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  • Bisbee, Arizona, U.S.
    Thursday Jul 3, 1919

    Red Summer

    Bisbee Riot

    Bisbee, Arizona, U.S.
    Thursday Jul 3, 1919

    Local police in Bisbee, Arizona attacked the 10th U.S. Cavalry, an African-American unit known as the "Buffalo Soldiers," formed in 1866.




  • Hungary
    Friday Jul 4, 1919

    Hungarian–Romanian War

    The Hungarian Army Had Retreated South of The Hungarian–Czechoslovak demarcation Line

    Hungary
    Friday Jul 4, 1919

    By 4 July, the Hungarian Army had retreated 15 km south of the Hungarian–Czechoslovak demarcation line.




  • Dublin, Georgia, U.S.
    Sunday Jul 6, 1919

    Red Summer

    Dublin, Georgia riot

    Dublin, Georgia, U.S.
    Sunday Jul 6, 1919

    During a race riot local African-American, Rob Ashely, was accused in the murder of a white man and wounding another man on July 6, 1919. While in jail the local white community threatened to storm the jail and lynch Ashely. They were thwarted by an armed black community group that was formed to protect the jail and prevent a lynching. Later a company of eighty home guards prevented further trouble, but for weeks the situation was tense.




  • Longview, Texas, U.S.
    Thursday Jul 10, 1919

    Red Summer

    Longview race riot

    Longview, Texas, U.S.
    Thursday Jul 10, 1919

    A white race riot in Longview, Texas led to the deaths of at least 4 men and destroyed the African-American housing district in the town.




  • Istanbul, Turkey (then Ottoman Empire)
    Friday Jul 11, 1919

    Armenian Genocide

    Damat Ferid Pasha

    Istanbul, Turkey (then Ottoman Empire)
    Friday Jul 11, 1919

    On 11 July 1919, Damat Ferid Pasha (Grand Visier) officially confessed to massacres against the Armenians in the Ottoman Empire and was a key figure and initiator of the war crime trials held directly after World War I to condemn to death the chief perpetrators of the Genocide.




  • Hungary
    Friday Jul 11, 1919

    Hungarian–Romanian War

    The Coordinated Attack against Hungary

    Hungary
    Friday Jul 11, 1919

    The Allied council demanded that Romania leave Tiszántúl and respect the new borders. Romania said it would only do so after the Hungarian Army demobilized. Kun said he would continue to depend on the might of his army. On 11 July, the Allied council ordered Marshal Ferdinand Foch to prepare a coordinated attack against Hungary using Serb, French and Romanian forces. Hungary, in turn, prepared for action along the Tisza River.




  • Garfield Park, Indianapolis, U.S.
    Monday Jul 14, 1919

    Red Summer

    Garfield Park riot

    Garfield Park, Indianapolis, U.S.
    Monday Jul 14, 1919

    On July 14, 1919, hundreds of white boys 16 to 19 years old converged on Garfield Park. There they used bricks and clubs to beat any blacks they came across. When a group of African-Americans took shelter in the house of Nathan Weather, a local black man, the white mob followed them and surrounded the house. Weather fired into the crowd in hopes of dispersing the mob. A seven-year-old onlooker, Charlotte Pieper, received a flesh wound from stray buckshot. Another youth, Paul Karbwitz, 18, was also hit. Police were eventually able to disperse the mob and quell the riot.


  • Port Arthur, Texas, U.S.
    Tuesday Jul 15, 1919

    Red Summer

    Port Arthur riot

    Port Arthur, Texas, U.S.
    Tuesday Jul 15, 1919

    The Port Arthur riot happened on July 15, 1919, in Port Arthur, Texas. Violence started after a group of white men objected to an African American smoking near a white woman on a street car.


  • Washington D.C., U.S.
    Saturday Jul 19, 1919

    Red Summer

    Washington race riot

    Washington D.C., U.S.
    Saturday Jul 19, 1919

    The Washington race riot of 1919 was civil unrest in Washington, D.C. from July 19, 1919, to July 24, 1919. The race riot started on Saturday July 19 following an incident involving two African-American men and Elsie Stephnick, the white wife of an employee of the United States Naval Aviation Department. She was "jostled" near New York Avenue, and 15th Street Northwest. One of the men was arrested and questioned concerning an alleged sexual assault, but subsequently released. A mob of White Americans formed and started attacks on several African Americans and also an African-American family home.


