frederick's rule was a major turning point towards the disintegration of central rule in the Empire. While concentrated on establishing a modern, centralized state in Sicily, he was mostly absent from Germany and issued far-reaching privileges to Germany's secular and ecclesiastical princes: in the 1220 Confoederatio cum principibus ecclesiasticis, Frederick gave up a number of regalia in favor of the bishops, among them tariffs, coining, and fortification.


  • Rome, Italy, Holy Roman Empire
    Sunday Nov 22, 1220

    Holy Roman Empire

    Frederick II Holy Roman Empror

    Rome, Italy, Holy Roman Empire
    Sunday Nov 22, 1220

    Pope Innocent III, who feared the threat posed by a union of the empire and Sicily, was now supported by Frederick II, who marched to Germany and defeated Otto. After his victory, Frederick did not act upon his promise to keep the two realms separate. Though he had made his son Henry king of Sicily before marching on Germany, he still reserved real political power for himself. This continued after Frederick was crowned Emperor in 1220. Fearing Frederick's concentration of power, the Pope finally excommunicated the Emperor. Another point of contention was the crusade, which Frederick had promised but repeatedly postponed.


  • Pisa, Italy
    Tuesday Dec 27, 1233

    Leaning Tower of Pisa

    Construction Continued

    Pisa, Italy
    Tuesday Dec 27, 1233

    On 27 December 1233, the worker Benenato, son of Gerardo Bottici, oversaw the continuation of the tower's construction.


  • Castel Fiorentino, Sicily, Holy Roman Empire
    Tuesday Dec 13, 1250

    Holy Roman Empire

    Frederick II died

    Castel Fiorentino, Sicily, Holy Roman Empire
    Tuesday Dec 13, 1250

    After the death of Frederick II in 1250, the German kingdom was divided between his son Conrad IV (died 1254) and the anti-king, William of Holland (died 1256).


  • Pisa, Italy
    Monday Feb 23, 1260

    Leaning Tower of Pisa

    Guido Speziale

    Pisa, Italy
    Monday Feb 23, 1260

    On 23 February 1260, Guido Speziale, son of Giovanni Pisano, was elected to oversee the building of the tower.


  • Pisa, Italy
    Saturday Apr 12, 1264

    Leaning Tower of Pisa

    Giovanni di Simone

    Pisa, Italy
    Saturday Apr 12, 1264

    On 12 April 1264, the master-builder Giovanni di Simone, the architect of the Camposanto, and 23 workers went to the mountains close to Pisa to cut marble. The cut stones were given to Rainaldo Speziale, worker of St. Francesco.


  • Westminster Hall, London, England, United Kingdom
    Tuesday Jan 20, 1265

    The palace of Westminster England

    Simon de Montfort's parliament

    Westminster Hall, London, England, United Kingdom
    Tuesday Jan 20, 1265

    The Palace of Westminster was the monarch's principal residence in the late Medieval period. The predecessor of Parliament, the Curia Regis (Royal Council), met in Westminster Hall (although it followed the King when he moved to other palaces). Simon de Montfort's parliament, the first to include representatives of the major towns, met at the Palace in 1265.


  • Berkhamsted Castle, Hertfordshire, England
    Saturday Apr 2, 1272

    Holy Roman Empire

    Richard's death (Richard of Cornwall)

    Berkhamsted Castle, Hertfordshire, England
    Saturday Apr 2, 1272

    After Richard's death (Richard of Cornwall) in 1272, Rudolf I of Germany, a minor pro-Staufen count, was elected. He was the first of the Habsburgs to hold a royal title, but he was never crowned emperor.


  • Holy Roman Empire
    Sunday Dec 14, 1287

    Disasters with highest death tolls

    St. Lucia's Flood

    Holy Roman Empire
    Sunday Dec 14, 1287

    St. Lucia's flood (Sint-Luciavloed) was a storm tide that affected the Netherlands and Northern Germany on 14 December 1287, the day after St. Lucia Day, killing approximately 50,000 to 80,000 people in one of the largest floods in recorded history.


  • Mongol Empire (now China)
    Wednesday Sep 27, 1290

    Disasters with highest death tolls

    1290 Chihli Earthquake

    Mongol Empire (now China)
    Wednesday Sep 27, 1290

    The 1290 Chihli earthquake occurred on 27 September with an epicenter near Ningcheng, Zhongshu Sheng (Zhili or Chihli), Yuan Empire. The earthquake had an estimated surface wave magnitude of 6.8 and a maximum felt intensity of IX (Violent) on the Mercalli intensity scale. One estimate places the death toll at 7,270, while another has it at 100,000.


  • Speyer, Germany, Holy Roman Empire
    Sunday Jul 15, 1291

    Holy Roman Empire

    Rudolf's death (Rudolf I of Germany)

    Speyer, Germany, Holy Roman Empire
    Sunday Jul 15, 1291

    After Rudolf's death in 1291, Adolf and Albert were two further weak kings who were never crowned emperor. Adolf of Germany (c. 1255 – 2 July 1298) was Count of Nassau from about 1276 and elected King of Germany (King of the Romans) from 1292 until his deposition by the prince-electors in 1298. He was never crowned by the Pope, which would have secured him the title of Holy Roman Emperor. He was the first physically and mentally healthy ruler of the Holy Roman Empire ever to be deposed without a papal excommunication. Adolf died shortly afterwards in the Battle of Göllheim fighting against his successor Albert of Habsburg. Albert I of Germany (July 1255 – 1 May 1308), the eldest son of King Rudolf I of Germany and his first wife Gertrude of Hohenberg, was a Duke of Austria and Styria from 1282 and King of Germany from 1298 until his assassination.


  • Mongol Empire (now China)
    Tuesday Sep 25, 1303

    Disasters with highest death tolls

    1303 Hongdong Earthquake

    Mongol Empire (now China)
    Tuesday Sep 25, 1303

    The 1303 Hongdong earthquake occurred in China, then part of the Mongol Empire, on September 25. The shock was estimated to have a magnitude of 8.0 and it had a maximum Mercalli intensity of XI (Extreme). With catastrophic damage, it was one of the deadliest recorded earthquakes of all time. In Taiyuan and Pingyang, nearly 100,000 houses collapsed and over 200,000 people died from collapsing buildings and loess caves in a similar manner to the situation that would be experienced 253 years later in the 1556 Shaanxi earthquake (陕西).


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