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  • Newbury, England, U.K.
    Tuesday Jan 1, 1985

    Vodafone

    Racal-Vodafone

    Newbury, England, U.K.
    Tuesday Jan 1, 1985

    Vodafone was launched on 1 January 1985 under the new name, Racal-Vodafone (Holdings) Ltd, with its first office based in the Courtyard in Newbury, Berkshire, and shortly thereafter Racal Strategic Radio was renamed Racal Telecommunications Group Limited.




  • Stadio Olimpico Grande Torino, Turin, Italy
    Wednesday Jan 16, 1985

    Heysel Stadium Events

    1984 European Super Cup

    Stadio Olimpico Grande Torino, Turin, Italy
    Wednesday Jan 16, 1985

    The 1984 European Super Cup was an association football match between Italian team Juventus and English team Liverpool, which took place on 16 January 1985 at the Stadio Comunale. The match was the annual European Super Cup contested between the winners of the European Cup and European Cup Winners' Cup. At the time, the European Super Cup was generally a two-legged fixture, but only the first leg (in Turin) was played, due to fixture congestion.




  • Washington D.C., U.S.
    Sunday Jan 20, 1985

    Ronald Reagan

    Second Term as a President

    Washington D.C., U.S.
    Sunday Jan 20, 1985

    Reagan was sworn in as president for the second time on January 20, 1985, in a private ceremony at the White House.




  • Funchal, Madeira, Portugal
    Tuesday Feb 5, 1985

    Cristiano Ronaldo

    Birth

    Funchal, Madeira, Portugal
    Tuesday Feb 5, 1985

    Cristiano Ronaldo dos Santos Aveiro born in 5 February 1985, in Funchal, Madeira, Portugal.




  • Al Qurnah, Iraq
    Monday Mar 11, 1985

    Iran–Iraq War

    Operation Badr

    Al Qurnah, Iraq
    Monday Mar 11, 1985

    The Iraqis attacked again on 28 January 1985; they were defeated, and the Iranians retaliated on 11 March 1985 with a major offensive directed against the Baghdad-Basra highway (one of the few major offensives conducted in 1985), codenamed Operation Badr (after the Battle of Badr, Muhammad's first military victory in Mecca).




  • Moscow, Russia
    Monday Mar 11, 1985

    Mikhail Gorbachev

    General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union

    Moscow, Russia
    Monday Mar 11, 1985

    Became General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union




  • Moscow, Russia
    Monday Mar 11, 1985

    Dissolution of the Soviet Union

    General Secretary

    Moscow, Russia
    Monday Mar 11, 1985

    Mikhail Gorbachev was elected General Secretary by the Politburo on March 11, 1985, three hours after predecessor Konstantin Chernenko's death at age 73.


  • Al Qurnah, Iraq
    Thursday Mar 14, 1985

    Iran–Iraq War

    Breaking Through North of Qurna

    Al Qurnah, Iraq
    Thursday Mar 14, 1985

    The ferocity of the Iranian offensive broke through the Iraqi lines. The Revolutionary Guard, with the support of tanks and artillery, broke through north of Qurna on 14 March. That same night 3,000 Iranian troops reached and crossed the Tigris River using pontoon bridges and captured part of the Baghdad–Basra Highway 6, which they had failed to achieve in Operations Dawn 5 and 6.


  • Tehran - Tabriz - Shiraz - Isfahan, Iran
    Thursday Mar 21, 1985

    Iran–Iraq War

    The second "war of the cities"

    Tehran - Tabriz - Shiraz - Isfahan, Iran
    Thursday Mar 21, 1985

    Saddam responded by launching chemical attacks against the Iranian positions along the highway and by initiating the second "war of the cities", with an air and missile campaign against twenty to thirty Iranian population centers, including Tehran.


  • Italy
    Friday Apr 19, 1985

    Prince Harry

    The First Overseas Tour

    Italy
    Friday Apr 19, 1985

    His first overseas tour was with his parents to Italy in 1985.


  • Colombia
    Friday Apr 19, 1985

    Pablo Escobar: Narcos

    Palace of Justice siege

    Colombia
    Friday Apr 19, 1985

    It is alleged that Escobar backed the 1985 storming of the Colombian Supreme Court by left-wing guerrillas from the 19th of April Movement, also known as M-19. The siege, a retaliation motivated by the Supreme Court studying the constitutionality of Colombia's extradition treaty with the U.S., resulted in the murders of half the judges on the court. M-19 was paid to break into the Palace and burn all papers and files on Los Extraditables, a group of cocaine smugglers who were under threat of being extradited to the U.S. by the Colombian government. Escobar was listed as a part of Los Extraditables. Hostages were also taken for negotiation of their release, thus helping to prevent the extradition of Los Extraditables to the U.S. for their crimes.


