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  • Washington D.C., U.S.
    Saturday Jan 7, 1989

    Ronald Reagan

    Left hand Surgery

    Washington D.C., U.S.
    Saturday Jan 7, 1989

    On January 7, 1989, Reagan underwent surgery at Walter Reed Army Medical Center to repair a Dupuytren's contracture of the ring finger of his left hand.




  • Montenegro
    Tuesday Jan 10, 1989

    Slobodan Milošević

    The Anti-bureaucratic Revolution continued in Montenegro

    Montenegro
    Tuesday Jan 10, 1989

    On 10 January 1989, the anti-bureaucratic revolution continued in Montenegro, which had the lowest average monthly wage in Yugoslavia, an unemployment rate of nearly 25 percent, and where one-fifth of the population lived below the poverty line. 50,000 demonstrators gathered in the Montenegrin capital of Titograd (now Podgorica) to protest the republic's economic situation and to demand the resignation of its leadership.




  • Montenegro
    Wednesday Jan 11, 1989

    Slobodan Milošević

    Montenegro's State Presidency tendered its Collective Resignation

    Montenegro
    Wednesday Jan 11, 1989

    On 11 January 1989, Montenegro's state presidency tendered its collective resignation along with the Montenegrin delegates in the Yugoslav Politburo.




  • Paris, France
    Friday Jan 13, 1989

    Bernard Arnault

    Chairman of the Executive Management Board

    Paris, France
    Friday Jan 13, 1989

    On 13 January 1989, he was unanimously elected chairman of the executive management board of LVMH.




  • Washington D.C, U.S.
    Friday Jan 20, 1989

    George W. Bush

    Son of a president

    Washington D.C, U.S.
    Friday Jan 20, 1989

    Bush and his family moved to Washington, D.C., after his father became a president.




  • Washington D.C., U.S.
    Friday Jan 20, 1989

    Ronald Reagan

    Last Day in Presidency

    Washington D.C., U.S.
    Friday Jan 20, 1989

    Regean Finished his Second Term as U.S. President Succeeded by George H. W. Bush.




  • Lviv and Kiev, Ukraine
    Sunday Jan 22, 1989

    Dissolution of the Soviet Union

    Ukrainian Independence Day

    Lviv and Kiev, Ukraine
    Sunday Jan 22, 1989

    In Ukraine, Lviv and Kiev celebrated Ukrainian Independence Day on January 22, 1989. Thousands gathered in Lviv for an unauthorized moleben (religious service) in front of St. George's Cathedral. In Kiev, 60 activists met in a Kiev apartment to commemorate the proclamation of the Ukrainian People's Republic in 1918.


  • Figueres, Catalonia, Spain
    Monday Jan 23, 1989

    Salvador Dali

    Death

    Figueres, Catalonia, Spain
    Monday Jan 23, 1989

    On the morning of 23 January 1989, while his favorite record of Tristan and Isolde played, Dalí died of heart failure at the age of 84.


  • Tokyo, Japan
    Tuesday Jan 31, 1989

    Hirohito

    Releasing His definitive Posthumous Name Shōwa Tennō

    Tokyo, Japan
    Tuesday Jan 31, 1989

    From January 7 until January 31, the Emperor's formal appellation was "Departed Emperor." His definitive posthumous name, Shōwa Tennō, was determined on January 13 and formally released on January 31 by Toshiki Kaifu, the prime minister.


  • U.S.
    Thursday Feb 2, 1989

    Steven Spielberg

    1st Divorce

    U.S.
    Thursday Feb 2, 1989

    After three and a half years of marriage, however, many of the same competing stresses of their careers caused them to divorce in 1989. They agreed to maintain homes near each other as to facilitate the shared custody and parenting of their son. Their divorce was recorded as the third most costly celebrity divorce in history.


  • Hachioji, Tokyo, Japan
    Friday Feb 24, 1989

    Hirohito

    The Emperor Funeral

    Hachioji, Tokyo, Japan
    Friday Feb 24, 1989

    On February 24, Emperor Hirohito's state funeral was held, and unlike that of his predecessor, it was formal but not conducted in a strictly Shinto manner. A large number of world leaders attended the funeral. Emperor Hirohito is buried in the Musashi Imperial Graveyard in Hachiōji, alongside Emperor Taishō, his father.


