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  • Italy
    Monday Nov 30, 1609

    Galileo Galilei

    Galileo aimed his telescope at the Moon

    Italy
    Monday Nov 30, 1609

    On November 30, 1609 Galileo aimed his telescope at the Moon. While not being the first person to observe the Moon through a telescope (English mathematician Thomas Harriot had done it four months before but only saw a "strange spottednesse"), Galileo was the first to deduce the cause of the uneven waning as light occlusion from lunar mountains and craters. In his study, he also made topographical charts, estimating the heights of the mountains. The Moon was not what was long thought to have been a translucent and perfect sphere, as Aristotle claimed, and hardly the first "planet", an "eternal pearl to magnificently ascend into the heavenly empyrian", as put forth by Dante. Galileo is sometimes credited with the discovery of the lunar libration in latitude in 1632, although Thomas Harriot or William Gilbert might have done it before.




  • Hamilton Crescent, Partick, Scotland
    Wednesday Nov 30, 1870

    FIFA World Cup

    The First official international football match

    Hamilton Crescent, Partick, Scotland
    Wednesday Nov 30, 1870

    The first official international football match was played in 1872 in Glasgow between Scotland and England, although at this stage the sport was rarely played outside Great Britain.




  • Wuhan, Hubei, China
    Thursday Nov 30, 1911

    Xinhai Revolution

    The Revolutionaries Convened Their First Conference

    Wuhan, Hubei, China
    Thursday Nov 30, 1911

    the revolutionaries convened their first conference at the British concession in Hankou on 30 November.




  • Weimar Republic (Present Day Germany)
    Friday Nov 30, 1923

    Gustav Stresemann

    Assuming the position as Foreign Minister

    Weimar Republic (Present Day Germany)
    Friday Nov 30, 1923

    Stresemann remained as Foreign Minister in the government of his successor, Centrist Wilhelm Marx. He remained foreign minister for the rest of his life in eight successive governments ranging from the centre-right to the centre-left.




  • London, England
    Monday Nov 30, 1936

    Alan Turing

    Turing Published his Paper "On Computable Numbers, With an Application To The Entscheidungsproblem"

    London, England
    Monday Nov 30, 1936

    In 1936, Turing published his paper "On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem". It was published in the Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society journal in two parts, the first on 30 November and the second on 23 December.




  • England
    Monday Nov 30, 1936

    The Imitation game: Alan Turing

    On Computable Numbers

    England
    Monday Nov 30, 1936

    Turing published his paper "On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem". It was published in the Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society journal in two parts, the first on 30 November and the second on 23 December. In this paper, Turing reformulated Kurt Gödel's 1931 results on the limits of proof and computation, replacing Gödel's universal arithmetic-based formal language with the formal and simple hypothetical devices that became known as Turing machines. The Entscheidungsproblem (decision problem) was originally posted by German mathematician David Hilbert in 1928. Turing proved that his "universal computing machine" would be capable of performing any conceivable mathematical computation if it were representable as an algorithm. He went on to prove that there was no solution to the decision problem by first showing that the halting problem for Turing machines is undecidable: It is not possible to decide algorithmically whether a Turing machine will ever halt.




  • Finland (Eastern Finland)
    Thursday Nov 30, 1939

    World War II

    Winter War

    Finland (Eastern Finland)
    Thursday Nov 30, 1939

    Finland refused to sign a similar pact and rejected ceding part of its territory to the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union invaded Finland in 30 November 1939, and the war ended 13 March 1940.


  • Manzanillo and Santiago, Cuba
    Friday Nov 30, 1956

    Fidel Castro

    MR-26-7 members led an armed uprisingdays of intermittent attacks.

    Manzanillo and Santiago, Cuba
    Friday Nov 30, 1956

    The plan had been for the crossing to take 5 days, and on the Granma's scheduled day of arrival, 30 November, MR-26-7 members ("26th of July Movement") under Frank País led an armed uprising in Santiago and Manzanillo. However, the Granma's journey ultimately lasted 7 days, and with Castro and his men unable to provide reinforcements, País and his militants dispersed after two days of intermittent attacks


  • Amsterdam, Netherlands
    Sunday Nov 30, 1980

    Johan Cruyff

    Technical advisor

    Amsterdam, Netherlands
    Sunday Nov 30, 1980

    After his spell in the U.S. and a short-lived stay in Spain, Cruyff returned to play in his homeland, rejoining Ajax on 30 November 1980 as "technical advisor" to trainer Leo Beenhakker, Ajax being eighth in the league table at the time after 13 games played. After 34 games, however, Ajax finished the 1980–81 season in second.


