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  • Rome, Italy
    Wednesday Jan 5, 1938

    Juan Carlos I

    Born

    Rome, Italy
    Wednesday Jan 5, 1938

    Juan Carlos was born to Infante Juan, Count of Barcelona, and Princess María de las Mercedes of Bourbon-Two Sicilies in Rome, Italy, where his grandfather King Alfonso XIII of Spain and other members of the Spanish royal family lived in exile following the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic in 1931.




  • Tarragona, Spain
    Saturday Jan 15, 1938

    Spanish Civil War

    Tarragona fell

    Tarragona, Spain
    Saturday Jan 15, 1938

    Tarragona fell on 15 January.




  • Barcelona, Spain
    Wednesday Jan 26, 1938

    Spanish Civil War

    Barcelona fell

    Barcelona, Spain
    Wednesday Jan 26, 1938

    Barcelona fell on 26 January.




  • Girona, Spain
    Wednesday Feb 2, 1938

    Spanish Civil War

    Girona fell

    Girona, Spain
    Wednesday Feb 2, 1938

    Girona fell on 2 February.




  • Chongqing, China
    Friday Feb 18, 1938

    Second Sino-Japanese War

    Japanese raiders hit Chongqing

    Chongqing, China
    Friday Feb 18, 1938

    With Japanese casualties and costs mounting, the Imperial General Headquarters attempted to break Chinese resistance by ordering the air branches of their navy and army to launch the war's first massive air raids on civilian targets. Japanese raiders hit the Kuomintang's newly established provisional capital of Chongqing and most other major cities in unoccupied China, leaving millions dead, injured, and homeless.




  • Spain
    Sunday Feb 27, 1938

    Spanish Civil War

    United Kingdom and France recognized the Franco regime

    Spain
    Sunday Feb 27, 1938

    On 27 February, the United Kingdom and France recognized the Franco regime.




  • Aragon, Spain
    Monday Mar 7, 1938

    Spanish Civil War

    Nationalists launched the Aragon Offensive

    Aragon, Spain
    Monday Mar 7, 1938

    On 7 March, Nationalists launched the Aragon Offensive, and by 14 April they had pushed through to the Mediterranean, cutting the Republican-held portion of Spain in two. The Republican government attempted to sue for peace in May, but Franco demanded unconditional surrender, and the war raged on. In July, the Nationalist army pressed southward from Teruel and south along the coast toward the capital of the Republic at Valencia, but was halted in heavy fighting along the XYZ Line, a system of fortifications defending Valencia.


  • Germany
    Saturday Mar 12, 1938

    Adolf Hitler

    Unification of Austria with Nazi Germany

    Germany
    Saturday Mar 12, 1938

    On 12 March 1938, Hitler announced the unification of Austria with Nazi Germany in the Anschluss.


  • Austria
    Saturday Mar 12, 1938

    World War II

    Germany annexed Austria

    Austria
    Saturday Mar 12, 1938

    In March 1938, Germany annexed Austria.


  • Jiangsu, China
    Thursday Mar 24, 1938

    Second Sino-Japanese War

    The Battle of Tai'erzhuang

    Jiangsu, China
    Thursday Mar 24, 1938

    With many victories achieved, Japanese field generals escalated the war in Jiangsu in an attempt to wipe out Chinese resistance, but were defeated at the Battle of Taierzhuang (March–April 1938).


  • Berlin, Germany
    Monday Mar 28, 1938

    Adolf Hitler

    Secret meeting with Henlein

    Berlin, Germany
    Monday Mar 28, 1938

    On 28–29 March 1938, Hitler held a series of secret meetings in Berlin with Konrad Henlein of the Sudeten German Party, the largest of the ethnic German parties of the Sudetenland. The men agreed that Henlein would demand increased autonomy for Sudeten Germans from the Czechoslovakian government, thus providing a pretext for German military action against Czechoslovakia.


  • Wilhelmshaven, Germany
    Friday Apr 1, 1938

    Adolf Hitler

    Battleship Tirpitz

    Wilhelmshaven, Germany
    Friday Apr 1, 1938

    In a speech in Wilhelmshaven for the launch of the battleship Tirpitz on 1 April, he threatened to denounce the Anglo-German Naval Agreement if the British continued to guarantee Polish independence, which he perceived as an "encirclement" policy.


  • Germany
    Sunday Apr 3, 1938

    Adolf Hitler

    Prepare for Fall Weiss

    Germany
    Sunday Apr 3, 1938

    On 3 April, Hitler ordered the military to prepare for Fall Weiss ("Case White"), the plan for invading Poland on 25 August.


  • Germany
    Thursday Apr 28, 1938

    Adolf Hitler

    Renounced both the English and Polish Agreement

    Germany
    Thursday Apr 28, 1938

    In a Reichstag speech on 28 April, he renounced both the Anglo-German Naval Agreement and the German–Polish Non-Aggression Pact.


  • Princeton, New Jersey, U.S.
    Wednesday Jun 1, 1938

    Alan Turing

    Turing Obtained His PhD From The Department of Mathematics

    Princeton, New Jersey, U.S.
    Wednesday Jun 1, 1938

    In June 1938, he obtained his PhD from the Department of Mathematics at Princeton; his dissertation, Systems of Logic Based on Ordinals, introduced the concept of ordinal logic and the notion of relative computing, where Turing machines are augmented with so-called oracles, allowing the study of problems that cannot be solved by Turing machines. John von Neumann wanted to hire him as his postdoctoral assistant, but he went back to the United Kingdom.