  • Musicland Studios, Munich, West Germany (Present Day in Germany)
    Monday Apr 29, 1985

    Freddie Mercury

    Mr. Bad Guy

    Musicland Studios, Munich, West Germany (Present Day in Germany)
    Monday Apr 29, 1985

    His first album, Mr. Bad Guy, debuted in the top ten of the UK Album Charts.


  • San Francisco, California, U.S.
    Wednesday May 22, 1985

    James Bond

    A View to a Kill premiere

    San Francisco, California, U.S.
    Wednesday May 22, 1985

    A View to a Kill is a 1985 spy film and the fourteenth in the James Bond series produced by Eon Productions, and both the seventh and the last to star Roger Moore as the fictional MI6 agent James Bond.


  • Bogotá, Colombia
    Tuesday May 28, 1985

    Colombian conflict

    the creation of the Patriotic Union (Unión Patriótica)

    Bogotá, Colombia
    Tuesday May 28, 1985

    The Betancur administration in turn questioned the M-19's actions and its commitment to the peace process, as it continued to advance high-profile negotiations against with the FARC, which led to the creation of the Patriotic Union (Unión Patriótica) -UP-, a legal and non-clandestine political organization.


  • Heysel Stadium, Brussels, Belgium
    Wednesday May 29, 1985

    Heysel Stadium Events

    1985 European Cup Final

    Heysel Stadium, Brussels, Belgium
    Wednesday May 29, 1985

    In May 1985, Liverpool were the defending European Champions' Cup winners, having won the competition after defeating Roma in the penalty shootout in the final of the previous season. Again they would face Italian opposition, Juventus, who had won, unbeaten, the 1983–84 Cup Winners' Cup. Juventus had a team consisting of many of Italy's 1982 FIFA World Cup winning team — who played for Juventus for many years — and their playmaker Michel Platini was considered the best footballer in Europe, being named Footballer of The Year by France Football magazine for the second year in a row in December 1984. Both teams were placed in the two first positions in the UEFA club ranking at the end of the last season and were regarded by the specialist press as the best two sides on the continent at the time. Both teams had contested the 1984 European Super Cup four months before, finishing with victory for the Italian side by 2–0.


  • Heysel Stadium, Brussels, Belgium
    Wednesday May 29, 1985
    17 PM

    Heysel Stadium Events

    The trouble started

    Heysel Stadium, Brussels, Belgium
    Wednesday May 29, 1985
    17 PM

    At approximately 7 p.m. local time, an hour before kick-off, the trouble started. The Liverpool and Juventus supporters in sections X and Z stood merely yards apart. The boundary between the two was marked by temporary chain link fencing and a central thinly policed no-man's land. Hooligans began to throw stones across the divide, which they were able to pick up from the crumbling terraces beneath them. As kick-off approached, the throwing became more intense. Several groups of Liverpool hooligans broke through the boundary between section X and Z, overpowered the police, and charged at the Juventus fans. The fans began to flee toward the perimeter wall of section Z. The wall could not withstand the force of the fleeing Juventus supporters and a lower portion collapsed. Contrary to reports at the time, and what is still assumed by many, the collapse of the wall did not cause the 39 deaths. Instead, the collapse relieved pressure and allowed fans to escape. Most died of suffocation after tripping or being crushed against the wall before the collapse. A further 600 fans were also injured. Bodies were carried out from the stadium on sections of iron fencing and laid outside, covered with giant football flags. As police and medical helicopters flew in, the down-draught blew away the modest coverings. In retaliation for the events in section Z, many Juventus fans rioted at their end of the stadium. They advanced down the stadium running track to help other Juventus supporters, but police intervention stopped the advance. A large group of Juventus fans fought the police with rocks, bottles, and stones for two hours. One Juventus fan was also seen firing a starting gun at Belgian police.


  • Heysel Stadium, Brussels, Belgium
    Wednesday May 29, 1985

    Heysel Stadium Events

    The Result

    Heysel Stadium, Brussels, Belgium
    Wednesday May 29, 1985

    Despite the scale of the disaster, UEFA officials, Belgian Prime Minister Wilfried Martens, Brussels Mayor Hervé Brouhon, and the city's police force felt that abandoning the match would have risked inciting further trouble and violence, and the match eventually kicked off after the captains of both sides spoke to the crowd and appealed for calm. Juventus won the match 1–0 thanks to a penalty scored by Michel Platini, awarded by Swiss referee Daina for a foul against Zbigniew Boniek.


