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  • New York City, New York, U.S.
    Sunday Sep 21, 1919

    Red Summer

    Ephram Gethers was shot

    New York City, New York, U.S.
    Sunday Sep 21, 1919

    A black man named Ephram Gethers was shot by a police officer.




  • Omaha, Nebraska, U.S.
    Sunday Sep 28, 1919

    Red Summer

    Omaha race riot

    Omaha, Nebraska, U.S.
    Sunday Sep 28, 1919

    The Omaha race riot occurred in Omaha, Nebraska, September 28–29, 1919. The race riot resulted in the lynching of Will Brown, a black civilian; the death of two white rioters; the injuries of many Omaha Police Department officers and civilians, including the attempted hanging of Mayor Edward Parsons Smith; and a public rampage by thousands of white rioters who set fire to the Douglas County Courthouse in downtown Omaha.




  • Elaine, Phillips County, Arkansas, U.S.
    Tuesday Sep 30, 1919

    Red Summer

    Elaine massacre

    Elaine, Phillips County, Arkansas, U.S.
    Tuesday Sep 30, 1919

    On September 30, a massacre broke out against blacks in Elaine, Phillips County, Arkansas, being distinct for having occurred in the rural South rather than a city. The Elaine massacre or the Elaine race riot occurred on September 30–October 1, 1919, at Hoop Spur in the vicinity of Elaine in rural Phillips County, Arkansas. Although official records of the time state that eleven black men and five white men were killed, estimates of the actual number of black people who were killed range from 100 to 237. The white mobs were aided by federal troops (requested by Arkansas governor Charles Brough) and vigilante militias like the Ku Klux Klan.




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