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  • Central Europe (Present-Day Austria)
    Saturday Jan 1, 1848
    German revolutions of 1848–1849

    Causes of events of 1848 in the Austrian Empire

    Central Europe (Present-Day Austria)
    Saturday Jan 1, 1848

    The events of 1848 were the product of mounting social and political tensions after the Congress of Vienna of 1815. During the "pre-March" period, the already conservative Austrian Empire moved further away from ideas of the Age of Enlightenment, restricted freedom of the press, limited many university activities, and banned fraternities.




  • Italy
    Wednesday Jan 5, 1848
    Unification of Italy

    The revolutionary disturbances began with a civil disobedience strike in Lombardy

    Italy
    Wednesday Jan 5, 1848

    On 5 January 1848, the revolutionary disturbances began with a civil disobedience strike in Lombardy, as citizens stopped smoking cigars and playing the lottery, which denied Austria the associated tax revenue. Shortly after this, revolts began on the island of Sicily and in Naples.




  • Central Europe (Present-Day Germany)
    Friday Feb 4, 1848
    German revolutions of 1848–1849

    Baden sent two democrats to the pre parliament

    Central Europe (Present-Day Germany)
    Friday Feb 4, 1848

    Baden sent two democrats, Friedrich Karl Franz Hecker and Gustav von Struve, to the pre parliament. In the minority and frustrated with the lack of progress, Hecker and Struve walked out in protest on April 2, 1848.




  • Central Europe (Present-Day Bavaria, Germany)
    Wednesday Feb 9, 1848
    German revolutions of 1848–1849

    Demonstration in Bavaria

    Central Europe (Present-Day Bavaria, Germany)
    Wednesday Feb 9, 1848

    On February 9, conservatives came out onto the streets in protest.




  • Italy
    Monday Feb 21, 1848
    Unification of Italy

    Pope Pius IX granted a constitution to the Papal States

    Italy
    Monday Feb 21, 1848

    On 21 February, Pope Pius IX granted a constitution to the Papal States, which was both unexpected and surprising considering the historical recalcitrance of the Papacy.




  • France
    Wednesday Feb 23, 1848
    Unification of Italy

    King Louis Philippe of France was forced to flee Paris

    France
    Wednesday Feb 23, 1848

    On 23 February 1848, King Louis Philippe of France was forced to flee Paris, and a republic was proclaimed. By the time the revolution in Paris occurred, three states of Italy had constitutions—four if one considers Sicily to be a separate state.




  • Central Europe (Present-Day Germany)
    Sunday Feb 27, 1848
    German revolutions of 1848–1849

    An assembly of people from Baden adopted a resolution demanding a bill of rights

    Central Europe (Present-Day Germany)
    Sunday Feb 27, 1848

    On February 27, 1848, in Mannheim, an assembly of people from Baden adopted a resolution demanding a bill of rights. Similar resolutions were adopted in Württemberg, Hesse-Darmstadt, Nassau, and other German states.


  • Egypt
    Thursday Mar 2, 1848
    Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt

    Ibrahim was appointed Regent when his father became senile

    Egypt
    Thursday Mar 2, 1848

    Ibrahim was appointed Regent when his father became senile.


  • Central Europe (Present-Day Heidelberg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany)
    Monday Mar 6, 1848
    German revolutions of 1848–1849

    A group of German liberals began to make plans for an election to a German national assembly

    Central Europe (Present-Day Heidelberg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany)
    Monday Mar 6, 1848

    In Heidelberg, in the state of Baden, on March 6, 1848, a group of German liberals began to make plans for an election to a German national assembly. This prototype Parliament met on March 31, in Frankfurt's St. Paul's Church.


  • Central Europe (Present-Day Vienna, Austria)
    Sunday Mar 12, 1848
    German revolutions of 1848–1849

    Vienna had been restive

    Central Europe (Present-Day Vienna, Austria)
    Sunday Mar 12, 1848

    Vienna had been restive and was encouraged by a sermon of Anton Füster, a liberal priest, on Sunday, March 12, 1848 in their university chapel. The student demonstrators demanded a constitution and a constituent assembly elected by universal male suffrage.


  • Vienna, Austria
    Monday Mar 13, 1848
    Revolutions of 1848

    Revolutions of 1848 in the Austrian Empire

    Vienna, Austria
    Monday Mar 13, 1848

    The Revolutions of 1848 in the Austrian Empire were a set of revolutions that took place in the Austrian Empire from March 1848 to November 1849.


