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  • U.S.
    Thursday Jan 1, 1942

    Atlantic Charter

    Declaration by United Nations

    U.S.
    Thursday Jan 1, 1942

    On 1 January 1942, a larger group of nations, who adhered to the principles of the Atlantic Charter, issued a joint Declaration by United Nations stressing their solidarity in the defense against Hitlerism.




  • U.S.
    Thursday Jan 1, 1942

    World War II

    Declaration by United Nations

    U.S.
    Thursday Jan 1, 1942

    On 1 January 1942, the Allied Big Four (the Soviet Union, China, the United Kingdom and the United States) and 22 smaller or exiled governments issued the Declaration by United Nations.




  • U.S.
    Thursday Jan 1, 1942

    United Nations

    United Nations Declaration

    U.S.
    Thursday Jan 1, 1942

    "On New Year's Day 1942, President Roosevelt, Prime Minister Churchill, Maxim Litvinov, of the USSR, and T. V. Soong, of China, signed a short document which later came to be known as the United Nations Declaration, and the next day the representatives of twenty-two other nations added their signatures". A JOINT DECLARATION BY THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND, THE UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS, CHINA, AUSTRALIA, BELGIUM, CANADA, COSTA RICA, CUBA, CZECHOSLOVAKIA, DOMINICAN REPUBLIC, EL SALVADOR, GREECE, GUATEMALA, HAITI, HONDURAS, INDIA, LUXEMBOURG, NETHERLANDS, NEW ZEALAND, NICARAGUA, NORWAY, PANAMA, POLAND, SOUTH AFRICA, YUGOSLAVIA The Governments signatory hereto, Having subscribed to a common program of purposes and principles embodied in the Joint Declaration of the President of the United States of America and the Prime Minister of Great Britain dated August 14, 1941, known as the Atlantic Charter, Being convinced that complete victory over their enemies is essential to defend life, liberty, independence and religious freedom, and to preserve human rights and justice in their own lands as well as in other lands and that they are now engaged in a common struggle against savage and brutal forces seeking to subjugate the world, DECLARE: Each Government pledges itself to employ its full resources, military or economic, against those members of the Tripartite Pact and its adherents with which such government is at war. Each Government pledges itself to cooperate with the Governments signatory hereto and not to make a separate armistice or peace with the enemies. The foregoing declaration may be adhered to by other nations which are, or which may be, rendering material assistance and contributions in the struggle for victory over Hitlerism. The Washington Conference 1941–1942




  • Moscow, U.S.S.R.
    Wednesday Jan 7, 1942

    World War II

    100-250 km from Moscow

    Moscow, U.S.S.R.
    Wednesday Jan 7, 1942

    The offensive halted on 7 January 1942, after having the German armies pushed back 100–250 km (62–155 mi) from Moscow.




  • Oxford, England
    Thursday Jan 8, 1942

    Stephen Hawking

    Birth

    Oxford, England
    Thursday Jan 8, 1942

    Hawking was born on 8 January 1942 in Oxford.




  • Fort Benton, Montana, U.S.
    Monday Jan 12, 1942

    Shep (American dog)

    Shep was run over by a train

    Fort Benton, Montana, U.S.
    Monday Jan 12, 1942

    Shep kept this daily vigil for almost six years until he was run over by a train on January 12, 1942. It is believed that his front paws were on one of the rails and he simply did not hear the train until it was too late, and he slipped off the rail. The train's engineer could not stop the train in time.




  • Tokyo, Japan
    Tuesday Jan 13, 1942

    Hirohito

    The Emperor pressed Sugiyama four times to launch an Attack on Bataan

    Tokyo, Japan
    Tuesday Jan 13, 1942

    The Emperor made major interventions in some military operations. For example, he pressed Sugiyama four times, on January 13 and 21 and February 9 and 26, to increase troop strength and launch an attack on Bataan.


