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  • Victoria, Australia
    Thursday Jan 12, 1939

    Disasters with highest death tolls

    Black Friday Bushfires

    Victoria, Australia
    Thursday Jan 12, 1939

    The Black Friday bushfires of 13 January 1939, in Victoria, Australia, were among the worst natural bushfires (wildfires) in the world. Almost 20,000 km2 (4,942,000 acres, 2,000,000 ha) of land was burned, 71 people died, several towns were entirely obliterated and the Royal Commission that resulted from it led to major changes in forest management. Over 1,300 homes and 69 sawmills were burned, and 3,700 buildings were destroyed.




  • Long Branch, New Jersey, U.S.
    Saturday Feb 4, 1939

    Frank Sinatra

    1st Marriage

    Long Branch, New Jersey, U.S.
    Saturday Feb 4, 1939

    Sinatra had met Barbato in Long Branch, New Jersey in the late 1930s, where he spent most of the summer working as a lifeguard.He agreed to marry her after an incident at "The Rustic Cabin" which led to his arrest.




  • Spain
    Monday Feb 27, 1939

    Francisco Franco

    United kingdom and France officially recognized the Franco regime

    Spain
    Monday Feb 27, 1939

    By early 1939 only Madrid and a few other areas remained under control of the government forces. On 27 February Chamberlain's Britain and Daladier's France officially recognized the Franco regime.




  • Spain
    Sunday Mar 5, 1939

    Spanish Civil War

    Peace deal

    Spain
    Sunday Mar 5, 1939

    Only Madrid and a few other strongholds remained for the Republican forces. On 5 March 1939 the Republican army, led by the Colonel Segismundo Casado and the politician Julián Besteiro, rose against the prime minister Juan Negrín and formed the National Defence Council (Consejo Nacional de Defensa or CND) to negotiate a peace deal.




  • France
    Monday Mar 6, 1939

    Spanish Civil War

    Negrín fled to France

    France
    Monday Mar 6, 1939

    Negrín fled to France on 6 March, but the Communist troops around Madrid rose against the junta, starting a brief civil war within the civil war. Casado defeated them, and began peace negotiations with the Nationalists, but Franco refused to accept anything less than unconditional surrender.




  • Czech Rep. (Czechoslovakia that time)
    Wednesday Mar 15, 1939

    Adolf Hitler

    Invade Prague

    Czech Rep. (Czechoslovakia that time)
    Wednesday Mar 15, 1939

    On 15 March 1939, in violation of the Munich accord and possibly as a result of the deepening economic crisis requiring additional assets, Hitler ordered the Wehrmacht to invade Prague, and from Prague Castle he proclaimed Bohemia and Moravia a German protectorate.




  • Lithuania
    Monday Mar 20, 1939

    World War II

    1939 German ultimatum to Lithuania

    Lithuania
    Monday Mar 20, 1939

    Hitler also delivered 20 March 1939 ultimatum to Lithuania, forcing the concession of the Klaipėda Region, formerly the German Memelland.


  • Spain
    Sunday Mar 26, 1939

    Spanish Civil War

    Nationalists started a general offensive

    Spain
    Sunday Mar 26, 1939

    On 26 March, the Nationalists started a general offensive.


  • Madrid, Spain
    Tuesday Mar 28, 1939

    Francisco Franco

    Madrid fell to the Nationalists

    Madrid, Spain
    Tuesday Mar 28, 1939

    On 28 March 1939, with the help of pro-Franco forces inside the city (the "fifth column" General Mola had mentioned in propaganda broadcasts in 1936), Madrid fell to the Nationalists.


  • Germany
    Friday Mar 31, 1939

    Adolf Hitler

    Offended by the British "guarantee"

    Germany
    Friday Mar 31, 1939

    Offended by the British "guarantee" on 31 March 1939 of Polish independence, he said, "I shall brew them a devil's drink".


  • Spain
    Friday Mar 31, 1939

    Spanish Civil War

    Nationalists occupied all Spanish territory

    Spain
    Friday Mar 31, 1939

    On 28 March the Nationalists occupied Madrid and, by 31 March, they controlled all Spanish territory.


  • Spain
    Saturday Apr 1, 1939

    Francisco Franco

    Victory was proclaimed

    Spain
    Saturday Apr 1, 1939

    Victory was proclaimed on 1 April 1939, when the last of the Republican forces surrendered. On the same day, Franco placed his sword upon the altar of a church and in a vow, promised that he would never again take up his sword unless Spain itself was threatened with invasion.