  • New York City, New York, U.S.
    Sunday Jul 20, 1919

    Red Summer

    New York race riots

    New York City, New York, U.S.
    Sunday Jul 20, 1919

    On July 20, 1919, a White man and an African American man were arguing about World War I. The fight got heated and the black man pulled a gun and shot wildly down the street. Some of the bullets hit civilians, with one striking George Doles of 231 East 127th St while he was in his ground floor apartment. Another hit Henrietta Taylor, who was sitting on a stoop on 228 East 127th Street. While the two were rushed to a Harlem hospital, word spread that a riot was about to start, and when police arrived on the scene about a thousand black people were present on the block between 2nd and 3rd Ave. As police attempted to clear the streets they were fired upon from surrounding buildings.


  • Rakamaz, Hungary
    Sunday Jul 20, 1919

    Hungarian–Romanian War

    The Hungarians Army took Rakamaz

    Rakamaz, Hungary
    Sunday Jul 20, 1919

    On 20 July, in the northern arena, the Hungarians army took Rakamaz and some nearby villages. Troops of the Romanian 16th and 2nd Vânători divisions took back the villages shortly and regained Rakamaz the next day. The Hungarians renewed their efforts and, supported by artillery fire, retook Rakamaz and two nearby villages but could not break out of the Rakamaz bridgehead.


  • Szolnok, Hungary
    Sunday Jul 20, 1919

    Hungarian–Romanian War

    Hungarian Forces Established a Solid Bridgehead at Szolnok

    Szolnok, Hungary
    Sunday Jul 20, 1919

    On 20 July, Hungarian forces established a solid bridgehead on the east bank of the Tisza at Szolnok, opposed by the Romanian 91st Regiment of the 18th Infantry Division. The Hungarian army moved the 6th and 7th divisions across the Tisza River, formed up within the bridgehead, then attacked the Romanians in the first line of defense. The Hungarian 6th Infantry Division took Törökszentmiklós; the 7th Division advanced towards Mezőtúr and the 5th Division advanced towards Túrkeve.


  • U.S.
    Sunday Jul 20, 1919

    Red Summer

    A telegram to Woodrow Wilson

    U.S.
    Sunday Jul 20, 1919

    The NAACP sent a telegram of protest to President Woodrow Wilson: The shame put upon the country by the mobs, including United States soldiers, sailors, and marines, which have assaulted innocent and unoffending negroes in the national capital. Men in uniform have attacked negroes on the streets and pulled them from streetcars to beat them. Crowds are reported ...to have directed attacks against any passing negro.… The effect of such riots in the national capital upon race antagonism will be to increase bitterness and danger of outbreaks elsewhere. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People calls upon you as President and Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces of the nation to make statement condemning mob violence and to enforce such military law as situation demands.…


  • Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.
    Monday Jul 21, 1919

    Red Summer

    Norfolk riot

    Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.
    Monday Jul 21, 1919

    In Norfolk, Virginia, a white mob attacked a homecoming celebration for African-American veterans of World War I. At least 6 people were shot, and the local police called in Marines and Navy personnel to restore order.


  • Kunhegyes, Hungary
    Tuesday Jul 22, 1919

    Hungarian–Romanian War

    Hungarian Forces Crossed The Tisza River and Took Kunhegyes

    Kunhegyes, Hungary
    Tuesday Jul 22, 1919

    On 22 July, Hungarian forces crossed the Tisza River at a point 20 kilometres (12 mi) north of Szolnok and took Kunhegyes from the Romanian 18th Vânători Regiment.


  • Hódmezővásárhely, Hungary
    Wednesday Jul 23, 1919

    Hungarian–Romanian War

    Romanian Forces reoccupied Hódmezővásárhely

    Hódmezővásárhely, Hungary
    Wednesday Jul 23, 1919

    On 21–22 July, Hódmezővásárhely changed hands several times between Hungarian and Romanian troops of the 90th Infantry Regiment supported by the 1st Vânători Brigade. On 23 July, Romanian forces reoccupied Hódmezővásárhely, Szentes and Mindszent.


  • Túrkeve, Hungary - Mezőtúr, Hungary
    Wednesday Jul 23, 1919

    Hungarian–Romanian War

    The Hungarian Took Túrkeve and Mezőtúr

    Túrkeve, Hungary - Mezőtúr, Hungary
    Wednesday Jul 23, 1919

    On 23 July, Hungarian forces took Túrkeve and Mezőtúr.


  • Newberry, South Carolina, U.S.
    Thursday Jul 24, 1919

    Red Summer

    Newberry lynching attempt

    Newberry, South Carolina, U.S.
    Thursday Jul 24, 1919

    The Newberry 1919 lynching attempt was the attempted lynching of Elisha Harper, Newberry, South Carolina on July 24, 1919. Harper was sent to jail for insulting a 14 year-old girl.