  • Kosovo
    Friday Mar 3, 1989

    Kosovo War

    The Presidency of Yugoslavia imposed special measures assigning responsibility for public security to the federal government

    Kosovo
    Friday Mar 3, 1989

    On 3 March 1989, the Presidency of Yugoslavia imposed special measures assigning responsibility for public security to the federal government.


  • Kiev, Ukraine
    Saturday Mar 4, 1989

    Dissolution of the Soviet Union

    Honoring the victims of Stalinism

    Kiev, Ukraine
    Saturday Mar 4, 1989

    On March 4, 1989, the Memorial Society, committed to honoring the victims of Stalinism and cleansing society of Soviet practices, was founded in Kiev. A public rally was held the next day.


  • Serbia
    Friday Mar 10, 1989

    Slobodan Milošević

    The Vojvodina Assembly approved The Constitutional Amendments

    Serbia
    Friday Mar 10, 1989

    On 10 March 1989, the Vojvodina Assembly approved the constitutional amendments.


  • Hillsborough Stadium, Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England, United Kingdom
    Monday Mar 20, 1989

    Hillsborough events

    Hillsborough was accepted as the FA Cup semi-final venue

    Hillsborough Stadium, Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England, United Kingdom
    Monday Mar 20, 1989

    Meanwhile, Hillsborough was accepted as the FA Cup semi-final venue on 20 March 1989 by the Football Association.


  • Kosovo
    Thursday Mar 23, 1989

    Kosovo War

    the Assembly of Kosovo voted to accept the proposed amendments although most Albanian delegates abstained

    Kosovo
    Thursday Mar 23, 1989

    On 23 March, the Assembly of Kosovo voted to accept the proposed amendments although most Albanian delegates abstained.


  • Serbia
    Thursday Mar 23, 1989

    Slobodan Milošević

    The Kosovo Assembly approved the Constitutional Amendments

    Serbia
    Thursday Mar 23, 1989

    On 23 March 1989, the Kosovo Assembly approved the constitutional amendments.


  • England, United Kingdom
    Monday Mar 27, 1989

    Hillsborough events

    Chief Superintendent Mole himself was to be transferred to the Barnsley division

    England, United Kingdom
    Monday Mar 27, 1989

    Police presence at the previous year's FA Cup semi-final (also between Liverpool and Nottingham Forest and also at Hillsborough Stadium) had been overseen by Chief Superintendent Brian L. Mole. Mole had supervised numerous police deployments at the stadium in the past. In October 1988 a probationary PC in Mole's F division, South Yorkshire was handcuffed, photographed, and stripped by fellow officers in a fake robbery, as a hazing prank. Four officers resigned and seven were disciplined over the incident. Chief Superintendent Mole himself was to be transferred to the Barnsley division for "career development reasons". The transfer was to be done with immediate effect on 27 March 1989.


  • Serbia
    Tuesday Mar 28, 1989

    Slobodan Milošević

    The Serbian Assembly approved the Constitutional Amendments

    Serbia
    Tuesday Mar 28, 1989

    On 28 March 1989, the Serbian Assembly approved the constitutional amendments.


  • Tbilisi, Georgia
    Friday Apr 7, 1989

    Dissolution of the Soviet Union

    Calling for Georgia to secede from the Soviet Union

    Tbilisi, Georgia
    Friday Apr 7, 1989

    On April 7, 1989, Soviet troops and armored personnel carriers were sent to Tbilisi after more than 100,000 people protested in front of Communist Party headquarters with banners calling for Georgia to secede from the Soviet Union and for Abkhazia to be fully integrated into Georgia.


  • Georgia
    Sunday Apr 9, 1989

    Dissolution of the Soviet Union

    Troops attacked the demonstrators in Georgia

    Georgia
    Sunday Apr 9, 1989

    On April 9, 1989, troops attacked the demonstrators; some 20 people were killed and more than 200 wounded. This event radicalized Georgian politics, prompting many to conclude that independence was preferable to continued Soviet rule.


  • Hillsborough Stadium, Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England, United Kingdom
    Saturday Apr 15, 1989
    2 AM

    Hillsborough events

    Gates were opened

    Hillsborough Stadium, Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England, United Kingdom
    Saturday Apr 15, 1989
    2 AM

    When the gates were opened, thousands of fans entered a narrow tunnel leading from the rear of the terrace into two overcrowded central pens (pens 3 and 4), creating pressure at the front. Hundreds of people were pressed against one another and the fencing by the weight of the crowd behind them.


