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  • Sagamore, Massachuesetts, U.S.
    Sunday Jan 5, 1919

    Theodore Roosevelt

    Death

    Sagamore, Massachuesetts, U.S.
    Sunday Jan 5, 1919

    On the night of January 5, 1919, Roosevelt suffered breathing problems. After receiving treatment from his physician, Dr. George W. Faller, he felt better and went to bed. Roosevelt's last words were "Please put out that light, James" to his family servant James Amos. Between 4:00 and 4:15 the next morning, Roosevelt died in his sleep at Sagamore Hill after a blood clot had detached from a vein and traveled to his lungs.




  • San Francisco, California, U.S.
    Sunday Jan 5, 1919

    Spanish Flu

    San Francisco's New Year

    San Francisco, California, U.S.
    Sunday Jan 5, 1919

    In the first five days of January, in San Francisco, 1,800 flu cases and 101 deaths were reported.




  • Lynchburg, Virginia, U.S.
    Friday Feb 7, 1919

    Desmond Doss: Hacksaw Ridge

    Birth

    Lynchburg, Virginia, U.S.
    Friday Feb 7, 1919

    Desmond Doss was born in Lynchburg, Virginia, to William Thomas Doss (1893–1989), a carpenter, and Bertha Edward Doss (née Oliver) (1899–1983), a homemaker and shoe factory worker. His mother raised him as a devout Seventh-day Adventist and instilled Sabbath-keeping, nonviolence, and a vegetarian lifestyle in his upbringing. He grew up in the Fairview Heights area of Lynchburg, Virginia, alongside his older sister Audrey and younger brother Harold.




  • Lynchburg, Virginia, U.S.
    Friday Feb 7, 1919

    Desmond Doss

    Born

    Lynchburg, Virginia, U.S.
    Friday Feb 7, 1919

    Desmond Doss was born in Lynchburg, Virginia, to William Thomas Doss (1893–1989), a carpenter, and Bertha Edward Doss (née Oliver) (1899–1983), a homemaker and shoe factory worker.




  • Jenkins County, Georgia, U.S.
    Sunday Apr 13, 1919

    Red Summer

    Jenkins County, Georgia, riot of 1919

    Jenkins County, Georgia, U.S.
    Sunday Apr 13, 1919

    In rural Georgia, the riot of Jenkins County led to 6 deaths, as well as the destruction of various property by arson, including the Carswell Grove Baptist Church, and 3 black Masonic lodges in Millen, Georgia.




  • U.S.
    Sunday May 4, 1919

    Anna May Wong

    The Red Lantern

    U.S.
    Sunday May 4, 1919

    Wong was working at Hollywood's Ville de Paris department store when Metro Pictures needed 300 female extras to appear in Alla Nazimova's film The Red Lantern (1919). Without her father's knowledge, a friend of his with movie connections helped her land an uncredited role as an extra carrying a lantern.




  • Carnegie Hall, New York City, New York, U.S.
    Monday May 5, 1919

    Red Summer

    National Conference on Lynching

    Carnegie Hall, New York City, New York, U.S.
    Monday May 5, 1919

    The National Conference on Lynching took place in Carnegie Hall, New York City, May 5–6, 1919. The goal of the conference was to pressure Congress to pass the Dyer Anti-Lynching Bill. It was a project of the new NAACP, which in April released a report, Thirty Years of Lynching in the United States, 1889-1918.


  • U.S.
    Tuesday May 6, 1919

    Harry S. Truman

    Honorably Discharged from the Army

    U.S.
    Tuesday May 6, 1919

    Truman was honorably discharged from the Army as a captain on May 6, 1919.


  • Vicksburg, Mississippi, U.S.
    Thursday May 15, 1919

    Red Summer

    Vicksburg riots

    Vicksburg, Mississippi, U.S.
    Thursday May 15, 1919

    In Vicksburg, 1000 white rioters broke Lloyd Clay out of jail, hung him, and burned him in the city center as the crowd watching. The riot spurred by rumors of an attack on a white women.