  • England, United Kingdom
    Thursday May 30, 1985

    Heysel Stadium Events

    The Blame

    England, United Kingdom
    Thursday May 30, 1985

    The blame for the incident was laid on the fans of Liverpool FC. On 30 May official UEFA observer Gunter Schneider said, "Only the English fans were responsible. Of that there is no doubt." UEFA, the organiser of the event, the owners of Heysel Stadium and the Belgian police were investigated for culpability. After an 18-month investigation, the dossier of top Belgian judge Marina Coppieters was finally published. It concluded that blame should rest solely with the English fans.


  • England, United Kingdom
    Saturday Jun 1, 1985

    Heysel Stadium Events

    UEFA banned English clubs for "...An indeterminate period of time"

    England, United Kingdom
    Saturday Jun 1, 1985

    Pressure mounted to ban English clubs from European competition. On 31 May 1985, British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher asked the FA to withdraw English clubs from European competition before they were banned, but two days later, UEFA banned English clubs for "...An indeterminate period of time".


  • Zurich, Switzerland
    Wednesday Jun 5, 1985

    Heysel Stadium Events

    FIFA extended the ban

    Zurich, Switzerland
    Wednesday Jun 5, 1985

    On 6 June, FIFA extended this ban to all worldwide matches, but this was modified a week later to allow friendly matches outside of Europe to take place.


  • Near Watervill, Ireland
    Sunday Jun 23, 1985

    Plane Accidents

    Air India Flight 182

    Near Watervill, Ireland
    Sunday Jun 23, 1985

    Air India Flight 182, a Boeing 747-237B, crashed off the southwest coast of Ireland on June 23, 1985, when a bomb exploded in the cargo hold. All 307 passengers and 22 crew members died. One passenger had checked in as "M. Singh". Singh did not board the flight. His suitcase containing the bomb was loaded onto the plane, however. "Mr. Singh" was never identified or captured. It was later determined Sikh extremists were behind the bombing as a retaliation for the Indian government's attack on the Golden Temple in the city of Amritsar, which is very important for the Sikhs. This was, at the time, the deadliest terrorist attack involving an airplane.


  • Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
    Sunday Jun 30, 1985

    Michael Phelps

    Birth

    Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
    Sunday Jun 30, 1985

    Phelps was born in Baltimore, Maryland.


  • Russia
    Monday Jul 1, 1985

    Dissolution of the Soviet Union

    Changes

    Russia
    Monday Jul 1, 1985

    On July 1, 1985, Gorbachev promoted Eduard Shevardnadze, First Secretary of the Georgian Communist Party, to full member of the Politburo, and the following day appointed him minister of foreign affairs, replacing longtime Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko.


  • Uchkuduk, Uzbek SSR, Soviet Union
    Wednesday Jul 10, 1985

    Plane Accidents

    Tupolev Tu-154B-2, Aeroflot Flight 7425

    Uchkuduk, Uzbek SSR, Soviet Union
    Wednesday Jul 10, 1985

    Tupolev Tu-154B-2, Aeroflot Flight 7425, on a domestic Karshi–Ufa–Leningrad route on July 10, 1985, crashed near Uchkuduk, Uzbek SSR, Soviet Union, on the second leg of its route. All 191 passengers and 9 crew were killed. An investigation concluded that the plane went down due to pilot error. The aircrew used an inappropriately low airspeed, causing vibrations that they incorrectly interpreted as engine surges. As a result, they further reduced engine power, causing the aircraft to stall and crash


  • Bethesda, Maryland, U.S
    Saturday Jul 13, 1985

    Ronald Reagan

    Colon Surgery

    Bethesda, Maryland, U.S
    Saturday Jul 13, 1985

    On July 13, 1985, Reagan underwent surgery at Bethesda Naval Hospital to remove cancerous polyps from his colon.


  • Wembley Stadium, London, England, United Kingdom
    Saturday Jul 13, 1985

    Freddie Mercury

    Live Aid

    Wembley Stadium, London, England, United Kingdom
    Saturday Jul 13, 1985

    One of Mercury's most notable performances with Queen took place at Live Aid in 1985.


  • Iran
    Wednesday Jul 17, 1985

    Qasem Soleimani

    Soleimani opposed the IRGC leadership's plan

    Iran
    Wednesday Jul 17, 1985

    On 17 July 1985, Soleimani opposed the IRGC leadership's plan to deploy forces to two islands in western Arvand Rud, on the Shatt al-Arab River.


