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  • Privolnoye, Stavropol Krai, Russia
    Monday Mar 2, 1931

    Mikhail Gorbachev

    Birth

    Privolnoye, Stavropol Krai, Russia
    Monday Mar 2, 1931

    Gorbachev was born on 2 March 1931 in the village of Privolnoye, Stavropol Krai, then in the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union.




  • U.S.
    Monday Mar 2, 1931

    Anna May Wong

    The Good Earth

    U.S.
    Monday Mar 2, 1931

    In the 1930s, the popularity of Pearl Buck's novels, especially The Good Earth, as well as growing American sympathy for China in its struggles with Japanese imperialism, opened up opportunities for more positive Chinese roles in U.S. films.




  • London, England
    Thursday Mar 5, 1931

    Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi

    The Gandhi–Irwin Pact

    London, England
    Thursday Mar 5, 1931

    The government, represented by Lord Irwin, decided to negotiate with Gandhi. The Gandhi–Irwin Pact was signed in March 1931. The British Government agreed to free all political prisoners, in return for the suspension of the civil disobedience movement. According to the pact, Gandhi was invited to attend the Round Table Conference in London for discussions and as the sole representative of the Indian National Congress. The conference was a disappointment to Gandhi and the nationalists. Gandhi expected to discuss India's independence, while the British side focused on the Indian princes and Indian minorities rather than on a transfer of power.




  • Dublin Ireland
    Tuesday Mar 17, 1931

    St. Patrick's Day

    First official, state-sponsored St Patrick's Day parade

    Dublin Ireland
    Tuesday Mar 17, 1931

    The first official, state-sponsored St Patrick's Day parade in Dublin took place in 1931.




  • Spain
    Sunday Apr 12, 1931

    Spanish Civil War

    General Dámaso Berenguer

    Spain
    Sunday Apr 12, 1931

    Support for the Rivera regime gradually faded, and Miguel Primo de Rivera resigned in January 1930. He was replaced by General Dámaso Berenguer, who was in turn himself replaced by Admiral Juan Bautista Aznar-Cabañas; both men continued a policy of rule by decree. There was little support for the monarchy in the major cities. Consequently, King Alfonso XIII gave in to popular pressure for the establishment of a republic in 1931 and called municipal elections for 12 April of that year. The socialist and liberal republicans won almost all the provincial capitals, and following the resignation of Aznar's government, King Alfonso XIII fled the country.




  • Spain
    Tuesday Apr 14, 1931

    Spanish Civil War

    Second Spanish Republic

    Spain
    Tuesday Apr 14, 1931

    At this time, the Second Spanish Republic was formed. It remained in power until the culmination of the Spanish Civil War.




  • Brooklyn, New York, U.S.
    Wednesday Apr 15, 1931

    Lucky Luciano

    Masseria assassination

    Brooklyn, New York, U.S.
    Wednesday Apr 15, 1931

    Luciano decided to eliminate Masseria (Lower Manhattan gang boss) . The war had been going poorly for Masseria, and Luciano saw an opportunity to switch allegiance. In a secret deal with Maranzano, Luciano agreed to engineer Masseria's death in return for receiving Masseria's rackets and becoming Maranzano's second-in-command. On April 15, Luciano invited Masseria and two other associates to lunch in a Coney Island restaurant. After finishing their meal, the mobsters decided to play cards. At that point, according to mob legend, Luciano went to the bathroom. Four gunmen then walked into the dining room and shot and killed Masseria.


  • Vienna, Austria
    Monday May 11, 1931

    Great Depression

    Creditanstalt becomes insolvent

    Vienna, Austria
    Monday May 11, 1931

    Creditanstalt, Austria's premier bank with major stakes across a variety of industries, becomes insolvent after being forced to assume liabilities from three other insolvent banks, triggering a cascading effect of bank failures across Central Europe. Creditanstalt represented 16% of Austria's GDP, and could not find another institution to guarantee liquidity. 140 million Austrian schillings were lost. The collapse of Creditanstalt caused the Bank of France, the National Bank of Belgium, the Netherlands Bank, and the Swiss National Bank to begin a run on the U.S. dollar for their gold reserves, and forced the Federal Reserve to raise interest rates from 1.5% to 3.5% to maintain the gold standards, which in turn contributed to the deepening of the Depression and the second round of banking failures in the U.S. during the summer of 1931.


  • Darjeeling, in the lower Himalayas, India
    Sunday May 24, 1931

    Mother Teresa

    First Religious vows

    Darjeeling, in the lower Himalayas, India
    Sunday May 24, 1931

    She arrived in India in 1929 and began her novitiate in Darjeeling, in the lower Himalayas, where she learned Bengali and taught at St. Teresa's School near her convent. Teresa took her first religious vows on 24 May 1931. She chose to be named after Thérèse de Lisieux, the patron saint of missionaries; because a nun in the convent had already chosen that name, Agnes opted for its Spanish spelling (Teresa).


  • Birán, Cuba
    Wednesday Jun 3, 1931

    Raúl Castro

    Born

    Birán, Cuba
    Wednesday Jun 3, 1931

    Raúl Modesto Castro Ruz was born in Birán, Cuba.