  • Louisville, Kentucky, U.S.
    Saturday Jan 17, 1942

    Muhammad Ali Clay

    Birth

    Louisville, Kentucky, U.S.
    Saturday Jan 17, 1942

    Cassius Marcellus Clay Jr. was born on January 17, 1942, in Louisville, Kentucky.


  • U.S.
    Monday Jan 19, 1942

    Frank Sinatra

    Dorsey Eventually relented

    U.S.
    Monday Jan 19, 1942

    As Sinatra's success and popularity grew, Sinatra pushed Dorsey to allow him to record some solo songs. Dorsey eventually relented, and on January 19, 1942, Sinatra recorded "Night and Day", "The Night We Called It a Day", "The Song is You", and "Lamplighter's Serenade" at a Bluebird recording session, with Axel Stordahl as arranger and conductor.


  • Germany
    Tuesday Jan 20, 1942

    Adolf Hitler

    The records of the Wannsee Conference

    Germany
    Tuesday Jan 20, 1942

    By January 1942, he had decided that the Jews, Slavs, and other deportees considered undesirable should be killed. The genocide was organised and executed by Heinrich Himmler and Reinhard Heydrich. The records of the Wannsee Conference, held on 20 January 1942 and led by Heydrich, with fifteen senior Nazi officials participating, provide the clearest evidence of systematic planning for the Holocaust.


  • West White Beach, Christmas Island
    Tuesday Jan 20, 1942

    Christmas Island

    The First Attack by The Japanese on The Island

    West White Beach, Christmas Island
    Tuesday Jan 20, 1942

    From the outbreak of the South-East Asian theatre of World War II, Christmas Island was a target for Japanese occupation because of its rich phosphate deposits. The first attack was carried out on 20 January 1942, by Japanese submarine I-59, which torpedoed a Norwegian freighter, the Eidsvold. The vessel drifted and eventually sank off West White Beach. Most of the European and Asian staff and their families were evacuated to Perth.


  • Rabaul, New Britain
    Friday Jan 23, 1942

    World War II

    Battle of Rabaul

    Rabaul, New Britain
    Friday Jan 23, 1942

    The Battle of Rabaul, also known by the Japanese as Operation R, was fought on the island of New Britain in the Australian Territory of New Guinea, on 23 January and February 1942. It was a strategically significant defeat of Allied forces by Japan.


  • Singapore
    Sunday Feb 8, 1942

    World War II

    Battle of Singapore

    Singapore
    Sunday Feb 8, 1942

    The fighting in Singapore lasted from 8 to 15 February 1942, after the two months during which Japanese forces had advanced down the Malayan Peninsula.


  • Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia
    Thursday Feb 19, 1942

    World War II

    The Bombing of Darwin

    Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia
    Thursday Feb 19, 1942

    The Bombing of Darwin, on 19 February 1942 was the largest single attack ever mounted by a foreign power on Australia. On that day, 242 Japanese aircraft, in two separate raids, attacked the town, ships in Darwin's harbor.


  • Java Sea
    Friday Feb 27, 1942

    World War II

    Battle of the Java Sea

    Java Sea
    Friday Feb 27, 1942

    Allied navies suffered a disastrous defeat at the hand of the Imperial Japanese Navy, on 27 February 1942, in the battle of the Java Sea.


  • Yugoslavia
    Sunday Mar 1, 1942

    Josip Broz Tito

    The Second Proletarian Brigade

    Yugoslavia
    Sunday Mar 1, 1942

    On 1 March 1942, Tito created the Second Proletarian Brigade.


  • Christmas Island
    Saturday Mar 7, 1942

    Christmas Island

    A Japanese Naval Group Shelled The Island

    Christmas Island
    Saturday Mar 7, 1942

    In late February and early March 1942, there were two aerial bombing raids. Shelling from a Japanese naval group on 7 March led the district officer to hoist the white flag. But after the Japanese naval group sailed away, the British officer raised the Union Flag once more.