  • Beijing, China
    Saturday Apr 15, 1989

    1989 Tiananmen Square protests

    The Death of Hu Yaobang

    Beijing, China
    Saturday Apr 15, 1989

    When Hu Yaobang suddenly died of a heart attack on 15 April 1989, students reacted strongly, most of them believing that his death was related to his forced resignation. Hu's death provided the initial impetus for students to gather in large numbers.


  • Tian'anmen Square, Dongcheng, Beijing, China
    Saturday Apr 15, 1989

    1989 Tiananmen Square protests

    Small Spontaneous gatherings to mourn Hu Yaobang

    Tian'anmen Square, Dongcheng, Beijing, China
    Saturday Apr 15, 1989

    Small spontaneous gatherings to mourn Hu began on 15 April around Monument to the People's Heroes at Tiananmen Square. On the same day, many students at Peking University (PKU) and Tsinghua University erected shrines, and joined the gathering in Tiananmen Square in a piecemeal fashion.


  • Beijing, China
    Saturday Apr 15, 1989

    Hong Kong independence

    Tiananmen Square crackdown

    Beijing, China
    Saturday Apr 15, 1989

    From 1983 to 1997, Hong Kong saw an exodus of emigrants to overseas countries, especially in the wake of the 1989 Tiananmen Square crackdown, which more than a million Hongkongers showed up on the streets to support to student protesters in Beijing. The Tiananmen incident of 1989 strengthened anti-Beijing sentiments and also led to the emergence of the local democracy movement, which demanded a faster pace of democratisation before and after 1997.


  • Hillsborough Stadium, Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England, United Kingdom
    Saturday Apr 15, 1989
    15 PM

    Hillsborough events

    Events Build Up

    Hillsborough Stadium, Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England, United Kingdom
    Saturday Apr 15, 1989
    15 PM

    As is common at domestic matches in England, opposing supporters were segregated. Nottingham Forest supporters were allocated the South Stands and Spion Kop on the east end, with a combined capacity of 29,800, reached by 60 turnstiles spaced along two sides of the ground. Liverpool supporters were allocated the North and West ends (Leppings Lane), holding 24,256 fans, reached by 23 turnstiles from a narrow concourse. Turnstiles numbered 1 to 10, 10 in all, provided access to 9,700 seats in the North Stand; a further 6 turnstiles provided access to 4,456 seats in the upper tier of the West Stand. Finally, 7 turnstiles (lettered A to G) provided access to 10,100 standing places in the lower tier of the West Stand. Although Liverpool had more supporters, Nottingham Forest was allocated the larger area, to avoid the approach routes of rival fans crossing. As a result of the stadium layout and segregation policy, turnstiles that would normally have been used to enter the North Stand from the east were off-limits and all Liverpool supporters had to converge on a single entrance at Leppings Lane. On match day, radio and television advised fans without tickets not to attend. Rather than establishing crowd safety as the priority, clubs, local authorities and the police viewed their roles and responsibilities through the 'lens of hooliganism'.


  • Hillsborough Stadium, Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England
    Saturday Apr 15, 1989
    15 PM

    Hillsborough events

    The crowd in the Leppings Lane Stand overspilled onto the pitch

    Hillsborough Stadium, Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England
    Saturday Apr 15, 1989
    15 PM

    The crowd in the Leppings Lane Stand overspilled onto the pitch, where the many injured and traumatised fans who had climbed to safety congregated.


  • Hillsborough Stadium, Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England, United Kingdom
    Saturday Apr 15, 1989
    15 PM

    Hillsborough events

    A 30-minute postponement

    Hillsborough Stadium, Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England, United Kingdom
    Saturday Apr 15, 1989
    15 PM

    Football players from both teams were ushered to their respective dressing rooms, and told that there would be a 30-minute postponement.


  • Hillsborough Stadium, Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England, United Kingdom
    Saturday Apr 15, 1989
    15 PM

    Hillsborough events

    The agreed upon protocol

    Hillsborough Stadium, Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England, United Kingdom
    Saturday Apr 15, 1989
    15 PM

    The agreed upon protocol for the South Yorkshire Metropolitan Ambulance Service (SYMAS) was that ambulances were to queue at the entrance to the gymnasium, termed the casualty reception point, or CRP.