  • Tiszafüred, Hungary
    Thursday Jul 24, 1919

    Hungarian–Romanian War

    The Romanian 20th Infantry Division Cleared The bridgehead at Tiszafüred

    Tiszafüred, Hungary
    Thursday Jul 24, 1919

    On 24 July, the Romanian 20th Infantry Division, brought in as reinforcements, cleared the bridgehead at Tiszafüred. Not being able to break out of Rakamaz, Hungarian forces fortified their positions and redeployed some troops. There was a lull in fighting in the north, as the Romanian troops did the same.


  • Kunhegyes, Hungary
    Thursday Jul 24, 1919

    Hungarian–Romanian War

    The Romanian Took Kunhegyes

    Kunhegyes, Hungary
    Thursday Jul 24, 1919

    On 24 July, the Romanian Army's northern maneuver group attacked. Elements of the 2nd Cavalry Division, supported by troops of the 18th Infantry Division, took Kunhegyes. The Romanian 1st Infantry Division attacked the Hungarian 6th Infantry Division and took Fegyvernek. The Romanian 6th Ddivision was less successful, being counterattacked on the left flank by the Hungarian reserve formations. Altogether, the attack pushed back the Hungarian army 20 kilometres (12 mi). Romanian forces were supported by the 2nd Vânători Division and some cavalry units when they became available.


  • Fegyvernek, Hungary
    Friday Jul 25, 1919

    Hungarian–Romanian War

    Hungarian Forces Counterattacked at Fegyvernek

    Fegyvernek, Hungary
    Friday Jul 25, 1919

    On 25 July, fighting continued. Hungarian forces counterattacked at Fegyvernek, engaging the Romanian 1st Infantry Division. With their lines breaking, Hungarian troops began a retreat towards the Tisza River bridge at Szolnok.


  • Annapolis, Maryland, U.S.
    Sunday Jul 27, 1919

    Red Summer

    Annapolis riot

    Annapolis, Maryland, U.S.
    Sunday Jul 27, 1919

    The Annapolis riot of 1919 took place on June 27, 1919, between midnight and 1 AM, in Annapolis, Maryland. A mob of African-American bluejackets from the U.S. Navy fought local Annapolis African-Americans.


  • Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
    Sunday Jul 27, 1919

    Red Summer

    Chicago riot

    Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
    Sunday Jul 27, 1919

    Longstanding racial tensions between whites and blacks exploded in five days of violence that started on July 27, 1919. On that hot summer day, on a segregated Chicago beach, a group of white men stoned Eugene Williams to death when he crossed the unofficial barrier between the white and black sections of the 29th Street beach. Tensions escalated when a white police officer not only failed to arrest the white man responsible for Williams' death, but arrested a black man instead. Objections by black observers were met with violence by whites. Attacks between white and black mobs erupted swiftly. Because of the rioting, 38 people died (23 African American and 15 white), and another 537 were injured, two-thirds of them African American; one African-American Patrolman John W. Simpson was the only policeman killed in the riot.


  • Hungary
    Sunday Jul 27, 1919

    Hungarian–Romanian War

    The Romanian Army Tested The Strength of The Hungarian Defense

    Hungary
    Sunday Jul 27, 1919

    After repelling the Hungarian attack, the Romanian army prepared to cross the Tisza River. From 27–29 July, the Romanian Army tested the strength of the Hungarian defense with small attacks. A plan was made to cross the Tisza River near Fegyvernek, where it makes a turn.


  • Tisza River, Hungary
    Tuesday Jul 29, 1919

    Hungarian–Romanian War

    The Romanian Army crossed the Tisza River

    Tisza River, Hungary
    Tuesday Jul 29, 1919

    On the night of 29–30 July, the Romanian Army crossed the Tisza River. Decoy operations were mounted at other points along the river, bringing intense artillery duels. Romanian forces held the element of surprise.


  • Budapest, Hungary
    Thursday Jul 31, 1919

    Hungarian–Romanian War

    Hungarian Army retreated Towards Budapest

    Budapest, Hungary
    Thursday Jul 31, 1919

    On 31 July the Hungarian army retreated towards Budapest.


  • Syracuse, New York, U.S.
    Thursday Jul 31, 1919

    Red Summer

    Syracuse riot

    Syracuse, New York, U.S.
    Thursday Jul 31, 1919

    The Syracuse riot of 1919 were a violent racial riot, on July 31, 1919, between white and black workers of the Globe Malleable Iron Works in Syracuse, New York.


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