  • Christmas Island
    Tuesday Mar 10, 1942

    Christmas Island

    The Mutiny of The Indian Troops

    Christmas Island
    Tuesday Mar 10, 1942

    During the night of 10–11 March, a mutiny of the Indian troops, abetted by Sikh policemen, led to the killing of the five British soldiers and the imprisonment of the remaining 21 Europeans.


  • U.S.
    Saturday Mar 14, 1942

    Penicillin

    The first patient was treated for streptococcal sepsis with US-made penicillin produced by Merck & Co.

    U.S.
    Saturday Mar 14, 1942

    The challenge of mass-producing this drug was daunting. On March 14, 1942, the first patient was treated for streptococcal sepsis with US-made penicillin produced by Merck & Co.


  • Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India
    Wednesday Mar 25, 1942

    Indira Gandhi

    Marriage

    Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India
    Wednesday Mar 25, 1942

    During her stay in Great Britain, Indira frequently met her future husband Feroze Gandhi (no relation to Mahatma Gandhi), whom she knew from Allahabad, and who was studying at the London School of Economics. The marriage took place in Allahabad according to Adi Dharm rituals though Feroze belonged to a Zoroastrian Parsi family of Gujarat.


  • Christmas Island
    Tuesday Mar 31, 1942

    Christmas Island

    The Island Surrendered To The Japanese Fleet

    Christmas Island
    Tuesday Mar 31, 1942

    At dawn on 31 March 1942, a dozen Japanese bombers launched the attack, destroying the radio station. The same day, a Japanese fleet of nine vessels arrived, and the island was surrendered.


  • Indian Ocean and Ceylon
    Tuesday Mar 31, 1942

    World War II

    Indian Ocean raid

    Indian Ocean and Ceylon
    Tuesday Mar 31, 1942

    The Indian Ocean raid was a naval sortie carried out by the Imperial Japanese Navy from 31 March to 10 April 1942. Japanese aircraft carriers under Admiral Chūichi Nagumo struck Allied shipping and naval bases around Ceylon, but failed to locate and destroy the bulk of the British Eastern Fleet.


  • Virginia, U.S.
    Wednesday Apr 1, 1942

    Desmond Doss: Hacksaw Ridge

    World War II service

    Virginia, U.S.
    Wednesday Apr 1, 1942

    Before the outbreak of World War II, Doss was employed as a joiner at a shipyard in Newport News, Virginia. He chose military service, despite being offered a deferment because of his shipyard work, on April 1, 1942, at Camp Lee, Virginia. He was sent to Fort Jackson in South Carolina for training with the reactivated 77th Infantry Division. Meanwhile, his brother Harold served aboard the USS Lindsey.


  • Yenangyaung, Burma
    Saturday Apr 11, 1942

    World War II

    Battle of Yenangyaung

    Yenangyaung, Burma
    Saturday Apr 11, 1942

    The Battle of Yenangyaung was fought in Burma, which took place between 11 and 19 April 1942. The battle of Yenaungyaung was fought in the vicinity of Yenangyaung and its oil fields.


  • Yenangyaung, Burma
    Wednesday Apr 15, 1942

    Second Sino-Japanese War

    The Battle of Yenangyaung

    Yenangyaung, Burma
    Wednesday Apr 15, 1942

    In Burma, on April 16, 1942, 7,000 British soldiers were encircled by the Japanese 33rd Division during the Battle of Yenangyaung and rescued by the Chinese 38th Division.


  • U.S.
    Saturday Apr 18, 1942

    Ronald Reagan

    National Duty

    U.S.
    Saturday Apr 18, 1942

    On April 18, 1942, Reagan was ordered to active duty for the first time. Due to his poor eyesight, he was classified for limited service only, which excluded him from serving overseas.