  • Spain
    Saturday Apr 1, 1939
    21 PM

    World War II

    Spanish Civil War ended

    Spain
    Saturday Apr 1, 1939
    21 PM

    The Nationalists won the Spanish Civil War in April 1939.


  • Spain
    Saturday Apr 1, 1939

    Spanish Civil War

    Franco proclaimed victory in a radio speech

    Spain
    Saturday Apr 1, 1939

    Franco proclaimed victory in a radio speech aired on 1 April, when the last of the Republican forces surrendered.


  • Albania
    Wednesday Apr 12, 1939

    World War II

    Italy conquered Albania

    Albania
    Wednesday Apr 12, 1939

    Italy conquered Albania in April 1939.


  • Zaoyang, Xiangyang, Hubei, China
    Thursday Apr 20, 1939

    Second Sino-Japanese War

    The Battle of Suixian–Zaoyang

    Zaoyang, Xiangyang, Hubei, China
    Thursday Apr 20, 1939

    From the beginning of 1939, the war entered a new phase with the unprecedented defeat of the Japanese at Battle of Suixian–Zaoyang, then 1st Battle of Changsha, Battle of South Guangxi and Battle of Zaoyi.


  • Berlin, Germany
    Monday May 22, 1939

    World War II

    Pact of Steel

    Berlin, Germany
    Monday May 22, 1939

    After the Franco-British pledge to Poland, Germany and Italy formalized their own alliance with the Pact of Steel.


  • Palestine
    Tuesday May 23, 1939

    David Ben-Gurion

    The British 1939 White paper

    Palestine
    Tuesday May 23, 1939

    The British 1939 White paper stipulated that Jewish immigration to Palestine was to be limited to 15,000 a year for the first five years, and would subsequently be contingent on Arab consent.


  • Germany
    Tuesday Aug 22, 1939

    Adolf Hitler

    Military mobilization is ordered

    Germany
    Tuesday Aug 22, 1939

    Accordingly, on 22 August 1939 Hitler ordered a military mobilization against Poland.


  • Soviet Union (Present-Day Russia)
    Wednesday Aug 23, 1939

    Joseph Stalin

    Non-aggression pact with Nazi Germany

    Soviet Union (Present-Day Russia)
    Wednesday Aug 23, 1939

    The Soviet Union signed a non-aggression pact with Nazi Germany on 23 August 1939.


  • Moscow, Russia
    Wednesday Aug 23, 1939

    World War II

    Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact

    Moscow, Russia
    Wednesday Aug 23, 1939

    The situation reached a general crisis in late August as German troops continued to mobilize against the Polish border. On 23 August, when tripartite negotiations about a military alliance between France, the United Kingdom and Soviet Union stalled, the Soviet Union signed a non-aggression pact with Germany. The Treaty of Non-Aggression between Germany and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was a non-aggression pact between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union that enabled those two powers to divide-up Poland between them.


  • Germany
    Wednesday Aug 23, 1939

    World War II

    Delayed attack

    Germany
    Wednesday Aug 23, 1939

    Hitler ordered the attack to proceed on 26 August, but upon hearing that the United Kingdom had concluded a formal mutual assistance pact with Poland, and that Italy would maintain neutrality, he decided to delay it.


  • England, United Kingdom
    Friday Aug 25, 1939

    Adolf Hitler

    Anglo-Polish alliance

    England, United Kingdom
    Friday Aug 25, 1939

    Contrary to predictions that Britain would sever Anglo-Polish ties, Britain and Poland signed the Anglo-Polish alliance on 25 August 1939.


  • Berlin, Germany
    Wednesday Aug 30, 1939

    World War II

    Hitler demanded that a Polish plenipotentiary immediately travel to Berlin

    Berlin, Germany
    Wednesday Aug 30, 1939

    On 29 August, Hitler demanded that a Polish plenipotentiary immediately travel to Berlin to negotiate the handover of Danzig, and to allow a plebiscite in the Polish Corridor in which the German minority would vote on secession.


  • Berlin, Germany
    Thursday Aug 31, 1939

    World War II

    Stormy meeting

    Berlin, Germany
    Thursday Aug 31, 1939

    The Poles refused to comply with the German demands, and on the night of 30–31 August in a stormy meeting with the British ambassador Neville Henderson, Ribbentrop declared that Germany considered its claims rejected.