  • Hillsborough Stadium, Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England, United Kingdom
    Saturday Apr 15, 1989
    15 PM

    Hillsborough events

    Declaration was not immediately performed

    Hillsborough Stadium, Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England, United Kingdom
    Saturday Apr 15, 1989
    15 PM

    The system of ferrying injured from any location within the stadium to the CRP required a formal declaration to be made by those in charge for it to take effect. As this declaration was not immediately performed, confusion reigned over those attempting to administer aid on the pitch. This confusion migrated to the first responders waiting in ambulances at the CRP, a location which quickly deteriorated into an ambulance parking lot. Some crews were hesitant to leave their vehicles, unsure of whether patients were coming to them, or vice versa.


  • Hillsborough Stadium, Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England, United Kingdom
    Saturday Apr 15, 1989

    Hillsborough events

    A total of 42 ambulances arrived at the stadium

    Hillsborough Stadium, Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England, United Kingdom
    Saturday Apr 15, 1989

    A total of 42 ambulances arrived at the stadium. Out of this number, two managed of their own accord to make their way onto the pitch — while a third ambulance made its way onto the pitch at the direction of DCAO Hopkins, who felt its visibility might allay crowd concerns. The remaining 39 ambulances were collectively able to transport approximately 149 people to either Northern General Hospital, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, or Barnsley Hospital for treatment.


  • Hillsborough Stadium, Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England, United Kingdom
    Saturday Apr 15, 1989

    Hillsborough events

    Deaths

    Hillsborough Stadium, Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England, United Kingdom
    Saturday Apr 15, 1989

    A total of 96 people died as a result of injuries incurred during the disaster. Ninety-four persons, aged from 10 to 67 years old, died on the day, either at the stadium, in the ambulances, or shortly after arrival at hospital. A total of 766 people were reported to have suffered injuries, although less than half required hospital treatment. The less seriously injured survivors who did not live in the Sheffield area were advised to seek treatment for their injuries at hospitals nearer to their homes.


  • Shanghai, China - Xi'an, Shaanxi, China
    Sunday Apr 16, 1989

    1989 Tiananmen Square protests

    Student gatherings in Xi'an and Shanghai

    Shanghai, China - Xi'an, Shaanxi, China
    Sunday Apr 16, 1989

    Organized student gatherings began on a small scale in Xi'an and Shanghai on 16 April.


  • Hillsborough Stadium, Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England, United Kingdom
    Sunday Apr 16, 1989

    Hillsborough events

    Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and Home Secretary Douglas Hurd visited Hillsborough

    Hillsborough Stadium, Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England, United Kingdom
    Sunday Apr 16, 1989

    Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and Home Secretary Douglas Hurd visited Hillsborough the day after the disaster and met survivors.


  • Anfield Stadium, Liverpool, England, United Kingdom
    Sunday Apr 16, 1989

    Hillsborough events

    Anfield stadium was opened

    Anfield Stadium, Liverpool, England, United Kingdom
    Sunday Apr 16, 1989

    Anfield stadium was opened on the Sunday to allow fans to pay tribute to the dead.


  • Beijing, China
    Monday Apr 17, 1989

    1989 Tiananmen Square protests

    Students at the (CUPL) made a Large Wreath to Commemorate Hu Yaobang

    Beijing, China
    Monday Apr 17, 1989

    On 17 April, students at the China University of Political Science and Law (CUPL) made a large wreath to commemorate Hu Yaobang. Its laying-party was on 17 April and a larger-than-expected crowd assembled. At 5 pm, 500 CUPL students reached the eastern gate of the Great Hall of the People, near Tiananmen Square, to mourn Hu. The gathering featured speakers from various backgrounds giving public orations commemorating Hu and discussing social problems. However, it was soon deemed obstructive to the operation of the Great Hall, so police tried to persuade the students to disperse.


  • Tian'anmen Square, Dongcheng, Beijing, China
    Monday Apr 17, 1989

    1989 Tiananmen Square protests

    Three Thousand PKU Students marched from the Campus Towards Tiananmen Square

    Tian'anmen Square, Dongcheng, Beijing, China
    Monday Apr 17, 1989

    Starting on the night of 17 April, three thousand PKU students marched from the campus towards Tiananmen Square, and soon nearly a thousand students from Tsinghua joined. Upon arrival, they soon joined forces with those already gathered at the Square. As its size grew, the gathering gradually evolved into a protest, as students began to draft a list of pleas and suggestions (Seven Demands) for the government.