  • Greater Tokyo Area, Japan
    Saturday Apr 18, 1942

    World War II

    Doolittle Raid

    Greater Tokyo Area, Japan
    Saturday Apr 18, 1942

    The Doolittle Raid, also known as the Tokyo Raid, was an air raid on 18 April 1942 by the United States on the Japanese capital Tokyo and other places on Honshu. It was the first air operation to strike the Japanese archipelago. It demonstrated that the Japanese mainland was vulnerable to American air attack, served as retaliation for the attack on Pearl Harbor. The raid caused negligible material damage to Japan, but it had major psychological effects. In the United States, it raised morale. In Japan, it raised doubt about the ability of military leaders to defend the home islands, but the bombing and strafing of civilians also steeled Japanese resolve to gain retribution, and this was exploited for propaganda purposes.


  • Tulagi Island, Solomon Islands
    Friday Apr 24, 1942

    John F. Kennedy

    PT-109

    Tulagi Island, Solomon Islands
    Friday Apr 24, 1942

    On April 24, he took command of PT-109, which was based at the time on Tulagi Island in the Solomons.


  • Coral Sea
    Tuesday May 5, 1942

    World War II

    Battle of the Coral Sea

    Coral Sea
    Tuesday May 5, 1942

    In early May 1942, Japan initiated operations to capture Port Moresby by amphibious assault and thus sever communications and supply lines between the United States and Australia. The planned invasion was thwarted when an Allied task force, centered on two American fleet carriers, fought Japanese naval forces to a draw in the Battle of the Coral Sea.


  • Madagascar
    Tuesday May 5, 1942

    World War II

    Battle of Madagascar

    Madagascar
    Tuesday May 5, 1942

    Concerns the Japanese might use bases in Vichy-held Madagascar caused the British to invade the island (5 May – 6 November 1942).


  • Izium and Barvinkove, Kharkov Oblast, U.S.S.R.
    Tuesday May 12, 1942

    World War II

    Operation Fredericus

    Izium and Barvinkove, Kharkov Oblast, U.S.S.R.
    Tuesday May 12, 1942

    The Second Battle of Kharkov or Operation Fredericus was a successful Axis counter-offensive in the region around Kharkov. Operation Fredericus took place from 12 to 28 May 1942. The battle was an overwhelming German victory.


  • Zhejiang, China - Jiangxi, China
    Friday May 15, 1942

    Second Sino-Japanese War

    The Zhejiang-Jiangxi campaign

    Zhejiang, China - Jiangxi, China
    Friday May 15, 1942

    After the Doolittle Raid, the Imperial Japanese Army conducted a massive sweep through Zhejiang and Jiangxi of China, now known as the Zhejiang-Jiangxi Campaign, with the goal of finding the surviving American airmen, applying retribution on the Chinese who aided them and destroying air bases. The operation started May 15, 1942, with 40 infantry battalions and 15–16 artillery battalions but was repelled by Chinese forces in September.


  • Zhejiang, Jiangxi, China
    Friday May 15, 1942

    World War II

    Zhejiang-Jiangxi Campaign

    Zhejiang, Jiangxi, China
    Friday May 15, 1942

    In mid-May, Japan started the Zhejiang-Jiangxi Campaign, which lasted from 15 May to 4 September in China, with the goal of inflicting retribution on the Chinese who aided the surviving American airmen in the Doolittle Raid.


  • Gazala, near Tobruk, Libya
    Tuesday May 26, 1942

    World War II

    Battle of Gazala

    Gazala, near Tobruk, Libya
    Tuesday May 26, 1942

    The Battle of Gazala was fought during the Western Desert Campaign, west of the port of Tobruk in Libya, from 26 May to 21 June 1942. As both sides neared exhaustion, the Eighth Army checked the Axis advance at the First Battle of El Alamein. To support the Axis advance into Egypt, the planned attack on Malta (Operation Herkules) was postponed. The British were able to revive Malta as a base for attacks on Axis convoys to Libya, greatly complicating Axis supply difficulties at El Alamein.


