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  • U.S.
    Sunday Jul 4, 1937

    Flag of the United States

    Star for Michigan

    U.S.
    Sunday Jul 4, 1937

    The flag was changed to have 26 stars. (for Michigan)




  • Brunete, Spain
    Tuesday Jul 6, 1937

    Spanish Civil War

    Battle of Brunete

    Brunete, Spain
    Tuesday Jul 6, 1937

    The Battle of Brunete, however, was a significant defeat for the Republic, which lost many of its most accomplished troops. The offensive led to an advance of 50 square kilometres (19 sq mi), and left 25,000 Republican casualties. The Battle of Brunete (6–25 July 1937), fought 24 kilometres (15 mi) west of Madrid, was a Republican attempt to alleviate the pressure exerted by the Nationalists on the capital and on the north during the Spanish Civil War. Although initially successful, the Republicans were forced to retreat from Brunete and suffered devastating casualties from the battle.




  • Beijing, China
    Wednesday Jul 7, 1937

    Second Sino-Japanese War

    The Marco Polo Bridge Incident

    Beijing, China
    Wednesday Jul 7, 1937

    On the night of July 7, 1937, Chinese and Japanese troops exchanged fire in the vicinity of the Marco Polo (or Lugou) Bridge, a crucial access-route to Beijing. What began as confused, sporadic skirmishing soon escalated into a full-scale battle in which Beijing and its port city of Tianjin fell to Japanese forces (July–August 1937).




  • Tongzhou, Beijing, China
    Thursday Jul 29, 1937

    Second Sino-Japanese War

    The Tungchow mutiny

    Tongzhou, Beijing, China
    Thursday Jul 29, 1937

    On July 29, some 5,000 troops of the 1st and 2nd Corps of the East Hopei Army mutinied, turning against the Japanese garrison. In addition to Japanese military personnel, some 260 civilians living in Tongzhou in accordance with the Boxer Protocol of 1901, were killed in the uprising (predominantly Japanese including the police force and also some ethnic Koreans). The Chinese then set fire to and destroyed much of the city. Only around 60 Japanese civilians survived, who provided both journalists and later historians with firsthand witness accounts. As a result of the violence of the mutiny against Japanese civilians, the Tungchow mutiny, as it came to be called, strongly shook public opinion within Japan.




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