  • Milan, Georgia, U.S.
    Sunday May 25, 1919

    Red Summer

    Milan riot

    Milan, Georgia, U.S.
    Sunday May 25, 1919

    At 1:00 AM on the morning of May 24, 1919, two white men, John Dowdy and Levi Evans went into the black section of Milan. They first tried to get into the home of Emma McCollers who had two young daughters. When the family refused to open the door Dowdy fired his gun. This caused the girls to flee to another house, the home of widow Emma Tisber. The two men followed and invaded the Tisber home and attempted to assault two young black girls. When the two girls attempted to hide under the porch, Dowdy and Evans began ripping up the floor to get to them. Washington, a black man, attempted to defend the girls and get the men to leave. Dowdy fired at Washington and after a struggle, Washington, who was 72 years old, shot and killed Dowdy. Washington went uptown and woke up the chief of police, Mr. Stuckey, who sent Washington to the McCrae jail at 2:00 AM May 24, 1919. There he stayed in jail until the 25th, at 12:00 PM, when a crowd of white men, led by a Baptist minister, removed Washington from the jail. To possibly hide their crimes all black residents of Milan were rounded up and ordered out of the town on the night of May 25th. At 2:00 AM on May 26th the lynch mob hung him from a post and shot him repeatedly until his body fell in pieces from the post. White residents rioted in the city, damaging and burning many black homes. They threatened black citizens, lest they dare to speak out about the events in public.


  • New London, Connecticut, U.S.
    Thursday May 29, 1919

    Red Summer

    New London riot

    New London, Connecticut, U.S.
    Thursday May 29, 1919

    On May 30, 1919, about 20 sailors and soldiers were arrested by police officers, marines, and firemen. The Greeneville Daily Sun reported that the trouble began when "negro sailors" entered the Coast Guard Academy in New London and attacked white sailors. On June 29, 1919, another riot erupted which required the Marines to restore order.


  • Ellisville, Mississippi, U.S.
    Thursday Jun 26, 1919

    Red Summer

    John Hartfield was burned

    Ellisville, Mississippi, U.S.
    Thursday Jun 26, 1919

    John Hartfield left his home in Ellisville seeking a better life in East St. Louis. In 1919, he traveled back to Ellisville to visit his white girlfriend, Ruth Meeks, taking a job as a hotel porter in Laurel. When the relationship became known to some white men, they determined to kill Hartfield. They accused Hartfield of raping Meeks, who they claimed was 18, although she was actually in her mid-twenties. Hartfield managed to elude them for a while, but they pursued him for several weeks. Sheriff Allen Boutwell in Laurel raised donations to fund a hunting party with bloodhounds at the request of Sheriff Harbison. He was finally apprehended attempting to board a train on June 24, and was turned over to Sheriff Harbison, who placed him in the charge of a deputy and left town. The deputy immediately released him to a mob. Hartfield had been wounded, so a white doctor, A. J. Carter, treated his wounds to keep him alive long enough to be murdered. At 5:00 PM on June 26, 1919, a large cheering crowd assembled to watch the premeditated murder of John Hartfield.


  • U.S.
    Saturday Jun 28, 1919

    Harry S. Truman

    Marriage

    U.S.
    Saturday Jun 28, 1919

    After his wartime service, Truman returned to Independence, where he married Bess Wallace on June 28, 1919. The couple had one child, Mary Margaret Truman.


  • San Francisco, California, U.S.
    Monday Jun 30, 1919

    Red Summer

    Small disturbance in San Francisco

    San Francisco, California, U.S.
    Monday Jun 30, 1919

    A small disturbance occurred between black soldiers and white policemen, which ended quickly.


  • Bisbee, Arizona, U.S.
    Thursday Jul 3, 1919

    Red Summer

    Bisbee Riot

    Bisbee, Arizona, U.S.
    Thursday Jul 3, 1919

    Local police in Bisbee, Arizona attacked the 10th U.S. Cavalry, an African-American unit known as the "Buffalo Soldiers," formed in 1866.


  • Dublin, Georgia, U.S.
    Sunday Jul 6, 1919

    Red Summer

    Dublin, Georgia riot

    Dublin, Georgia, U.S.
    Sunday Jul 6, 1919

    During a race riot local African-American, Rob Ashely, was accused in the murder of a white man and wounding another man on July 6, 1919. While in jail the local white community threatened to storm the jail and lynch Ashely. They were thwarted by an armed black community group that was formed to protect the jail and prevent a lynching. Later a company of eighty home guards prevented further trouble, but for weeks the situation was tense.


  • Longview, Texas, U.S.
    Thursday Jul 10, 1919

    Red Summer

    Longview race riot

    Longview, Texas, U.S.
    Thursday Jul 10, 1919

    A white race riot in Longview, Texas led to the deaths of at least 4 men and destroyed the African-American housing district in the town.


  • Garfield Park, Indianapolis, U.S.
    Monday Jul 14, 1919

    Red Summer

    Garfield Park riot

    Garfield Park, Indianapolis, U.S.
    Monday Jul 14, 1919

    On July 14, 1919, hundreds of white boys 16 to 19 years old converged on Garfield Park. There they used bricks and clubs to beat any blacks they came across. When a group of African-Americans took shelter in the house of Nathan Weather, a local black man, the white mob followed them and surrounded the house. Weather fired into the crowd in hopes of dispersing the mob. A seven-year-old onlooker, Charlotte Pieper, received a flesh wound from stray buckshot. Another youth, Paul Karbwitz, 18, was also hit. Police were eventually able to disperse the mob and quell the riot.


