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  • Germany
    Friday Jan 1, 1937

    Martin Bormann

    Bormann Joined The Schutzstaffel (SS)

    Germany
    Friday Jan 1, 1937

    He joined the Schutzstaffel (SS) on 1 January 1937 with number 278,267.




  • Los Angeles, California, U.S.
    Tuesday Jan 19, 1937

    Howard Hughes: The Aviator

    A New Record

    Los Angeles, California, U.S.
    Tuesday Jan 19, 1937

    A year and a half later, on January 19, 1937, flying the same H-1 Racer fitted with longer wings, Hughes set a new transcontinental airspeed record by flying non-stop from Los Angeles to Newark in seven hours, 28 minutes, and 25 seconds (beating his own previous record of nine hours and 27 minutes). His average ground speed over the flight was 322 mph




  • Skaugum, Akershus, Norway
    Sunday Feb 21, 1937

    Harald V

    Born

    Skaugum, Akershus, Norway
    Sunday Feb 21, 1937

    Prince Harald was born at the Skaugum estate in 21 February 1937.




  • Guadalajara, Spain
    Monday Mar 8, 1937

    Spanish Civil War

    Battle of Guadalajara

    Guadalajara, Spain
    Monday Mar 8, 1937

    A similar Nationalist offensive, the Battle of Guadalajara, was a more significant defeat for Franco and his armies. This was the only publicized Republican victory of the war. Franco used Italian troops and blitzkrieg tactics; while many strategists blamed Franco for the rightists' defeat, the Germans believed it was the former at fault for the Nationalists' 5,000 casualties and loss of valuable equipment.




  • Oslo, Norway
    Wednesday Mar 31, 1937

    Harald V

    Baptism

    Oslo, Norway
    Wednesday Mar 31, 1937

    He was baptized in the Royal Chapel of the Royal Palace in Oslo on 31 March 1937 by Bishop Johan Lunde.




  • London, Englad, United Kingdom
    Wednesday Apr 14, 1937

    Edward VIII

    Memorandum Summarizing

    London, Englad, United Kingdom
    Wednesday Apr 14, 1937

    On 14 April 1937, Attorney General Sir Donald Somervell submitted to Home Secretary Sir John Simon a memorandum summarizing the views of Lord Advocate T. M. Cooper, Parliamentary Counsel Sir Granville Ram, and himself: We incline to the view that on his abdication the Duke of Windsor could not have claimed the right to be described as a Royal Highness. In other words, no reasonable objection could have been taken if the King had decided that his exclusion from the lineal succession excluded him from the right to this title as conferred by the existing Letters Patent. The question however has to be considered on the basis of the fact that, for reasons which are readily understandable, he with the express approval of His Majesty enjoys this title and has been referred to as a Royal Highness on a formal occasion and in formal documents. In the light of precedent it seems clear that the wife of a Royal Highness enjoys the same title unless some appropriate express step can be and is taken to deprive her of it. We came to the conclusion that the wife could not claim this right on any legal basis. The right to use this style or title, in our view, is within the prerogative of His Majesty and he has the power to regulate it by Letters Patent generally or in particular circumstances.




  • Guernica, Spain
    Monday Apr 26, 1937

    Spanish Civil War

    Condor Legion bombed the town of Guernica

    Guernica, Spain
    Monday Apr 26, 1937

    On 26 April, the Condor Legion bombed the town of Guernica, killing 200–300 and causing significant damage. The destruction had a significant effect on international opinion. The Basques retreated.


  • Catalonia, Spain
    Monday May 3, 1937

    Spanish Civil War

    May Days

    Catalonia, Spain
    Monday May 3, 1937

    April and May saw the May Days, infighting among Republican groups in Catalonia. The dispute was between an ultimately victorious government—Communist forces and the anarchist CNT. The disturbance pleased Nationalist command, but little was done to exploit Republican divisions. After the fall of Guernica, the Republican government began to fight back with increasing effectiveness. In July, it made a move to recapture Segovia, forcing Franco to delay his advance on the Bilbao front, but for only two weeks. A similar Republican attack, the Huesca Offensive, failed similarly.


  • Nanking, Jiangsu, China
    Wednesday May 5, 1937

    Mao Zedong

    Telegramming The Military Council of The Nanking National Government

    Nanking, Jiangsu, China
    Wednesday May 5, 1937

    Although despising Chiang Kai-shek as a "traitor to the nation", on May 5, he telegrammed the Military Council of the Nanking National Government proposing a military alliance, a course of action advocated by Stalin.