  • Zhongnanhai, Beijing, China
    Tuesday Apr 18, 1989

    1989 Tiananmen Square protests

    A few thousand students gathered at Xinhua Gate, Where They demanded dialogue with the leadership

    Zhongnanhai, Beijing, China
    Tuesday Apr 18, 1989

    On the morning of 18 April, students remained in the Square. Some gathered around the Monument to the People's Heroes singing patriotic songs and listening to impromptu speeches by student organizers, others gathered at the Great Hall. Meanwhile, a few thousand students gathered at Xinhua Gate, the entrance to Zhongnanhai, the seat of the party leadership, where they demanded dialogue with the leadership. Police restrained the students from entering the compound. Students then staged a sit-in.


  • Manhattan, New York, U.S.
    Wednesday Apr 19, 1989
    21 PM

    Central Park Jogger Case

    Other victims attacked by members of the large group while jogging near the reservoir

    Manhattan, New York, U.S.
    Wednesday Apr 19, 1989
    21 PM

    David Lewis, the banker, attacked and robbed about 9:25–9:40 Robert Garner, attacked about 9:30 p.m. David Good, attacked about 9:47 p.m. John Loughlin, the 40-year-old teacher, severely beaten and kicked about 9:40–9:50 p.m. near the reservoir and left unconscious. He was also robbed of a Walkman and other items.


  • Manhattan, New York, U.S.
    Wednesday Apr 19, 1989
    21 PM

    Central Park Jogger Case

    Other victims identified by The New York Times in a 2002 review of the case

    Manhattan, New York, U.S.
    Wednesday Apr 19, 1989
    21 PM

    Michael Vigna, a competitive bike rider hassled about 9:05 p.m. by the group, one of whom tried to punch him. Antonio Diaz, a 52-year-old man walking in the park near 105th Street, was knocked to the ground by teenagers about 9:15 p.m., who stole his bag of food and bottle of beer. He was left unconscious but soon found by a policeman. Gerald Malone and Patricia Dean, riding on a tandem bike, were attacked on East Drive south of 102nd Street about 9:15 p.m. by boys who tried to stop them and grab Dean; the couple called police after reaching a call box.


  • Manhattan, New York, U.S.
    Wednesday Apr 19, 1989
    21 PM

    Central Park Jogger Case

    The Attacks

    Manhattan, New York, U.S.
    Wednesday Apr 19, 1989
    21 PM

    At 9 p.m. on April 19, 1989, a group of an estimated 30 – 32 teenagers who lived in East Harlem entered Manhattan's Central Park at an entrance in Harlem, near Central Park North. Some of the group committed several attacks, assaults, and robberies against persons walking, biking, or jogging in the northernmost part of the park and near the reservoir, and victims began to report the incidents to police. Within the North Woods, between 105th and 102nd streets, they were reported as attacking several bicyclists, hurling rocks at a cab, and attacking a pedestrian, whom they robbed of his food and beer, and left unconscious. The teenagers roamed south along the park's East Drive and the 97th Street transverse, between 9 and 10 p.m.


  • Manhattan, New York, U.S.
    Wednesday Apr 19, 1989
    21 PM

    Central Park Jogger Case

    The Reservoir Area Attack

    Manhattan, New York, U.S.
    Wednesday Apr 19, 1989
    21 PM

    At least some of the group traveled further south to the area around the reservoir, where four men jogging were attacked by several youths. Among the victims was John Loughlin, a 40-year-old schoolteacher, who was severely beaten and robbed between 9:40 and 9:50. He was hit in the head with a pipe and stick, knocking him briefly unconscious. At a pre-trial hearing in October 1989, a police officer testified that when Loughlin was found, he was bleeding so badly that he "looked like he was dunked in a bucket of blood".


  • Zhongnanhai, Beijing, China
    Thursday Apr 20, 1989

    1989 Tiananmen Square protests

    Police used batons to disperse about 200 Students

    Zhongnanhai, Beijing, China
    Thursday Apr 20, 1989

    On 20 April, most students had been persuaded to leave Xinhua Gate. To disperse about 200 students that remained, police used batons; minor clashes were reported. Many students felt abused by the police, and rumours about police brutality spread quickly. This incident angered students on campus, where those who were not politically active decided to join the protests. Also on this date, a group of workers calling themselves the Beijing Workers' Autonomous Federation issued two handbills challenging the central leadership.