  • Port Arthur, Texas, U.S.
    Tuesday Jul 15, 1919

    Red Summer

    Port Arthur riot

    Port Arthur, Texas, U.S.
    Tuesday Jul 15, 1919

    The Port Arthur riot happened on July 15, 1919, in Port Arthur, Texas. Violence started after a group of white men objected to an African American smoking near a white woman on a street car.


  • Washington D.C., U.S.
    Saturday Jul 19, 1919

    Red Summer

    Washington race riot

    Washington D.C., U.S.
    Saturday Jul 19, 1919

    The Washington race riot of 1919 was civil unrest in Washington, D.C. from July 19, 1919, to July 24, 1919. The race riot started on Saturday July 19 following an incident involving two African-American men and Elsie Stephnick, the white wife of an employee of the United States Naval Aviation Department. She was "jostled" near New York Avenue, and 15th Street Northwest. One of the men was arrested and questioned concerning an alleged sexual assault, but subsequently released. A mob of White Americans formed and started attacks on several African Americans and also an African-American family home.


  • New York City, New York, U.S.
    Sunday Jul 20, 1919

    Red Summer

    New York race riots

    New York City, New York, U.S.
    Sunday Jul 20, 1919

    On July 20, 1919, a White man and an African American man were arguing about World War I. The fight got heated and the black man pulled a gun and shot wildly down the street. Some of the bullets hit civilians, with one striking George Doles of 231 East 127th St while he was in his ground floor apartment. Another hit Henrietta Taylor, who was sitting on a stoop on 228 East 127th Street. While the two were rushed to a Harlem hospital, word spread that a riot was about to start, and when police arrived on the scene about a thousand black people were present on the block between 2nd and 3rd Ave. As police attempted to clear the streets they were fired upon from surrounding buildings.


  • U.S.
    Sunday Jul 20, 1919

    Red Summer

    A telegram to Woodrow Wilson

    U.S.
    Sunday Jul 20, 1919

    The NAACP sent a telegram of protest to President Woodrow Wilson: The shame put upon the country by the mobs, including United States soldiers, sailors, and marines, which have assaulted innocent and unoffending negroes in the national capital. Men in uniform have attacked negroes on the streets and pulled them from streetcars to beat them. Crowds are reported ...to have directed attacks against any passing negro.… The effect of such riots in the national capital upon race antagonism will be to increase bitterness and danger of outbreaks elsewhere. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People calls upon you as President and Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces of the nation to make statement condemning mob violence and to enforce such military law as situation demands.…


  • Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.
    Monday Jul 21, 1919

    Red Summer

    Norfolk riot

    Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.
    Monday Jul 21, 1919

    In Norfolk, Virginia, a white mob attacked a homecoming celebration for African-American veterans of World War I. At least 6 people were shot, and the local police called in Marines and Navy personnel to restore order.


  • Newberry, South Carolina, U.S.
    Thursday Jul 24, 1919

    Red Summer

    Newberry lynching attempt

    Newberry, South Carolina, U.S.
    Thursday Jul 24, 1919

    The Newberry 1919 lynching attempt was the attempted lynching of Elisha Harper, Newberry, South Carolina on July 24, 1919. Harper was sent to jail for insulting a 14 year-old girl.


  • Annapolis, Maryland, U.S.
    Sunday Jul 27, 1919

    Red Summer

    Annapolis riot

    Annapolis, Maryland, U.S.
    Sunday Jul 27, 1919

    The Annapolis riot of 1919 took place on June 27, 1919, between midnight and 1 AM, in Annapolis, Maryland. A mob of African-American bluejackets from the U.S. Navy fought local Annapolis African-Americans.


  • Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
    Sunday Jul 27, 1919

    Red Summer

    Chicago riot

    Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
    Sunday Jul 27, 1919

    Longstanding racial tensions between whites and blacks exploded in five days of violence that started on July 27, 1919. On that hot summer day, on a segregated Chicago beach, a group of white men stoned Eugene Williams to death when he crossed the unofficial barrier between the white and black sections of the 29th Street beach. Tensions escalated when a white police officer not only failed to arrest the white man responsible for Williams' death, but arrested a black man instead. Objections by black observers were met with violence by whites. Attacks between white and black mobs erupted swiftly. Because of the rioting, 38 people died (23 African American and 15 white), and another 537 were injured, two-thirds of them African American; one African-American Patrolman John W. Simpson was the only policeman killed in the riot.