  • Western Poland
    Friday Sep 1, 1939

    Adolf Hitler

    WWII Begun

    Western Poland
    Friday Sep 1, 1939

    On 1 September 1939, Germany invaded western Poland under the pretext of having been denied claims to the Free City of Danzig and the right to extraterritorial roads across the Polish Corridor, which Germany had ceded under the Versailles Treaty.


  • Europe & Middle East
    Friday Sep 1, 1939

    John F. Kennedy

    Europe tour

    Europe & Middle East
    Friday Sep 1, 1939

    In 1939 Kennedy toured Europe, the Soviet Union, the Balkans, and the Middle East in preparation for his Harvard senior honors thesis. He then went to Czechoslovakia and Germany before returning to London on September 1, 1939, the day that Germany invaded Polandto mark the beginning of World War II.


  • Poland
    Friday Sep 1, 1939

    Joseph Stalin

    WWII Began

    Poland
    Friday Sep 1, 1939

    Germany invaded Poland on 1 September 1939 starting World War II.


  • Poland
    Friday Sep 1, 1939

    World War II

    World War II Begins

    Poland
    Friday Sep 1, 1939

    On 1 September 1939, Germany invaded Poland after having staged several false flag border incidents as a pretext to initiate the attack.


  • Poland (and then Europe)
    Friday Sep 1, 1939

    United Nations

    World War II was broke up

    Poland (and then Europe)
    Friday Sep 1, 1939

    World War II was broke up.


  • Westerplatte, Poland
    Saturday Sep 2, 1939

    World War II

    First battle of the war

    Westerplatte, Poland
    Saturday Sep 2, 1939

    The Battle of Westerplatte is often described as the first battle of the war. Beginning from 1 August till 7 August.


  • United Kingdom and France
    Sunday Sep 3, 1939

    Adolf Hitler

    Britain and France declared war on Germany

    United Kingdom and France
    Sunday Sep 3, 1939

    In response, Britain and France declared war on Germany on 3 September.


  • France and United Kingdom
    Monday Sep 4, 1939

    World War II

    France and Britain declared war on Germany

    France and United Kingdom
    Monday Sep 4, 1939

    The United Kingdom responded with an ultimatum to Germany to cease military operations, and on 3 September, after the ultimatum was ignored, France and Britain, along with their empires, declared war on Germany. The alliance provided no direct military support to Poland, outside of a cautious French probe into the Saarland.


  • Bletchley, Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire, England, United Kingdom
    Monday Sep 4, 1939

    Alan Turing

    Turing Reported To Bletchley Park

    Bletchley, Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire, England, United Kingdom
    Monday Sep 4, 1939

    On 4 September 1939, the day after the UK declared war on Germany, Turing reported to Bletchley Park, the wartime station of GC&CS.


  • Bletchley Park, England
    Monday Sep 4, 1939

    The Imitation game: Alan Turing

    Turing report to Bletchley Park

    Bletchley Park, England
    Monday Sep 4, 1939

    On 4 September 1939, the day after the UK declared war on Germany, Turing reported to Bletchley Park, the wartime station of GC&CS. Specifying the bombe was the first of five major cryptanalytical advances that Turing made during the war. The others were: deducing the indicator procedure used by the German navy; developing a statistical procedure for making much more efficient use of the bombes dubbed Banburismus; developing a procedure for working out the cam settings of the wheels of the Lorenz (Tunny) dubbed Turingery and, towards the end of the war, the development of a portable secure voice scrambler at Hanslope Park that was codenamed, Delilah.


  • Warsaw, Poland
    Friday Sep 8, 1939

    World War II

    German troops reached the suburbs of Warsaw

    Warsaw, Poland
    Friday Sep 8, 1939

    On 8 September, German troops reached the suburbs of Warsaw. Sight of Warsaw lasted from 8 to 28 September, Germany occupied Warsaw until 1945.


  • Kutno, Łódź Voivodeship, Poland
    Saturday Sep 9, 1939

    World War II

    Battle of the Bzura

    Kutno, Łódź Voivodeship, Poland
    Saturday Sep 9, 1939

    The Polish counter offensive to the west halted the German advance for several days, but it was outflanked and encircled by the Wehrmacht. The Battle of the Bzura fought between 9 and 19 September 1939, It began as a Polish counter-offensive, but ended with German victory, German forces took all of western Poland.


  • Eastern Poland
    Sunday Sep 17, 1939

    Adolf Hitler

    Soviets invaded eastern Poland

    Eastern Poland
    Sunday Sep 17, 1939

    On 17 September, Soviet forces invaded eastern Poland.