  • U.S.
    Saturday Jun 20, 1931

    Great Depression

    Hoover Moratorium is issued

    U.S.
    Saturday Jun 20, 1931

    The Hoover Moratorium is issued June 20th, suspending reparation payments from Germany to stabilize the country.


  • Darmstadt, Germany
    Monday Jul 13, 1931

    Great Depression

    Danatbank becomes insolvent

    Darmstadt, Germany
    Monday Jul 13, 1931

    Germany's second largest bank, Danatbank, becomes insolvent on July 13th. Two day bank holiday is declared. Industry suffers a catastrophic collapse.


  • Tokyo, Japan
    Wednesday Aug 5, 1931

    Hirohito

    the Deputy Minister of the Japanese Army instructed not to use the term "prisoners of war" for Chinese captives

    Tokyo, Japan
    Wednesday Aug 5, 1931

    According to Akira Fujiwara, Hirohito endorsed the policy of qualifying the invasion of China as an "incident" instead of a "war"; therefore, he did not issue any notice to observe international law in this conflict (unlike what his predecessors did in previous conflicts officially recognized by Japan as wars), and the Deputy Minister of the Japanese Army instructed the Chief of staff of Japanese China Garrison Army on August 5 not to use the term "prisoners of war" for Chinese captives. This instruction led to the removal of the constraints of international law on the treatment of Chinese prisoners. The works of Yoshiaki Yoshimi and Seiya Matsuno show that the Emperor also authorized, by specific orders (rinsanmei), the use of chemical weapons against the Chinese.


  • U.S.
    Saturday Sep 5, 1931

    Anna May Wong

    Daughter of the Dragon

    U.S.
    Saturday Sep 5, 1931

    With the promise of appearing in a Josef von Sternberg film, Wong accepted another stereotypical role – the title character of Fu Manchu's vengeful daughter in Daughter of the Dragon (1931).


  • Manhattan, New York, U.S.
    Thursday Sep 10, 1931

    Lucky Luciano

    "Night of the Sicilian Vespers"

    Manhattan, New York, U.S.
    Thursday Sep 10, 1931

    By September 1931, Maranzano realized Luciano was a threat, and hired Vincent "Mad Dog" Coll, an Irish gangster, to kill him. However, Lucchese alerted Luciano that he was marked for death. On September 10, Maranzano ordered Luciano and Genovese to come to his office at the 230 Park Avenue in Manhattan. Convinced that Maranzano planned to murder them, Luciano decided to act first. He sent to Maranzano's office four Jewish gangsters whose faces were unknown to Maranzano's people. They had been secured with the aid of Lansky and Siegel. Disguised as government agents, two of the gangsters disarmed Maranzano's bodyguards. The other two, aided by Lucchese, who was there to point Maranzano out, stabbed the boss multiple times before shooting him. This assassination was the first of what would later be fabled as the "Night of the Sicilian Vespers."


  • Manchuria, China
    Friday Sep 18, 1931

    Second Sino-Japanese War

    Japan invaded Manchuria

    Manchuria, China
    Friday Sep 18, 1931

    The internecine warfare in China provided excellent opportunities for Japan, which saw Manchuria as a limitless supply of raw materials, a market for its manufactured goods (now excluded from the markets of many Western countries as a result of Depression-era tariffs), and a protective buffer state against the Soviet Union in Siberia. Japan invaded Manchuria outright after the Mukden Incident in September 1931.


  • Manchuria, China
    Friday Sep 18, 1931

    World War II

    Mukden Incident

    Manchuria, China
    Friday Sep 18, 1931

    In 1931 Empire of Japan staged the Mukden Incident as a pretext to invade Manchuria.


  • London, England, United Kingdom
    Monday Sep 21, 1931

    Great Depression

    Britain leaves the gold standard, and the pound sterling depreciates by 25%

    London, England, United Kingdom
    Monday Sep 21, 1931

    Britain leaves the gold standard, and the pound sterling depreciates by 25%. Despite warning of disaster, the departure proves beneficial to the British economy, as exports become more competitive. Additionally, the Bank of England was now free to engage in money creation, and reduced interest rates from 6.00% to 2.00%.


  • Geneva, Switzerland
    Tuesday Sep 22, 1931

    World War II

    China appealed to the League of Nations

    Geneva, Switzerland
    Tuesday Sep 22, 1931

    China appealed to the League of Nations to stop the Japanese invasion of Manchuria.


  • London, England, United Kingdom
    Tuesday Oct 27, 1931

    Great Depression

    The United Kingdom General election 1931

    London, England, United Kingdom
    Tuesday Oct 27, 1931

    The United Kingdom General election, 1931 takes place, destroying the Labor Party and delivering a landslide victory to the Conservative Party.


  • Spain
    Wednesday Dec 9, 1931

    Spanish Civil War

    Spanish Constitution of 1931

    Spain
    Wednesday Dec 9, 1931

    Fascism remained a reactive threat, helped by controversial reforms to the military. In December, a new reformist, liberal, and democratic constitution was declared. It included strong provisions enforcing a broad secularisation of the Catholic country, which included the abolishing of Catholic schools and charities, which many moderate committed Catholics opposed.


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