  • Syracuse, New York, U.S.
    Thursday Jul 31, 1919

    Red Summer

    Syracuse riot

    Syracuse, New York, U.S.
    Thursday Jul 31, 1919

    The Syracuse riot of 1919 were a violent racial riot, on July 31, 1919, between white and black workers of the Globe Malleable Iron Works in Syracuse, New York.


  • Lexington, Nebraska, U.S.
    Tuesday Aug 5, 1919

    Red Summer

    Lexington incident

    Lexington, Nebraska, U.S.
    Tuesday Aug 5, 1919

    All black residents were forced to leave the city.


  • Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
    Tuesday Aug 12, 1919

    Red Summer

    Northeastern Federation of Colored Women's Clubs asking President Wilson to stop the rioting in Chicago

    Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
    Tuesday Aug 12, 1919

    On August 12, at their annual convention, the Northeastern Federation of Colored Women's Clubs (NFCWC) denounced the rioting and burning of negroes' homes, asking President Wilson "to use every means within your power to stop the rioting in Chicago and the propaganda used to incite such."


  • Laurens County, Georgia, U.S.
    Wednesday Aug 27, 1919

    Red Summer

    Laurens County race riot

    Laurens County, Georgia, U.S.
    Wednesday Aug 27, 1919

    The Laurens County, Georgia race riot was an attack on the black community by white mobs in August of 1919. In the Haynes' report, as summarized in the New York Times, it is called the Ocmulgee, Georgia race riot. On Wednesday, August 27, a black man, chosen because he seemed like the leader of the local community was lynched and on Friday morning August 29, three black churches and one community building were burnt down. He was taken from Cadwell, Georgia and killed in Ocmulgee, Georgia. The corpse of an elderly man was later pulled from the ashes of the church burnt down in Ocmulgee. The body may have belonged to Eli Cooper who was alleged to have said that "the negroes had been run over for fifty years, but this will all change in thirty days." The local white community took this to mean a call for violent revolution.


  • Bogalusa, Louisiana, U.S.
    Sunday Aug 31, 1919

    Red Summer

    Bogalusa riot

    Bogalusa, Louisiana, U.S.
    Sunday Aug 31, 1919

    White mob dragged Lucius McCarty's body behind a car killing him before burning his corpse in a bonfire.


  • Knoxville, Tennessee, U.S.
    Sunday Aug 31, 1919

    Red Summer

    Knoxville riot

    Knoxville, Tennessee, U.S.
    Sunday Aug 31, 1919

    The Knoxville riot in Tennessee broke out after the arrest of a black suspect on suspicion of murdering a white woman. Searching for the prisoner, a lynch mob stormed the county jail, where they liberated 16 white prisoners, including suspected murderers. The mob attacked the African-American business district, where they fought against the district's black business owners, leaving at least 7 dead and wounding more than 20 people.


  • New York City, New York, U.S.
    Sunday Sep 21, 1919

    Red Summer

    Ephram Gethers was shot

    New York City, New York, U.S.
    Sunday Sep 21, 1919

    A black man named Ephram Gethers was shot by a police officer.


  • Omaha, Nebraska, U.S.
    Sunday Sep 28, 1919

    Red Summer

    Omaha race riot

    Omaha, Nebraska, U.S.
    Sunday Sep 28, 1919

    The Omaha race riot occurred in Omaha, Nebraska, September 28–29, 1919. The race riot resulted in the lynching of Will Brown, a black civilian; the death of two white rioters; the injuries of many Omaha Police Department officers and civilians, including the attempted hanging of Mayor Edward Parsons Smith; and a public rampage by thousands of white rioters who set fire to the Douglas County Courthouse in downtown Omaha.


  • Elaine, Phillips County, Arkansas, U.S.
    Tuesday Sep 30, 1919

    Red Summer

    Elaine massacre

    Elaine, Phillips County, Arkansas, U.S.
    Tuesday Sep 30, 1919

    On September 30, a massacre broke out against blacks in Elaine, Phillips County, Arkansas, being distinct for having occurred in the rural South rather than a city. The Elaine massacre or the Elaine race riot occurred on September 30–October 1, 1919, at Hoop Spur in the vicinity of Elaine in rural Phillips County, Arkansas. Although official records of the time state that eleven black men and five white men were killed, estimates of the actual number of black people who were killed range from 100 to 237. The white mobs were aided by federal troops (requested by Arkansas governor Charles Brough) and vigilante militias like the Ku Klux Klan.


  • Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
    Friday Oct 3, 1919

    Red Summer

    Baltimore riot

    Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
    Friday Oct 3, 1919

    A riot started by white Navy bluejackets against an entire black neighborhood was quickly quelled by the police.


  • Corbin, Kentucky, U.S.
    Friday Oct 31, 1919

    Red Summer

    Corbin race riot

    Corbin, Kentucky, U.S.
    Friday Oct 31, 1919

    Corbin, Kentucky race riot of 1919 was a race riot in 1919 in which a white mob forced nearly all the town's 200 black residents onto a freight train out of town, and a sundown town policy until the late 20th century.


  • Macon, Georgia, U.S.
    Monday Nov 3, 1919

    Red Summer

    Lynching of Paul Jones

    Macon, Georgia, U.S.
    Monday Nov 3, 1919

    On Sunday, November 2, 1919, Paul Jones allegedly attacked a white woman about 2 miles (3.2 km) outside of Macon. Paul Jones was chased through town until he was cornered in a rail boxcar, there the woman positively identified him. A white mob of 400 people quickly assembled and over the protests of Sheriff James R. Hicks they seized Jones. His body was riddled with bullets, "saturated with coal oil" and lit on fire. He was still alive as the flames consumed his body and the mob watched as he writhed in pain. There were no arrests.


  • Magnolia, Columbia County, Arkansas, U.S.
    Tuesday Nov 11, 1919

    Red Summer

    Lynching of Jordan Jameson

    Magnolia, Columbia County, Arkansas, U.S.
    Tuesday Nov 11, 1919

    African-American man, Jordan Jameson was lynched on November 11, 1919, in the town square of Magnolia, Columbia County, Arkansas. A large white mob seized Jameson after he allegedly shot the local sheriff. They tied him to a stake and burned him alive.


  • Wilmington, Delaware , U.S.
    Thursday Nov 13, 1919

    Red Summer

    Wilmington race riot of 1919

    Wilmington, Delaware , U.S.
    Thursday Nov 13, 1919

    After accusing three black men of killing a police man, when the mob found out the brothers were out of their reach they turned their anger on the black community. One mob of 300 whites were rampaging through the black part of town when they encountered 4 black men, the two parties shot at each other and African-American Bannel Fields was wounded with a shot in the head.


  • U.S.
    Monday Nov 17, 1919

    Red Summer

    A. Mitchell Palmer reported to Congress on the threat that anarchists and Bolsheviks posed to the government

    U.S.
    Monday Nov 17, 1919

    On November 17, Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer reported to Congress on the threat that anarchists and Bolsheviks posed to the government. More than half the report documented radicalism in the black community and the "open defiance" black leaders advocated in response to racial violence and the summer's rioting. It faulted the leadership of the black community for an "ill-governed reaction toward race rioting.… In all discussions of the recent racial riots against blacks there is reflected the note of pride that the Negro has found himself. that he has 'fought back,' that never again will he tamely submit to violence and intimidation". It described "the dangerous spirit of defiance and vengeance at work among the Negro leaders".


  • Bogalusa, Louisiana, U.S.
    Saturday Nov 22, 1919

    Red Summer

    Bogalusa saw mill killings

    Bogalusa, Louisiana, U.S.
    Saturday Nov 22, 1919

    The Bogalusa saw mill killings was a racial attack that killed four labor organizers on November 22, 1919. It was mounted by the white paramilitary group the Self-Preservation and Loyalty League (SPLL) in Thibodaux, Louisiana. They were supported by the owners of Great Southern Lumber Company, a giant logging corporation, that hoped to prevent union organization and the Black and White labor organizations from merging.


  • U.S.
    Tuesday Nov 25, 1919

    Red Summer

    A letter from the National Equal Rights League

    U.S.
    Tuesday Nov 25, 1919

    Protests and appeals to the federal government continued for weeks. A letter from the National Equal Rights League, dated November 25, appealed to Wilson's international advocacy for human rights: "We appeal to you to have your country undertake for its racial minority that which you forced Poland and Austria to undertake for their racial minorities."


  • Harlem, New York City, New York, U.S.
    Thursday Dec 25, 1919

    Marcus Garvey

    Marriage

    Harlem, New York City, New York, U.S.
    Thursday Dec 25, 1919

    Shortly after the incident, Garvey proposed marriage to Amy Ashwood and she accepted. On Christmas Day, they had a private Roman Catholic church wedding, followed by a major ceremonial celebration in Liberty Hall, attended by 3000 UNIA members. Jacques was Ashwood's maid of honor. After the wedding, Garvey moved into Ashwood's apartment.


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