  • U.S.
    Tuesday May 25, 1937

    Ronald Reagan

    Enlisted in the Army Enlisted Reserve

    U.S.
    Tuesday May 25, 1937

    After completing 14 home-study Army Extension Courses, Reagan enlisted in the Army Enlisted Reserve and was commissioned a second lieutenant in the Officers' Reserve Corps of the Cavalry on May 25, 1937.


  • United Kingdom
    Thursday May 27, 1937

    Edward VIII

    Letters Patent

    United Kingdom
    Thursday May 27, 1937

    Letters Patent dated 27 May 1937 re-conferred the "title, style, or attribute of Royal Highness" upon the Duke, but specifically stated that "his wife and descendants, if any, shall not hold said title or attribute". Some British ministers advised that the reconfirmation was unnecessary since Edward had retained the style automatically, and further that Simpson would automatically obtain the rank of wife of a prince with the style Her Royal Highness; others maintained that he had lost all royal rank and should no longer carry any royal title or style as an abdicated king, and be referred to simply as "Mr Edward Windsor".


  • Alcocero, Burgos, Spain
    Thursday Jun 3, 1937

    Spanish Civil War

    Mola was killed

    Alcocero, Burgos, Spain
    Thursday Jun 3, 1937

    Mola, Franco's second-in-command, was killed on 3 June, in an airplane accident.


  • Château de Candé, near Tours, France
    Thursday Jun 3, 1937

    Edward VIII

    Marriage

    Château de Candé, near Tours, France
    Thursday Jun 3, 1937

    The Duke married Simpson, who had changed her name by deed poll to Wallis Warfield, in a private ceremony on 3 June 1937, at Château de Candé, near Tours, France. When the Church of England refused to sanction the union, a County Durham clergyman, the Reverend Robert Anderson Jardine (Vicar of St Paul's, Darlington), offered to perform the ceremony, and the Duke accepted. George VI forbade members of the royal family to attend, to the lasting resentment of the Duke and Duchess of Windsor. Edward had particularly wanted his brothers the Dukes of Gloucester and Kent and his second cousin Lord Louis Mountbatten to attend the ceremony.


  • Kaifeng, Henan, China
    Sunday Jun 6, 1937

    Second Sino-Japanese War

    The Japanese captured Kaifeng

    Kaifeng, Henan, China
    Sunday Jun 6, 1937

    In 1937, the Japanese Imperial Army quickly marched into the heart of Chinese territory. On June 6, they captured Kaifeng, the capital of Henan, and threatened to take Zhengzhou, the junction of the Pinghan and Longhai railways.


  • U.S.
    Sunday Jul 4, 1937

    Flag of the United States

    Star for Michigan

    U.S.
    Sunday Jul 4, 1937

    The flag was changed to have 26 stars. (for Michigan)


  • Brunete, Spain
    Tuesday Jul 6, 1937

    Spanish Civil War

    Battle of Brunete

    Brunete, Spain
    Tuesday Jul 6, 1937

    The Battle of Brunete, however, was a significant defeat for the Republic, which lost many of its most accomplished troops. The offensive led to an advance of 50 square kilometres (19 sq mi), and left 25,000 Republican casualties. The Battle of Brunete (6–25 July 1937), fought 24 kilometres (15 mi) west of Madrid, was a Republican attempt to alleviate the pressure exerted by the Nationalists on the capital and on the north during the Spanish Civil War. Although initially successful, the Republicans were forced to retreat from Brunete and suffered devastating casualties from the battle.


  • Beijing, China
    Wednesday Jul 7, 1937

    Second Sino-Japanese War

    The Marco Polo Bridge Incident

    Beijing, China
    Wednesday Jul 7, 1937

    On the night of July 7, 1937, Chinese and Japanese troops exchanged fire in the vicinity of the Marco Polo (or Lugou) Bridge, a crucial access-route to Beijing. What began as confused, sporadic skirmishing soon escalated into a full-scale battle in which Beijing and its port city of Tianjin fell to Japanese forces (July–August 1937).


  • Tongzhou, Beijing, China
    Thursday Jul 29, 1937

    Second Sino-Japanese War

    The Tungchow mutiny

    Tongzhou, Beijing, China
    Thursday Jul 29, 1937

    On July 29, some 5,000 troops of the 1st and 2nd Corps of the East Hopei Army mutinied, turning against the Japanese garrison. In addition to Japanese military personnel, some 260 civilians living in Tongzhou in accordance with the Boxer Protocol of 1901, were killed in the uprising (predominantly Japanese including the police force and also some ethnic Koreans). The Chinese then set fire to and destroyed much of the city. Only around 60 Japanese civilians survived, who provided both journalists and later historians with firsthand witness accounts. As a result of the violence of the mutiny against Japanese civilians, the Tungchow mutiny, as it came to be called, strongly shook public opinion within Japan.