  • Manhattan, New York, U.S.
    Thursday Apr 20, 1989

    Central Park Jogger Case

    The Jogger's Identity

    Manhattan, New York, U.S.
    Thursday Apr 20, 1989

    After her discovery, the police increased the intensity of their effort to identify suspects in this attack and took more teenagers into custody. The jogger was not identified for about 24 hours, and it took days for the police to retrace her movements of that night. By the time of the trial of the first three suspects in June 1990, The New York Times characterized the attack on the jogger as "one of the most widely publicized crimes of the 1980s".


  • Kyoto, Japan
    Thursday Apr 20, 1989

    Nintendo

    Game Boy release

    Kyoto, Japan
    Thursday Apr 20, 1989

    Nintendo released the Game Boy in Japan on 21 April 1989, and in North America on 31 July 1989. Nintendo of America president Minoru Arakawa managed a deal to bundle the popular third-party game Tetris along with the Game Boy, and the pair launched as an instant success.


  • ChIna
    Friday Apr 21, 1989

    1989 Tiananmen Square protests

    Organizing under The banners of Formal Organizations

    ChIna
    Friday Apr 21, 1989

    On April 21, students began organizing under the banners of formal organizations.


  • Manhattan, New York, U.S.
    Friday Apr 21, 1989

    Central Park Jogger Case

    April 21st media coverage

    Manhattan, New York, U.S.
    Friday Apr 21, 1989

    On April 21, senior police investigators held a press conference to announce having apprehended about 20 suspects in the attacks of a total of nine people in Central Park two nights before, and began to offer their theory of the attack and rape of the female jogger. Her name was withheld as a victim of a sex crime. The police said up to 12 youths were believed to have attacked the jogger.


  • Changsha, Hunan, China - Xi'an, Shaanxi, China
    Saturday Apr 22, 1989

    1989 Tiananmen Square protests

    Serious Rioting broke out in Changsha and Xi'an

    Changsha, Hunan, China - Xi'an, Shaanxi, China
    Saturday Apr 22, 1989

    On 22 April, near dusk, serious rioting broke out in Changsha and Xi'an. In Xi'an, arson from rioters destroyed cars and houses, and looting occurred in shops near the city's Xihua Gate. In Changsha, 38 stores were ransacked by looters. Over 350 people were arrested in both cities. In Wuhan, university students organized protests against the provincial government. As the situation became more volatile nationally, Zhao Ziyang called numerous meetings of the Politburo Standing Committee (PSC). Zhao stressed three points: discourage students from further protests and ask them to go back to class, use all measures necessary to combat rioting, and open forms of dialogue with students at different levels of government.


  • Beijing, China
    Saturday Apr 22, 1989

    1989 Tiananmen Square protests

    Hu's State Funeral

    Beijing, China
    Saturday Apr 22, 1989

    Hu's state funeral took place on 22 April. On the evening of 21 April, some 100,000 students marched on Tiananmen Square, ignoring orders from Beijing municipal authorities that the Square was to be closed off for the funeral. The funeral, which took place inside the Great Hall and attended by the leadership, was broadcast live to the students. General secretary Zhao Ziyang delivered the eulogy. The funeral seemed rushed, and only lasted 40 minutes, as emotions ran high in the Square. Students wept.


  • Beijing, China
    Sunday Apr 23, 1989

    1989 Tiananmen Square protests

    Forming the Beijing Students' Autonomous Federation

    Beijing, China
    Sunday Apr 23, 1989

    On 23 April, in a meeting of around 40 students from 21 universities, the Beijing Students' Autonomous Federation (also known as the Union) was formed. It elected CUPL student Zhou Yongjun as chair. Wang Dan and Wu'erkaixi also emerged as leaders. The Union then called for a general class boycott at all Beijing universities. Such an independent organization operating outside of party jurisdiction alarmed the leadership.


  • Beijing, China
    Monday Apr 24, 1989

    1989 Tiananmen Square protests

    Li Peng and The PSC met With Beijing Party Secretary Li Ximing and mayor Chen Xitong

    Beijing, China
    Monday Apr 24, 1989

    Zhao's departure to North Korea left Li Peng as the acting executive authority in Beijing. On 24 April, Li Peng and the PSC met with Beijing Party Secretary Li Ximing and mayor Chen Xitong to gauge the situation at the Square. The municipal officials wanted a quick resolution to the crisis and framed the protests as a conspiracy to overthrow China's political system and major party leaders, including Deng Xiaoping. In Zhao's absence, the PSC agreed that firm action against protesters must be taken.


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