  • Gardez, Afghanistan
    Friday Nov 30, 2001

    Ayman al-Zawahiri

    Azza's Death

    Gardez, Afghanistan
    Friday Nov 30, 2001

    Ayman al-Zawahiri's first wife Azza and two of their six children, Mohammad and Aisha, were killed in an air strike on Afghanistan by US forces in late December 2001, following the September 11 attacks on the U.S. After an American aerial bombardment of a Taliban-controlled building at Gardez, Azza was pinned under debris of a guesthouse roof.


  • Israel
    Wednesday Nov 30, 2005

    Shimon Peres

    Leaving the Labor Party

    Israel
    Wednesday Nov 30, 2005

    On 30 November 2005 Peres announced that he was leaving the Labor Party to support Ariel Sharon and his new Kadima party.


  • Redmond, Washington, United States
    Thursday Nov 30, 2006

    Windows

    Windows Vista

    Redmond, Washington, United States
    Thursday Nov 30, 2006

    After a lengthy development process, Windows Vista was released on November 30, 2006, for volume licensing and January 30, 2007, for consumers. It contained a number of new features, from a redesigned shell and user interface to significant technical changes, with a particular focus on security features. It was available in a number of different editions and has been subject to some criticism, such as a drop of performance, longer boot time, criticism of new UAC, and stricter license agreement. Vista's server counterpart, Windows Server 2008 was released in early 2008.


  • Lower Manhattan, New York City, U.S.
    Saturday Nov 30, 2013

    September 11 (9/11) Attacks

    Rebuilding of the World Trade Center

    Lower Manhattan, New York City, U.S.
    Saturday Nov 30, 2013

    On the World Trade Center site, three more office towers were to be built one block east of where the original towers stood. 4 WTC, meanwhile, opened in November 2013, making it the second tower on the site to open behind 7 World Trade Center, as well as the first building on the Port Authority property.


  • U.S.
    Saturday Nov 30, 2013

    Bitcoin

    The Price reached $1,163

    U.S.
    Saturday Nov 30, 2013

    On 30 November 2013, the price reached $1,163 before starting a long-term crash, declining by 87% to $152 in January 2015.


  • Los Angeles, California, U.S.
    Sunday Nov 30, 2014

    Kobe Bryant

    20th career triple-double

    Los Angeles, California, U.S.
    Sunday Nov 30, 2014

    On November 30, 2014, in a 129–122 overtime victory against the Toronto Raptors, Bryant recorded his 20th career triple-double with 31 points, 12 assists and 11 rebounds. At age 36, he became the oldest NBA player to achieve 30 points, 10 rebounds, and 10 assists in a game.


  • Los Angeles, California, U.S.
    Monday Nov 30, 2015

    Nokia

    Unveiling OZO

    Los Angeles, California, U.S.
    Monday Nov 30, 2015

    On 28 July 2015, Nokia announced OZO, a 360-degrees virtual reality camera, with eight 2K optical image sensors. The division behind the product, Nokia Technologies, claimed that OZO would be the most advanced VR film-making platform. OZO was fully unveiled on 30 November in Los Angeles. The OZO, designed for professional use, was intended for retail for US$60,000.


  • U.S.
    Wednesday Nov 30, 2016

    Nancy Pelosi

    Pelosi defeated Ryan by a vote of 134–63

    U.S.
    Wednesday Nov 30, 2016

    Tim Ryan initiated a bid to replace Pelosi as House minority leader on November 17, 2016, prompted by colleagues following the 2016 presidential election. After Pelosi agreed to give more leadership opportunities to junior members, she defeated Ryan by a vote of 134–63 on November 30.


  • Bogota, Colombia
    Wednesday Nov 30, 2016

    Colombian conflict

    The House of Representatives unanimously approved the peace deal

    Bogota, Colombia
    Wednesday Nov 30, 2016

    The Colombian government and the FARC on November 24 signed a revised peace deal and the revised agreement will be submitted to Congress for approval. The House of Representatives unanimously approved the plan on November 30, a day after the Senate also gave its backing.


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