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  • U.S.
    Friday Jan 7, 1955

    Marilyn Monroe

    Marilyn Monroe Productions Announcement

    U.S.
    Friday Jan 7, 1955

    Monroe began a new battle for control over her career and left Hollywood for the East Coast, where she and photographer Milton Greene founded their own production company, Marilyn Monroe Productions (MMP) – an action that has later been called "instrumental" in the collapse of the studio system. Announcing its foundation in a press conference in January 1955, Monroe stated that she was "tired of the same old sex roles. I want to do better things




  • Los Angeles, California, U.S.
    Thursday Feb 24, 1955

    Audrey Hepburn

    Hepburn received the Golden Globe for World Film Favorite that year

    Los Angeles, California, U.S.
    Thursday Feb 24, 1955

    Although she appeared in no new film releases in 1955, Hepburn received the Golden Globe for World Film Favorite that year.




  • Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.
    Tuesday Mar 1, 1955

    Neil Armstrong

    Armstrong made his First Test Flight

    Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.
    Tuesday Mar 1, 1955

    Following his graduation from Purdue, Armstrong became an experimental research test pilot. He applied at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) High-Speed Flight Station at Edwards Air Force Base. NACA had no open positions, and forwarded his application to the Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory in Cleveland, where Armstrong made his first test flight on March 1, 1955.




  • southern United States, Dixie, Dixieland, U.S.
    Wednesday Mar 2, 1955

    Martin Luther King

    Claudette Colvin

    southern United States, Dixie, Dixieland, U.S.
    Wednesday Mar 2, 1955

    March 1955, Claudette Colvin—a fifteen-year-old black schoolgirl in Montgomery—refused to give up her bus seat to a white man in violation of Jim Crow laws, local laws in the Southern United States that enforced racial segregation. King was on the committee from the Birmingham African-American community that looked into the case; E. D. Nixon and Clifford Durr decided to wait for a better case to pursue because the incident involved a minor.




  • Washington D.C., U.S.
    Friday Mar 11, 1955

    World Bank

    Economic Development Institute

    Washington D.C., U.S.
    Friday Mar 11, 1955

    The World Bank Institute (WBI) was a "global connector of knowledge, learning and innovation for poverty reduction". It aimed to inspire change agents and prepare them with essential tools that can help achieve development results. WBI had four major strategies to approach development problems: innovation for development, knowledge exchange, leadership and coalition building, and structured learning. World Bank Institute (WBI) was formerly known as Economic Development Institute (EDI), established on 11 March 1955 with the support of the Rockefeller and Ford Foundations.




  • Glicério, São Paulo, Brazil
    Monday Mar 21, 1955

    Jair Bolsonaro

    Birth

    Glicério, São Paulo, Brazil
    Monday Mar 21, 1955

    Bolsonaro was born on 21 March 1955 in the town of Glicério, in São Paulo.




  • United Kingdom
    Tuesday Apr 5, 1955

    James Bond

    Moonraker was published

    United Kingdom
    Tuesday Apr 5, 1955

    Moonraker novel was published. Moonraker is the third novel by the British author Ian Fleming to feature his fictional British Secret Service agent James Bond. It was published by Jonathan Cape on 5 April 1955 and featured a cover design conceived by Fleming.


  • New Jersey, United States
    Monday Apr 18, 1955

    Albert Einstein

    Death

    New Jersey, United States
    Monday Apr 18, 1955

    Einstein died in Princeton Hospital early the next morning at the age of 76, having continued to work until near the end.


  • Bandung, Indonesia
    Monday Apr 18, 1955

    W. E. B. Du Bois

    U.S. government prevented Du Bois from attending the 1955 Bandung Conference

    Bandung, Indonesia
    Monday Apr 18, 1955

    The U.S. government prevented Du Bois from attending the 1955 Bandung Conference in Indonesia.


  • Warsaw, Poland
    Saturday May 14, 1955

    NATO Establishment

    The Creation of The Soviet-dominated Warsaw Pact

    Warsaw, Poland
    Saturday May 14, 1955

    The joining of West Germany to the NATO was in turn a major factor in the creation of the Soviet-dominated Warsaw Pact, delineating the two opposing sides of the Cold War.


  • Warsaw, Poland
    Saturday May 14, 1955

    Hungarian Revolution of 1956

    The Warsaw Pact

    Warsaw, Poland
    Saturday May 14, 1955

    On 14 May 1955, the Soviet Union created the Warsaw Pact, binding Hungary to the Soviet Union and its satellite states in Central and Eastern Europe. Among the principles of this alliance were "respect for the independence and sovereignty of states" and "non-interference in their internal affairs".


  • Isla de la Juventud, Cuba
    Sunday May 15, 1955

    Fidel Castro

    Castro's Release

    Isla de la Juventud, Cuba
    Sunday May 15, 1955

    In 1954, Batista's government held presidential elections, but no politician standing against him; the election was widely considered fraudulent. It had allowed some political opposition to be voiced, and Castro's supporters had agitated for an amnesty for the Moncada incident's perpetrators. Some politicians suggested an amnesty would be good publicity, and the Congress and Batista agreed. Backed by the US and major corporations, Batista believed Castro to be no threat, and on 15 May 1955, the prisoners were released.