  • Zagreb, Croatia
    Sunday Aug 1, 1937

    Josip Broz Tito

    The new party was inaugurated at a conference

    Zagreb, Croatia
    Sunday Aug 1, 1937

    Tito travelled several times between Paris and Zagreb organising the movement of volunteers and creating a separate Communist Party of Croatia. The new party was inaugurated at a conference at Samobor on the outskirts of Zagreb on 1–2 August 1937.


  • Shanghai, China
    Thursday Aug 12, 1937

    Second Sino-Japanese War

    The KMT laid a siege to the Japanese area of Shanghai

    Shanghai, China
    Thursday Aug 12, 1937

    The Imperial General Headquarters (GHQ) in Tokyo, content with the gains acquired in northern China following the Marco Polo Bridge Incident, initially showed reluctance to escalate the conflict into full-scale war. The KMT, however, determined that the "breaking point" of Japanese aggression had been reached. Chiang Kai-shek quickly mobilized the central government's army and air force, placed them under his direct command, and laid siege to the Japanese area of Shanghai International Settlement, where 30,000 Japanese civilians lived with 30,000 troops on August 12, 1937.


  • Shanghai, China
    Thursday Aug 12, 1937

    Second Sino-Japanese War

    Accidentally bombed The Shanghai International Settlement

    Shanghai, China
    Thursday Aug 12, 1937

    On August 14, Kuomintang planes accidentally bombed the Shanghai International Settlement, which led to more than 3,000 civilian deaths. In the three days from August 14 through 16, 1937, the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) sent many sorties of the then-advanced long-ranged G3M medium-heavy land-based bombers and assorted carrier-based aircraft with the expectation of destroying the Chinese Air Force. However, the Imperial Japanese Navy encountered unexpected resistance from the defending Chinese Hawk III and P-26/281 Peashooter fighter squadrons.


  • Shanghai, China
    Thursday Aug 12, 1937

    Second Sino-Japanese War

    The Battle of Shanghai

    Shanghai, China
    Thursday Aug 12, 1937

    On August 13, 1937, Kuomintang soldiers and warplanes attacked Japanese Marine positions in Shanghai, leading to the Battle of Shanghai.


  • Nanjing, Jiangsu, China
    Saturday Aug 21, 1937

    Second Sino-Japanese War

    The Sino-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact

    Nanjing, Jiangsu, China
    Saturday Aug 21, 1937

    In September 1937, the Soviet Union and China signed the Sino-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact and approved Operation Zet, the formation of a secret Soviet volunteer air force, in which Soviet technicians upgraded and ran some of China's transportation systems.


  • Nanjing, China
    Saturday Aug 21, 1937

    World War II

    Soviet non-aggression pact with China

    Nanjing, China
    Saturday Aug 21, 1937

    Soviets signed a non-aggression pact with China to lend material support, ending China's co-operation with Germany.


  • northern Shanghai, Shanghai, China
    Monday Aug 23, 1937

    Second Sino-Japanese War

    Japanese Army Reinforcements

    northern Shanghai, Shanghai, China
    Monday Aug 23, 1937

    On August 23, Japanese Army reinforcements succeeded in landing in northern Shanghai. The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) ultimately committed over 200,000 troops, along with numerous naval vessels and aircraft, to capture the city. After more than three months of intense fighting, their casualties far exceeded initial expectations.


  • Belchite, near Zaragoza, Spain
    Tuesday Aug 24, 1937

    Spanish Civil War

    Battle of Belchite

    Belchite, near Zaragoza, Spain
    Tuesday Aug 24, 1937

    A Republican offensive against Zaragoza was also a failure. Despite having land and aerial advantages, the Battle of Belchite, a place lacking any military interest, resulted in an advance of only 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) and the loss of much equipment. The Battle of Belchite refers to a series of military operations that took place between 24 August and 7 September 1937, in and around the small town of Belchite, in Aragon during the Spanish Civil War.


  • Spain
    Tuesday Aug 24, 1937

    Spanish Civil War

    Santoña Agreement

    Spain
    Tuesday Aug 24, 1937

    With the surrender of the Republican army in the Basque territory came the Santoña Agreement. The Santoña Agreement, or Pact of Santoña, was an agreement signed in the town of Guriezo, near Santoña, Cantabria, on August 24, 1937, during the Spanish Civil War, between politicians close to the Basque Nationalist Party (Partido Nacionalista Vasco or PNV), fighting for the Spanish Republicans, and Italian forces, fighting for Francisco Franco.