  • Central Europe (Present-Day Tiergarten, Berlin, Germany)
    Monday Mar 13, 1848
    German revolutions of 1848–1849

    Warnings by the police against public demonstrations

    Central Europe (Present-Day Tiergarten, Berlin, Germany)
    Monday Mar 13, 1848

    On March 13, after warnings by the police against public demonstrations went unheeded, the army charged a group of people returning from a meeting in the Tiergarten, leaving one person dead and many injured.


  • Central Europe (Present-Day Vienna, Austria)
    Tuesday Mar 14, 1848
    German revolutions of 1848–1849

    Emperor Ferdinand ordered to fire on the students rebels

    Central Europe (Present-Day Vienna, Austria)
    Tuesday Mar 14, 1848

    Emperor Ferdinand and his chief advisor Metternich directed troops to crush the demonstration. When demonstrators moved to the streets near the palace, the troops fired on the students, killing several. The new working class of Vienna joined the student demonstrations, developing an armed insurrection.


  • Wednesday Mar 15, 1848
    Revolutions of 1848

    Hungarian Revolution of 1848

    Wednesday Mar 15, 1848

    The Hungarian Revolution of 1848 or fully Hungarian Civic Revolution and War of Independence of 1848–1849 was one of many European Revolutions of 1848 and was closely linked to other revolutions of 1848 in the Habsburg areas. Although the revolution failed, it is one of the most significant events in Hungary's modern history, forming the cornerstone of modern Hungarian national identity.


  • Central Europe (Present-Day Bavaria, Germany)
    Thursday Mar 16, 1848
    German revolutions of 1848–1849

    Ludwig I abdicated in favor of his eldest son Maximilian II

    Central Europe (Present-Day Bavaria, Germany)
    Thursday Mar 16, 1848

    Ludwig tried to institute a few minor reforms but they proved insufficient to quell the storm of protests. On March 16, 1848, Ludwig I abdicated in favor of his eldest son Maximilian II. Ludwig complained that "I could not rule any longer, and I did not want to give up my powers".


  • Milan, Italy
    Saturday Mar 18, 1848
    Unification of Italy

    Tensions increased until the Milanese and Venetians rose in revolt

    Milan, Italy
    Saturday Mar 18, 1848

    In Lombardy, tensions increased until the Milanese and Venetians rose in revolt on 18 March 1848.


  • Central Europe (Present-Day Germany)
    Saturday Mar 18, 1848
    German revolutions of 1848–1849

    A large demonstration occurred in Germany

    Central Europe (Present-Day Germany)
    Saturday Mar 18, 1848

    On March 18, a large demonstration occurred. After two shots were fired, fearing that some of the 20,000 soldiers would be used against them, demonstrators erected barricades, and a battle ensued until troops were ordered 13 hours later to retreat, leaving hundreds dead.


  • Stockholm, Sweden
    Sunday Mar 19, 1848
    Revolutions of 1848

    March Unrest in the Swedish

    Stockholm, Sweden
    Sunday Mar 19, 1848

    During 18–19 March, a series of riots known as the March Unrest (Marsoroligheterna) took place in the Swedish capital of Stockholm. Declarations with demands of political reform were spread in the city and a crowd was dispersed by the military, leading to 18 casualties.


  • Central Europe (Present-Day Poznań, Greater Poland Voivodeship, Poland)
    Monday Mar 20, 1848
    German revolutions of 1848–1849

    Prussia annexing the Greater Polish region as the Province of Posen

    Central Europe (Present-Day Poznań, Greater Poland Voivodeship, Poland)
    Monday Mar 20, 1848

    It began on 20 March 1848 and resulted in Prussia annexing the Greater Polish region as the Province of Posen.


  • Central Europe (Present-Day Friedrichshain cemetery, Berlin, Germany)
    Tuesday Mar 21, 1848
    German revolutions of 1848–1849

    The King proceeded through the streets of Berlin to attend a mass funeral at the Friedrichshain cemetery for the civilian victims of the uprising

    Central Europe (Present-Day Friedrichshain cemetery, Berlin, Germany)
    Tuesday Mar 21, 1848

    On March 21, the King proceeded through the streets of Berlin to attend a mass funeral at the Friedrichshain cemetery for the civilian victims of the uprising. He and his ministers and generals wore the revolutionary tricolor of black, red, and gold. Polish prisoners, who had been jailed for planning a rebellion in formerly Polish territories now ruled by Prussia, were liberated and paraded through the city to the acclaim of the people.