  • Cuba
    Sunday Jun 12, 1955

    Bay of Pigs Invasion

    26th of July Movement

    Cuba
    Sunday Jun 12, 1955

    The best known of these anti-Batista groups was the "26th of July Movement" (MR-26-7), founded by a lawyer named Fidel Castro. With Castro as the MR-26-7's head, the organization was based upon a clandestine cell system, with each cell containing ten members, none of whom knew the whereabouts or activities of the other cells.


  • Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.
    Sunday Jun 19, 1955

    Martin Luther King

    Doctoral Studies

    Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.
    Sunday Jun 19, 1955

    King began doctoral studies in systematic theology at Boston University and received his Ph.D. degree on June 5, 1955


  • London, England
    Saturday Jul 9, 1955

    Atomic Bomb

    The Russell–Einstein Manifesto

    London, England
    Saturday Jul 9, 1955

    The Russell–Einstein Manifesto was issued in London on July 9, 1955, by Bertrand Russell in the midst of the Cold War. It highlighted the dangers posed by nuclear weapons and called for world leaders to seek peaceful resolutions to international conflict.


  • Edwards Air Force Base, California, U.S.
    Monday Jul 11, 1955

    Neil Armstrong

    Neil reported for work at High-Speed Flight Station

    Edwards Air Force Base, California, U.S.
    Monday Jul 11, 1955

    Armstrong's stint at Cleveland lasted only a couple of months before a position at the High-Speed Flight Station became available, and he reported for work there on July 11, 1955.


  • Disneyland Resort, 1313 Disneyland Dr, Anaheim, California, U.S.
    Sunday Jul 17, 1955

    Walt Disney

    The Opening of Disneyland

    Disneyland Resort, 1313 Disneyland Dr, Anaheim, California, U.S.
    Sunday Jul 17, 1955

    For several years Disney had been considering building a theme park. When he visited Griffith Park in Los Angeles with his daughters, he wanted to be in a clean, unspoiled park, where both children and their parents could have fun. He visited the Tivoli Gardens in Copenhagen, Denmark, and was heavily influenced by the cleanliness and layout of the park.= In March 1952 he received zoning permission to build a theme park in Burbank, near the Disney studios. This site proved too small, and a larger plot in Anaheim, 35 miles (56 km) south of the studio, was purchased. To distance the project from the studio‍—‌which might attract the criticism of shareholders‍—‌Disney formed WED Enterprises (now Walt Disney Imagineering) and used his own money to fund a group of designers and animators to work on the plans.Construction work started in July 1954, and Disneyland opened in July 1955; the opening ceremony was broadcast on ABC, which reached 70 million viewers. Although there were early minor problems with the park, it was a success, and after a month's operation, Disneyland was receiving over 20,000 visitors a day; by the end of its first year, it attracted 3.6 million guests.


  • Torit, South Sudan
    Thursday Aug 18, 1955

    First Sudanese Civil War

    Members of The British-administered Sudan Defence Force Equatorial Corps Mutinied

    Torit, South Sudan
    Thursday Aug 18, 1955

    On 18 August 1955, members of the British-administered Sudan Defence Force Equatorial Corps mutinied in Torit, and in the following days in Juba, Yei, and Maridi.


  • Skikda, Algeria
    Saturday Aug 20, 1955

    Algerian War

    The massacre of Pieds-Noirs

    Skikda, Algeria
    Saturday Aug 20, 1955

    The FLN adopted tactics similar to those of nationalist groups in Asia, and the French did not realize the seriousness of the challenge they faced until 1955, when the FLN moved into urbanized areas. "An important watershed in the War of Independence was the massacre of Pieds-Noirs civilians by the FLN near the town of Philippeville (now known as Skikda) in August 1955. Before this operation, FLN policy was to attack only military and government-related targets. The commander of the Constantine wilaya/region, however, decided a drastic escalation was needed. The killing by the FLN and its supporters of 123 people, including 71 French,S including old women and babies, shocked Jacques Soustelle into calling for more repressive measures against the rebels.


  • White House, Washington D.C., U.S.
    Saturday Sep 24, 1955

    Richard Nixon

    President Eisenhower suffered a heart attack

    White House, Washington D.C., U.S.
    Saturday Sep 24, 1955

    On September 24, 1955, President Eisenhower suffered a heart attack; his condition was initially believed to be life-threatening. Eisenhower was unable to perform his duties for six weeks. The 25th Amendment to the United States Constitution had not yet been proposed, and the Vice President had no formal power to act. Nonetheless, Nixon acted in Eisenhower's stead during this period, presiding over Cabinet meetings and ensuring that aides and Cabinet officers did not seek power.