  • Midway Atoll, U.S.
    Thursday Jun 4, 1942

    World War II

    Battle of Midway

    Midway Atoll, U.S.
    Thursday Jun 4, 1942

    In June, Japan put its operations into action, but the Americans, having broken Imperial Japanese Navy in the battle of Midway, which took place between 4 to 7 June 1942.


  • Midway Atoll
    Thursday Jun 4, 1942

    Hirohito

    The Battle of Midway

    Midway Atoll
    Thursday Jun 4, 1942

    In the first six months of war, all the major engagements had been victories. Japanese advances were stopped in the summer of 1942 with the battle of Midway and the landing of the American forces on Guadalcanal and Tulagi in August.


  • U.S.
    Monday Jun 15, 1942

    Richard Nixon

    Lieutenant Junior Grade In The U.S Naval Reserve

    U.S.
    Monday Jun 15, 1942

    He applied to join the United States Navy. As a birthright Quaker, he could have claimed exemption from the draft; he might also have been deferred because he worked in government service. But instead of exploiting his circumstance, Nixon sought a commission in the navy. His application was successful, and he was appointed a lieutenant junior grade in the U.S Naval Reserve (U.S. Navy Reserve) on June 15, 1942.


  • Los Angeles, California, U.S.
    Friday Jun 19, 1942

    Marilyn Monroe

    1st Marriage

    Los Angeles, California, U.S.
    Friday Jun 19, 1942

    In early 1942, the company that employed Doc Goddard (a friend of her mother's husband, Grace McKee Goddard) relocated him to West Virginia.California child protection laws prevented the Goddards from taking Monroe out of state, and she faced the possibility of having to return to the orphanage.As a solution, she married their neighbors' 21-year-old son, a factory worker James "Jim" Dougherty; the wedding took place on June 19, 1942, just after her 16th birthday.


  • Voronezh and Rostov to Stalingrad, Kuban, Caucasus, U.S.S.R.
    Sunday Jun 28, 1942

    World War II

    Case Blue

    Voronezh and Rostov to Stalingrad, Kuban, Caucasus, U.S.S.R.
    Sunday Jun 28, 1942

    The Germans launched their main summer offensive against southern Russia in June 1942, to seize the oil fields of the Caucasus and occupy Kuban steppe, while maintaining positions on the northern and central areas of the front. The Germans split Army Group South into two groups: Army Group A advanced to the lower Don River and struck south-east to the Caucasus, while Army Group B headed towards the Volga River. The Soviets decided to make their stand at Stalingrad on the Volga.


  • El Alamein, Egypt
    Wednesday Jul 1, 1942

    World War II

    First Battle of El Alamein

    El Alamein, Egypt
    Wednesday Jul 1, 1942

    The Axis offensive in Libya (Battle of Gazala) forced an Allied retreat deep inside Egypt until Axis forces were stopped at El Alamein (First Battle of El Alamein), which lasted from 1 to 27 July 1942. The British prevented a second advance by the Axis forces into Egypt. Axis positions near El Alamein, only 66 mi (106 km) from Alexandria, were dangerously close to the ports and cities of Egypt, the base facilities of the Commonwealth forces and the Suez Canal.


  • England
    Tuesday Jul 7, 1942

    John Maynard Keynes

    Baron Keynes, of Tilton, in the County of Sussex

    England
    Tuesday Jul 7, 1942

    On 7 July his title was gazetted as "Baron Keynes, of Tilton, in the County of Sussex" and he took his seat in the House of Lords on the Liberal Party benches.


  • U.S.
    Sunday Jul 12, 1942

    John F. Kennedy

    First Command

    U.S.
    Sunday Jul 12, 1942

    His first command was PT-101 from December 7, 1942, until February 23, 1943


  • Mediterranean Sea near Malta
    Monday Aug 3, 1942

    World War II

    Operation Pedestal

    Mediterranean Sea near Malta
    Monday Aug 3, 1942

    Operation Pedestal (3 to 15 August), was a British operation to carry supplies to the island of Malta in August 1942.