  • Gijón, Spain
    Wednesday Sep 1, 1937

    Spanish Civil War

    Asturias Offensive

    Gijón, Spain
    Wednesday Sep 1, 1937

    Gijón finally fell in late October in the Asturias Offensive. The Asturias Offensive was an offensive in Asturias during the Spanish Civil War which lasted from 1 September to 21 October 1937. 45,000 men of the Spanish Republican Army met 90,000 men of the Nationalist forces.


  • Dachang, Shanghai, China
    Tuesday Oct 26, 1937

    Second Sino-Japanese War

    Capturing Dachang

    Dachang, Shanghai, China
    Tuesday Oct 26, 1937

    On October 26, the Japanese Army captured Dachang, an important strong-point within Shanghai.


  • Shanghai, China
    Tuesday Nov 9, 1937

    Second Sino-Japanese War

    The NRA began a general retreat

    Shanghai, China
    Tuesday Nov 9, 1937

    On November 5, additional reinforcements of Japan landed from Hangzhou Bay. Finally, on November 9, the NRA began a general retreat.


  • Shanghai, China
    Friday Nov 26, 1937

    World War II

    Battle of Shanghai ended

    Shanghai, China
    Friday Nov 26, 1937

    Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek deployed his best army to defend Shanghai, but, after three months of fighting, Shanghai fell.


  • Nanjing, Jiangsu, China
    Wednesday Dec 1, 1937

    Second Sino-Japanese War

    The Battle of Nanjing

    Nanjing, Jiangsu, China
    Wednesday Dec 1, 1937

    Building on the hard-won victory in Shanghai, the IJA captured the KMT capital city of Nanjing (December 1937) and Northern Shanxi (September–November 1937). These campaigns involved approximately 350,000 Japanese soldiers, and considerably more Chinese.


  • Nanjing, Jiangsu, China
    Monday Dec 13, 1937

    Second Sino-Japanese War

    Nanjing Massacre

    Nanjing, Jiangsu, China
    Monday Dec 13, 1937

    Historians estimate that between December 13, 1937, and late January 1938, Japanese forces killed an estimated 200,000 to 300,000 Chinese (mostly civilians) in the "Nanjing Massacre" (also known as the "Rape of Nanjing"), after its fall but the numbers are uncertain and possibly inflated coupled with the fact that the government of the People's Republic of China has never undertaken a full accounting of the Massacre.


  • Teruel, Aragon, Spain
    Wednesday Dec 15, 1937

    Spanish Civil War

    Battle of Teruel

    Teruel, Aragon, Spain
    Wednesday Dec 15, 1937

    The Battle of Teruel was an important confrontation. The city, which had formerly belonged to the Nationalists, was conquered by Republicans in January. The Francoist troops launched an offensive and recovered the city by 22 February, but Franco was forced to rely heavily on German and Italian air support. The Battle of Teruel was fought in and around the city of Teruel during the Spanish Civil War. The combatants fought the battle between December 1937 and February 1938, during the worst Spanish winter in twenty years. The battle was one of the bloodier actions of the war with the city changing hands several times, first falling to the Republicans and eventually being re-taken by the Nationalists. In the course of the fighting, Teruel was subjected to heavy artillery and aerial bombardment. The two sides suffered over 140,000 casualties between them in the two-month battle. It was a decisive battle of the war, as Francisco Franco's use of his superiority in men and material in regaining Teruel made it the military turning point of the war.


  • Hollywood, Los Angeles, California, U.S.
    Tuesday Dec 21, 1937

    Walt Disney

    Releasing Snow White

    Hollywood, Los Angeles, California, U.S.
    Tuesday Dec 21, 1937

    By 1934, Disney had become dissatisfied with producing formulaic cartoon shorts, and believed a feature-length cartoon would be more profitable. The studio began the four-year production of Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, based on the fairy tale. Snow White premiered in December 1937 to high praise from critics and audiences. The film became the most successful motion picture of 1938 and by May 1939 its total gross of $6.5 million made it the most successful sound film made to that date. Disney won another Honorary Academy Award, which consisted of one full-sized and seven miniature Oscar statuettes. The success of Snow White heralded one of the most productive eras for the studio; the Walt Disney Family Museum calls the following years "the 'Golden Age of Animation' ".


  • China
    Saturday Dec 25, 1937

    Mao Zedong

    The Formation of a United Front

    China
    Saturday Dec 25, 1937

    Although Chiang intended to ignore Mao's message and continue the civil war, he was arrested by one of his own generals, Zhang Xueliang, in Xi'an, leading to the Xi'an Incident; Zhang forced Chiang to discuss the issue with the Communists, resulting in the formation of a United Front with concessions on both sides on December 25, 1937.


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