  • Vietnam
    Sunday Oct 23, 1955

    Vietnam War

    Referendum on the future of the State of Vietnam

    Vietnam
    Sunday Oct 23, 1955

    In a referendum on the future of the State of Vietnam on 23 October 1955, Diệm rigged the poll supervised by his brother Ngô Đình Nhu and was credited with 98.2 percent of the vote, including 133% in Saigon. His American advisors had recommended a more modest winning margin of "60 to 70 percent." Diệm, however, viewed the election as a test of authority.


  • Seattle, Washington, U.S.
    Friday Oct 28, 1955

    Bill Gates

    Birth

    Seattle, Washington, U.S.
    Friday Oct 28, 1955

    Gates was born in Seattle, Washington, on October 28, 1955.


  • Montgomery, Alabama, U.S.
    Sunday Nov 27, 1955

    Rosa Parks

    Rosa Parks attended a mass meeting at Dexter Avenue Baptist Church

    Montgomery, Alabama, U.S.
    Sunday Nov 27, 1955

    In August 1955, black teenager Emmett Till was brutally murdered after reportedly flirting with a young white woman while visiting relatives in Mississippi. On November 27, 1955, four days before she would make her stand on the bus, Rosa Parks attended a mass meeting at Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery that addressed this case as well as the recent murders of the activists George W. Lee and Lamar Smith. The featured speaker was T. R. M. Howard, a black civil rights leader from Mississippi who headed the Regional Council of Negro Leadership.


  • Montgomery, Alabama, U.S.
    Thursday Dec 1, 1955

    Martin Luther King

    Rosa Parks

    Montgomery, Alabama, U.S.
    Thursday Dec 1, 1955

    Nine months later on December 1, 1955, a similar incident occurred when Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a city bus.


  • Montgomery, Alabama, U.S.
    Thursday Dec 1, 1955

    Rosa Parks

    Parks was Arrested

    Montgomery, Alabama, U.S.
    Thursday Dec 1, 1955

    When Parks refused to give up her seat, a police officer arrested her. As the officer took her away, she recalled that she asked, "Why do you push us around?" She remembered him saying, "I don't know, but the law's the law, and you're under arrest." She later said, "I only knew that, as I was being arrested, that it was the very last time that I would ever ride in humiliation of this kind. ... ". Parks was charged with a violation of Chapter 6, Section 11 segregation law of the Montgomery City code, although technically she had not taken a white-only seat; she had been in a colored section. Edgar Nixon, president of the Montgomery chapter of the NAACP and leader of the Pullman Porters Union, and her friend Clifford Durr bailed Parks out of jail that evening.


  • Montgomery, Alabama, U.S.
    Sunday Dec 4, 1955

    Rosa Parks

    The Montgomery Bus boycott

    Montgomery, Alabama, U.S.
    Sunday Dec 4, 1955

    On Sunday, December 4, 1955, plans for the Montgomery bus boycott were announced at black churches in the area, and a front-page article in the Montgomery Advertiser helped spread the word. At a church rally that night, those attending agreed unanimously to continue the boycott until they were treated with the level of courtesy they expected, until black drivers were hired, and until seating in the middle of the bus was handled on a first-come basis.


  • Montgomery, Alabama, U.S.
    Monday Dec 5, 1955

    Rosa Parks

    Parks was tried on charges of disorderly conduct and violating a local ordinance

    Montgomery, Alabama, U.S.
    Monday Dec 5, 1955

    The next day, Parks was tried on charges of disorderly conduct and violating a local ordinance. The trial lasted 30 minutes. After being found guilty and fined $10, plus $4 in court costs, Parks appealed her conviction and formally challenged the legality of racial segregation.


  • Montgomery, Alabama, U.S.
    Monday Dec 5, 1955

    Rosa Parks

    Discussing actions to respond to Parks' arrest

    Montgomery, Alabama, U.S.
    Monday Dec 5, 1955

    That Monday night, 50 leaders of the African-American community gathered to discuss actions to respond to Parks' arrest. Edgar Nixon, the president of the NAACP, said, "My God, look what segregation has put in my hands!" Parks was considered the ideal plaintiff for a test case against city and state segregation laws, as she was seen as a responsible, mature woman with a good reputation.


  • Montgomery, Alabama, U.S.
    Monday Dec 5, 1955

    Rosa Parks

    Discussing The boycott Strategies

    Montgomery, Alabama, U.S.
    Monday Dec 5, 1955

    After the success of the one-day boycott, a group of 16 to 18 people gathered at the Mt. Zion AME Zion Church to discuss boycott strategies. At that time Parks was introduced but not asked to speak, despite a standing ovation and calls from the crowd for her to speak; when she asked if she should say something, the reply was, "Why, you've said enough." The group agreed that a new organization was needed to lead the boycott effort if it were to continue. Rev. Ralph Abernathy suggested the name "Montgomery Improvement Association" (MIA). The name was adopted, and the MIA was formed. Its members elected as their president Martin Luther King, Jr., a relative newcomer to Montgomery, who was a young and mostly unknown minister of the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church.


  • Spain
    Wednesday Dec 14, 1955

    Francisco Franco

    Admitted to the United Nations

    Spain
    Wednesday Dec 14, 1955

    Spain was then admitted to the United Nations in 1955.


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