  • Mount Osutaka, Ueno, Gunma Perfecture, Japan
    Monday Aug 12, 1985

    Plane Accidents

    JAL flight123

    Mount Osutaka, Ueno, Gunma Perfecture, Japan
    Monday Aug 12, 1985

    The crashes of Japan Airlines Flight 123 on August 12, 1985, is the single-aircraft disaster with the highest number of fatalities: 520 people died on board a Boeing 747. The aircraft suffered an explosive decompression from an incorrectly repaired aft pressure bulkhead, which failed in mid-flight, destroying most of its vertical stabilizer and severing all of the hydraulic lines, making the 747 virtually uncontrollable. Pilots were able to keep the plane flying for 32 minutes after the mechanical failure before crashing into a mountain. All 15 crew members and 505 of the 509 passengers on board died.


  • U.S.
    Tuesday Sep 17, 1985

    Apple Inc.

    Jobs leaves Apple

    U.S.
    Tuesday Sep 17, 1985

    On September 17, 1985, Jobs submitted a letter of resignation to the Apple Board. Five additional senior Apple employees also resigned and joined Jobs in his new venture, NeXT.


  • Bogota, Colombia
    Wednesday Nov 6, 1985

    Colombian conflict

    Storming The Colombian Palace of Justice

    Bogota, Colombia
    Wednesday Nov 6, 1985

    On November 6, 1985, the M-19 stormed the Colombian Palace of Justice and held the Supreme Court magistrates hostage, intending to put president Betancur on trial. In the ensuing crossfire that followed the military's reaction, some 120 people lost their lives, as did most of the guerrillas, including several high-ranking operatives and 12 Supreme Court Judges. Both sides blamed each other for the outcome. This marked the end of Betancur's peace process.


  • Colombia
    Wednesday Nov 13, 1985

    Disasters with highest death tolls

    Armero Tragedy

    Colombia
    Wednesday Nov 13, 1985

    The Armero tragedy was one of the major consequences of the eruption of the Nevado del Ruiz stratovolcano in Tolima, Colombia, on November 13, 1985. The lahars picked up speed in gullies and engulfed the town of Armero, killing more than 20,000 of its almost 29,000 inhabitants. Casualties in other towns, particularly Chinchiná, brought the overall death toll to 23,000.


  • Hillsborough, Northern Ireland, UK
    Friday Nov 15, 1985

    Margaret Thatcher

    The Anglo-Irish Agreement

    Hillsborough, Northern Ireland, UK
    Friday Nov 15, 1985

    On 15 November 1985, Thatcher and FitzGerald signed the Hillsborough Anglo-Irish Agreement, which marked the first time a British government had given the Republic of Ireland an advisory role in the governance of Northern Ireland.


  • Washington, U.S.
    Wednesday Nov 20, 1985

    Bill Gates

    First retail version of Microsoft Windows

    Washington, U.S.
    Wednesday Nov 20, 1985

    Microsoft launched its first retail version of Microsoft Windows on November 20, 1985.


  • Albuquerque, New Mexico, U.S.
    Wednesday Nov 20, 1985

    Microsoft

    Microsoft Windows

    Albuquerque, New Mexico, U.S.
    Wednesday Nov 20, 1985

    Microsoft released Microsoft Windows, a graphical extension for MS-DOS, on November 20.


  • Federal Way, Washington, U.S.
    Wednesday Dec 4, 1985

    Cinnabon

    Opening The First Cinnabon

    Federal Way, Washington, U.S.
    Wednesday Dec 4, 1985

    The first Cinnabon opened on December 4, 1985, Federal Way, Washington at SeaTac Mall, now called The Commons at Federal Way. Cinnabon was an offshoot of the Seattle Based Restaurants Unlimited restaurant chain majority owned by Rich Komen with minority partner and CEO Ray Lindstrom at the helm.


  • Newfoundland, Canada
    Thursday Dec 12, 1985

    Plane Accidents

    Douglas DC-8, Arrow Air Flight 1285

    Newfoundland, Canada
    Thursday Dec 12, 1985

    Douglas DC-8, Arrow Air Flight 1285, On December 12, 1985, carrying American military personnel on a charter flight home for Christmas, crashed in Newfoundland; all 248 passengers and 8 crew members died. The Canadian Aviation Safety Board investigating the cause of the crash issued two different reports: the majority report cited ice on the wings as a cause of the crash; the minority report suggests an explosion was the likely cause.


  • Moscow, Russia
    Monday Dec 23, 1985

    Dissolution of the Soviet Union

    First Secretary of the Moscow Communist Party (Yeltsin)

    Moscow, Russia
    Monday Dec 23, 1985

    On December 23, 1985, Gorbachev appointed Yeltsin First Secretary of the Moscow Communist Party replacing Viktor Grishin.


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