  • Italy
    Thursday Mar 23, 1848
    Unification of Italy

    First Italian War of Independence

    Italy
    Thursday Mar 23, 1848

    The First Italian War of Independence, part of the Italian Unification, was fought by the Kingdom of Sardinia and Italian volunteers against the Austrian Empire and other conservative states from 23 March 1848 to 22 August 1849 in the Italian Peninsula.


  • Schleswig and Jutland
    Friday Mar 24, 1848
    Revolutions of 1848

    First Schleswig War

    Schleswig and Jutland
    Friday Mar 24, 1848

    The First Schleswig War was a military conflict in southern Denmark and northern Germany rooted in the Schleswig-Holstein Question, contesting the issue of who should control the mainly German-speaking Duchies of Schleswig, Holstein and Lauenburg. Ultimately, the Danish side proved victorious with the diplomatic support of the great powers.


  • Central Europe (Present-Day Germany)
    Saturday Apr 8, 1848
    German revolutions of 1848–1849

    A law allowing universal suffrage

    Central Europe (Present-Day Germany)
    Saturday Apr 8, 1848

    On April 8, 1848, a law allowing universal suffrage and an indirect (two-stage) voting system was agreed to by the assembly.


  • Central Europe (Present-Day Paulsplatz, Paulsplatz, Frankfurt am Main, Hesse 60311, Germany)
    Monday May 1, 1848
    German revolutions of 1848–1849

    A Constituent National Assembly was elected in late April and early May

    Central Europe (Present-Day Paulsplatz, Paulsplatz, Frankfurt am Main, Hesse 60311, Germany)
    Monday May 1, 1848

    A Constituent National Assembly was elected from various German states in late April and early May 1848 and gathered in St. Paul's Church in Frankfurt am Main on May 18, 1848.


  • Central Europe (Present-Day Baden and the Palatinate,Germany)
    Wednesday May 10, 1848
    German revolutions of 1848–1849

    Frederick Engels took part in the uprising in Baden and the Palatinate

    Central Europe (Present-Day Baden and the Palatinate,Germany)
    Wednesday May 10, 1848

    Frederick Engels took part in the uprising in Baden and the Palatinate. On May 10, 1848, he and Karl Marx traveled from Cologne, Germany, to observe the events of the region.


  • Central Europe (Present-Day Frankfurt, Germany)
    Thursday May 18, 1848
    German revolutions of 1848–1849

    Frankfurt National Assembly was convened

    Central Europe (Present-Day Frankfurt, Germany)
    Thursday May 18, 1848

    On May 18, 1848, 809 delegates (585 of whom were elected) were seated at St. Paul's Church in Frankfurt to convene the Frankfurt National Assembly. Karl Mathy, a right-center journalist, was among those elected as a deputy to the Frankfurt National Assembly.


  • Central Europe (Present-Day Berlin, Germany)
    Monday May 22, 1848
    German revolutions of 1848–1849

    Another elected assembly sat for the first time in Berlin

    Central Europe (Present-Day Berlin, Germany)
    Monday May 22, 1848

    On May 22, 1848, another elected assembly sat for the first time in Berlin. They were elected under the law of April 8, 1848, which allowed for universal suffrage and a two-stage voting system.


  • Central Europe (Present-Day Berlin, Germany)
    Wednesday Jun 14, 1848
    German revolutions of 1848–1849

    Hermann von Natzmer refused to shoot the insurgent forces

    Central Europe (Present-Day Berlin, Germany)
    Wednesday Jun 14, 1848

    Hermann von Natzmer was the former Prussian officer who had been in charge of the arsenal of Berlin. Refusing to shoot insurgent forces who stormed the arsenal on June 14, 1848, Natzmer became a hero to insurgents across Germany.