  • Texas, U.S.
    Monday Jun 20, 1938

    Juneteenth

    Texas governor J. V. Allred issued a proclamation

    Texas, U.S.
    Monday Jun 20, 1938

    In 1938, Texas governor J. V. Allred issued a proclamation stating in part: Whereas, the Negroes in the State of Texas observe June 19 as the official day for the celebration of Emancipation from slavery; and Whereas, June 19, 1865, was the date when General Robert [sic] S. Granger, who had command of the Military District of Texas, issued a proclamation notifying the Negroes of Texas that they were free; and Whereas, since that time, Texas Negroes have observed this day with suitable holiday ceremony, except during such years when the day comes on a Sunday; when the Governor of the State is asked to proclaim the following day as the holiday for State observance by Negroes; and Whereas, June 19, 1938, this year falls on Sunday; NOW, THEREFORE, I, JAMES V. ALLRED, Governor of the State of Texas, do set aside and proclaim the day of June 20, 1938, as the date for observance of EMANCIPATION DAY in Texas, and do urge all members of the Negro race in Texas to observe the day in a manner appropriate to its importance to them.


  • New York, U.S.
    Thursday Jul 14, 1938

    Howard Hughes: The Aviator

    Around the world record

    New York, U.S.
    Thursday Jul 14, 1938

    On July 14, 1938, Hughes set another record by completing a flight around the world in just 91 hours (three days, 19 hours, 17 minutes), beating the previous record set in 1933 by Wiley Post in a single-engine Lockheed Vega by almost four days. Hughes returned home ahead of photographs of his flight. Taking off from New York City, Hughes continued to Paris, Moscow, Omsk, Yakutsk, Fairbanks, Minneapolis, then returning to New York City. For this flight, he flew a Lockheed 14 Super Electra (NX18973, a twin engine transport with a four-man crew) fitted with the latest radio and navigational equipment. Harry Connor was the co-pilot, Thomas Thurlow the navigator, Richard Stoddart the engineer, and Ed Lund the mechanic. Hughes wanted the flight to be a triumph of American aviation technology, illustrating that safe, long-distance air travel was possible. Albert Lodwick of Mystic, Iowa provided organizational skills as the flight operations manager. While he had previously been relatively obscure despite his wealth, being better known for dating Katharine Hepburn, New York City now gave Hughes a ticker-tape parade in the Canyon of Heroes.


  • Germany
    Monday Jul 18, 1938

    Oskar Schindler (Schindler's List)

    Getting arrested

    Germany
    Monday Jul 18, 1938

    His tasks for the Abwehr included collecting information on railways, military installations, and troop movements, as well as recruiting other spies within Czechoslovakia, in advance of a planned invasion of the country by Nazi Germany. He was arrested by the Czech government for espionage on 18 July 1938 and immediately imprisoned but was released as a political prisoner under the terms of the Munich Agreement, the instrument under which the Czech Sudetenland was annexed into Germany on 1 October.


  • Munich, Germany
    Thursday Sep 29, 1938

    Adolf Hitler

    Munich Agreement

    Munich, Germany
    Thursday Sep 29, 1938

    On 29 September Hitler, Neville Chamberlain, Édouard Daladier, and Mussolini attended a one-day conference in Munich that led to the Munich Agreement, which handed over the Sudetenland districts to Germany.


  • Munich, Germany
    Friday Sep 30, 1938

    World War II

    Munich Agreement

    Munich, Germany
    Friday Sep 30, 1938

    Hitler began pressing German claims on the Sudetenland, an area of Czechoslovakia with a predominantly ethnic German population. Soon the United Kingdom and France followed the appeasement policy of British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain and conceded this territory to Germany in the Munich Agreement, which was made against the wishes of the Czechoslovak government, in exchange for a promise of no further territorial demands.


  • Washington D.C., U.S.
    Monday Oct 10, 1938

    Lucky Luciano

    U.S. Supreme Court refused to review his case

    Washington D.C., U.S.
    Monday Oct 10, 1938

    Luciano's legal appeals continued until October 10, 1938, when the U.S. Supreme Court refused to review his case. At this point, Luciano stepped down as family boss, and Costello formally replaced him.


  • Wuhan, Hubei, China
    Thursday Oct 27, 1938

    Second Sino-Japanese War

    The Japanese captured Wuhan

    Wuhan, Hubei, China
    Thursday Oct 27, 1938

    The Japanese captured Wuhan on October 27, 1938, forcing the KMT to retreat to Chongqing (Chungking), but Chiang Kai-shek still refused to negotiate, saying he would only consider talks if Japan agreed to withdraw to the pre-1937 borders.


  • Germany
    Tuesday Nov 1, 1938

    Oskar Schindler (Schindler's List)

    Joining the Nazi Party

    Germany
    Tuesday Nov 1, 1938

    Schindler applied for membership in the Nazi Party on 1 November 1938, and was accepted the following year.


  • China
    Sunday Nov 20, 1938

    Mao Zedong

    4th Marriage

    China
    Sunday Nov 20, 1938

    On the Long March, Mao's wife He Zizen had been injured by a shrapnel wound to the head. She traveled to Moscow for medical treatment; Mao proceeded to divorce her and marry an actress, Jiang Qing on 20 November 1938.


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