  • Guadalcanal, British Solomon Islands
    Friday Aug 7, 1942

    World War II

    Operation Watchtower

    Guadalcanal, British Solomon Islands
    Friday Aug 7, 1942

    The Guadalcanal campaign also known as Operation Watchtower, was a military campaign fought between 7 August 1942 and 9 February 1943 on and around the island of Guadalcanal. It was the first major land offensive by Allied forces against the Empire of Japan. The Guadalcanal campaign was a significant strategic Allied combined-arms victory in the Pacific theater.


  • Mumbai, India
    Saturday Aug 8, 1942

    Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi

    The Quit India speech

    Mumbai, India
    Saturday Aug 8, 1942

    Gandhi opposition to the Indian participation in World War II was motivated by his belief that India could not be a party to a war ostensibly being fought for democratic freedom while that freedom was denied to India itself. He also condemned Nazism and Fascism, a view which won the endorsement of other Indian leaders. As the war progressed, Gandhi intensified his demand for independence, calling for the British to Quit India in a 1942 speech in Mumbai. This was Gandhi's and the Congress Party's most definitive revolt aimed at securing the British exit from India. The British government responded quickly to the Quit India speech, and within hours after Gandhi's speech arrested Gandhi and all the members of the Congress Working Committee. His countrymen retaliated the arrests by damaging or burning down hundreds of government-owned railway stations, police stations, and cutting down telegraph wires.


  • Virginia, U.S.
    Monday Aug 17, 1942

    Desmond Doss: Hacksaw Ridge

    Marriage

    Virginia, U.S.
    Monday Aug 17, 1942

    Doss married Dorothy Pauline Schutte on August 17, 1942, and they had one child, Desmond "Tommy" Doss Jr., born in 1946. Dorothy died on November 17, 1991, from a car accident. Doss remarried on July 1, 1993, to Frances May Duman.


  • U.S.
    Monday Aug 17, 1942

    Desmond Doss

    1st Marriage

    U.S.
    Monday Aug 17, 1942

    Doss married Dorothy Pauline Schutte on August 17, 1942.


  • Dieppe, France
    Wednesday Aug 19, 1942

    World War II

    Dieppe Raid

    Dieppe, France
    Wednesday Aug 19, 1942

    Operation Jubilee, more commonly referred to as the Dieppe Raid, was an Allied assault on the German-occupied port of Dieppe, France, on 19 August 1942. The main assault lasted less than six hours until strong German defenses and mounting Allied losses forced its commanders to call a retreat.


  • Stalingrad, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union (Then Volgograd, Russia)
    Sunday Aug 23, 1942

    Adolf Hitler

    Battle of Stalingrad

    Stalingrad, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union (Then Volgograd, Russia)
    Sunday Aug 23, 1942

    Hitler's repeated refusal to allow their withdrawal at the Battle of Stalingrad led to the almost total destruction of the 6th Army. Over 200,000 Axis soldiers were killed and 235,000 were taken prisoner. Begun 23 Aug. 1942


  • Stalingrad, U.S.S.R. (Present Day Volgograd, Russia)
    Sunday Aug 23, 1942

    World War II

    Battle of Stalingrad

    Stalingrad, U.S.S.R. (Present Day Volgograd, Russia)
    Sunday Aug 23, 1942

    In the Battle of Stalingrad Germany and Axis forces fought the Soviet Union for control of the city of Stalingrad (now Volgograd) in Southern Russia, the battle took place from 23 August 1942 to 2 February 1943, it is one of the bloodiest battles in the history of warfare. Resulting complete destruction of the German 6th Army. After their defeat at Stalingrad, the German High Command had to withdraw considerable military forces from the Western Front to replace their losses.


  • Hong Kong, China
    Saturday Aug 29, 1942

    Hong Kong independence

    First Opium War

    Hong Kong, China
    Saturday Aug 29, 1942

    Hong Kong Island was first ceded as a crown colony to the United Kingdom from the Qing Empire in 1842 during the First Opium War.


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