  • U.S.
    Tuesday Jul 4, 1848
    Flag of the United States

    Star for Wisconsin

    U.S.
    Tuesday Jul 4, 1848

    The flag was changed to have 30 stars. (for Wisconsin)


  • Ireland
    Saturday Jul 29, 1848
    Revolutions of 1848

    Young Ireland rebellion

    Ireland
    Saturday Jul 29, 1848

    The Young Irelander Rebellion was a failed Irish nationalist uprising led by the Young Ireland movement, part of the wider Revolutions of 1848 that affected most of Europe. It took place on 29 July 1848 at Farranrory, a small settlement about 4.3 km north-northeast of the village of Ballingarry, South Tipperary.


  • Central Europe (Present-Day Vienna, Austria)
    Saturday Aug 12, 1848
    German revolutions of 1848–1849

    Ferdinand returned to Vienna

    Central Europe (Present-Day Vienna, Austria)
    Saturday Aug 12, 1848

    Ferdinand returned to Vienna from Innsbruck on August 12, 1848. Soon after his return, the working-class populace hit the streets again on August 21, 1848, to protest high unemployment and the government's decree to reduce wages.


  • Central Europe (Present-Day Vienna, Austria)
    Wednesday Aug 23, 1848
    German revolutions of 1848–1849

    Austrian troops opened fire on unarmed demonstrators

    Central Europe (Present-Day Vienna, Austria)
    Wednesday Aug 23, 1848

    On August 23, 1848, Austrian troops opened fire on unarmed demonstrators and shot several.


  • U.S.
    Sunday Sep 17, 1848
    Frederick Douglass

    Douglass published an open letter addressed to his former master, Thomas Auld

    U.S.
    Sunday Sep 17, 1848

    In September 1848, Douglass published an open letter addressed to his former master, Thomas Auld, berating him for his conduct, and inquiring after members of his family still held by Auld.


  • Central Europe (Present-Day Hungary)
    Friday Sep 29, 1848
    German revolutions of 1848–1849

    Austrian troops were defeated by the Hungarian

    Central Europe (Present-Day Hungary)
    Friday Sep 29, 1848

    On September 29, 1848, the Austrian troops were defeated by the Hungarian revolutionary forces.


  • Central Europe (Present-Day Germany)
    Monday Oct 30, 1848
    German revolutions of 1848–1849

    D'Ester had been elected to the Central committee of the German Democrats

    Central Europe (Present-Day Germany)
    Monday Oct 30, 1848

    D'Ester had been elected to the Central Committee of the German Democrats, together with Reichenbach and Hexamer, at the Second Democratic Congress held in Berlin from October 26 through October 30, 1848.


  • Egypt
    Friday Nov 10, 1848
    Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt

    Ibrahim Pasha's death

    Egypt
    Friday Nov 10, 1848

    Ibrahim Pasha's death on 10 November 1848.


  • Central Europe (Present-Day Czech Republic)
    Saturday Dec 2, 1848
    German revolutions of 1848–1849

    Emperor Ferdinand fled to Olomouc in Moravia

    Central Europe (Present-Day Czech Republic)
    Saturday Dec 2, 1848

    Emperor Ferdinand I fled to Olomouc in Moravia. On December 2, 1848, Ferdinand abdicated in favor of his nephew Franz Joseph.


  • Central Europe (Present-Day Berlin, Germany)
    Tuesday Dec 5, 1848
    German revolutions of 1848–1849

    A constitution took effect on December

    Central Europe (Present-Day Berlin, Germany)
    Tuesday Dec 5, 1848

    King Frederick William IV of Prussia unilaterally imposed a monarchist constitution to undercut the democratic forces. This constitution took effect on December 5, 1848.


  • Central Europe (Present-Day Berlin, Germany)
    Tuesday Dec 5, 1848
    German revolutions of 1848–1849

    The Berlin Assembly was dissolved

    Central Europe (Present-Day Berlin, Germany)
    Tuesday Dec 5, 1848

    On December 5, 1848, the Berlin Assembly was dissolved and replaced with the bicameral legislature allowed under the monarchist Constitution. This legislature was composed of a Herrenhaus and a Landtag.


  • Central Europe (Present-Day Germany)
    Thursday Dec 28, 1848
    German revolutions of 1848–1849

    The Prussian aristocrats and generals had regained power in Berlin

    Central Europe (Present-Day Germany)
    Thursday Dec 28, 1848

    By late 1848, the Prussian aristocrats and generals had regained power in Berlin. They had not been defeated permanently during the incidents of March but had only retreated temporarily.


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