  • Poland
    Sunday Sep 17, 1939

    World War II

    Soviets invaded Poland

    Poland
    Sunday Sep 17, 1939

    Soviets invaded Poland from the east. The military operations lasted from 17 September to 6 October. Parting Poland to two divisions, division is ruled by Nazi Germany and the other by the Soviets.


  • Changsha, China
    Sunday Sep 17, 1939

    World War II

    First Battle of Changsha

    Changsha, China
    Sunday Sep 17, 1939

    Japan launched its first attack against Changsha, a strategically important Chinese city, but was repulsed by late September.


  • Washington D.C., U.S.
    Thursday Sep 21, 1939

    World War II

    Cash and Carry

    Washington D.C., U.S.
    Thursday Sep 21, 1939

    In November 1939, the United States was taking measures to assist China and the Western Allies, and amended the Neutrality Act to allow "cash and carry" purchases by the Allies. Cash and carry was a policy by US President Franklin Delano Roosevelt announced at a joint session of the United States Congress on September 21, 1939, subsequent to the outbreak of war in Europe. It replaced the Neutrality Acts of 1937, by which belligerents could purchase only nonmilitary goods from the United States as long as the recipients paid immediately in cash and assumed all risk in transportation using their own ships.


  • Kock, Poland
    Monday Oct 2, 1939

    World War II

    Battle of Kock

    Kock, Poland
    Monday Oct 2, 1939

    The Battle of Kock was the final battle in the invasion of Poland by the German at the beginning of World War II in Europe. It took place between 2–5 October 1939, near the town of Kock, in Poland.


  • Germany
    Friday Oct 6, 1939

    World War II

    Public peace overture

    Germany
    Friday Oct 6, 1939

    On 6 October, Hitler made a public peace overture to the United Kingdom and France but said that the future of Poland was to be determined exclusively by Germany and the Soviet Union. The proposal was rejected, and Hitler ordered an immediate offensive against France, which would be postponed until the spring of 1940 due to bad weather.


  • U.S.
    Tuesday Oct 31, 1939

    Thanksgiving

    Last Thursday in November

    U.S.
    Tuesday Oct 31, 1939

    On October 31, 1939, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed a presidential proclamation changing the holiday to the next to last Thursday in November, for business reasons.


  • Kraków, Poland
    Monday Nov 13, 1939

    Oskar Schindler (Schindler's List)

    German Enamelware Factory DEF

    Kraków, Poland
    Monday Nov 13, 1939

    With the financial backing of several Jewish investors, including one of the owners, Abraham Bankier, Schindler signed an informal lease agreement on the factory on 13 November 1939 and formalized the arrangement on 15 January 1940. He renamed it Deutsche Emailwarenfabrik (German Enamelware Factory) or DEF, and it soon became known by the nickname "Emalia". He initially acquired a staff of seven Jewish workers (including Abraham Bankier, who helped him manage the company) and 250 non-Jewish Poles.


  • Poland
    Saturday Nov 18, 1939

    Itzak Stern

    Oskar Schindler was first introduced to Stern

    Poland
    Saturday Nov 18, 1939

    On 18 November 1939, during the early months of the Nazi occupation of Poland, Oskar Schindler was first introduced to Stern, who was then working as an accountant for Schindler's fellow Abwehr agent Josef "Sepp" Aue, who had taken over Stern's formerly Jewish-owned place of employment as a Treuhander (trustee). Schindler showed Stern the balance sheet of a company he was thinking of acquiring, an enamelware manufacturer called Rekord Ltd owned by a consortium of Jewish businessmen (including Abraham Bankier) that had filed for bankruptcy earlier that year. Stern advised him that rather than running the company as a trusteeship under the auspices of the Haupttreuhandstelle Ost (Main Trustee Office for the East), he should buy or lease the business directly, as that would give him more freedom from the dictates of the Nazis, including the freedom to hire more Jews.


  • Finland (Eastern Finland)
    Thursday Nov 30, 1939

    World War II

    Winter War

    Finland (Eastern Finland)
    Thursday Nov 30, 1939

    Finland refused to sign a similar pact and rejected ceding part of its territory to the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union invaded Finland in 30 November 1939, and the war ended 13 March 1940.


  • Geneva, Switzerland
    Thursday Dec 14, 1939

    World War II

    Soviet Union was expelled from the League of Nations

    Geneva, Switzerland
    Thursday Dec 14, 1939

    Soviet Union was expelled from the League of Nations.


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