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  • Italy
    Saturday Nov 11, 1854

    Benito Mussolini's father

    Italy
    Saturday Nov 11, 1854

    Alessandro Mussolini was the father of Italian Fascist founder and leader Benito Mussolini, the father-in-law of Rachele Mussolini, and the paternal grandfather of Edda Mussolini, Romano Mussolini, Vittorio Mussolini, and Bruno Mussolini.




  • Predappio, Forlì-Cesena, Italy
    Sunday Jul 29, 1883

    Mussolini's Birth

    Predappio, Forlì-Cesena, Italy
    Sunday Jul 29, 1883

    Mussolini was born on 29 July 1883 in Dovia di Predappio, a small town in the province of Forlì in Romagna. Later, during the Fascist era, Predappio was dubbed "Duce's town" and Forlì was called "Duce's city", with pilgrims going to Predappio and Forlì to see the birthplace of Mussolini.




  • Switzerland
    1902

    Mussolini emigrated to Switzerland

    Switzerland
    1902

    In 1902, Mussolini emigrated to Switzerland, partly to avoid compulsory military service. He worked briefly as a stonemason in Geneva, Fribourg, and Bern, but was unable to find a permanent job.




  • Switzerland
    Thursday Mar 19, 1903

    Mussolini invited for general strike

    Switzerland
    Thursday Mar 19, 1903

    In 1903, he was arrested by the Bernese police because of his advocacy of a violent general strike, spent two weeks in jail, and was deported to Italy. After he was released there, he returned to Switzerland.




  • Switzerland
    1904

    Mussolini attended the University of Lausanne's

    Switzerland
    1904

    In 1904, Mussolini attended the University of Lausanne's Department of Social Science, following the lessons of Vilfredo Pareto.




  • Italy
    Dec, 1904

    Mussolini returned to Italy

    Italy
    Dec, 1904

    In December 1904, Mussolini returned to Italy to take advantage of an amnesty for desertion of the military. He had been convicted for this in absentia.




  • Italy
    Sep, 1906

    Mussolini served for two years in the military

    Italy
    Sep, 1906

    After serving for two years in the military (from January 1905 until September 1906), he returned to teaching.


  • Italy
    Sep, 1911

    Mussolini prisoned for five-month

    Italy
    Sep, 1911

    In September 1911, Mussolini participated in a riot, led by socialists, against the Italian war in Libya. He bitterly denounced Italy's "imperialist war", an action that earned him a five-month jail term.


  • Italy
    1912

    Mussolini was the editor of "Avanti"

    Italy
    1912

    In 1912, he became editor of the newspaper Avanti! to which he gave a violent suggestive and intransigent orientation.


  • Italy
    1914

    Mussolini supported the socialist parties

    Italy
    1914

    Mussolini supported a number of socialist parties at the beginning of the World War I in August 1914. Mussolini headed up the pro-Bolshevik wing of the Italian Socialist Party who purged moderate or reformist socialists.


  • Italy
    Saturday Sep 5, 1914

    Mussolini decried socialism

    Italy
    Saturday Sep 5, 1914

    On 5 December 1914, Mussolini denounced orthodox socialism for failing to recognize that the war had made national identity and loyalty more significant than class distinction. He fully demonstrated his transformation in a speech that acknowledged the nation as an entity, a notion he had rejected before the war.


  • Italy
    1915

    Mussolini joined the Italian army

    Italy
    1915

    In 1915, Mussolini joined the Italian army in World War I. He fought on the front lines and obtained the rank of corporal before being discharged for a war wound.


  • Italy
    Saturday Sep 25, 1915

    Mussolini's marriage

    Italy
    Saturday Sep 25, 1915

    On 25 December 1915, he contracted a marriage with his fellow countrywoman Rachele Guidi in Treviglio, who had already borne him a daughter, Edda.


  • Italy
    Feb, 1917

    Mussolini was injured severely

    Italy
    Feb, 1917

    Mussolini would ultimately be wounded in action in February 1917 and was injured severely enough that he had to be evacuated from the front.


  • Italy
    Sunday Mar 23, 1919

    Mussolini re-formed the Milan fascio as the Fasci Italiani di Combattimento

    Italy
    Sunday Mar 23, 1919

    On 23 March 1919, Mussolini re-formed the Milan fascio as the Fasci Italiani di Combattimento (Italian Combat Squad), consisting of 200 members.


  • Italy
    1919

    Mussolini's speech "Socialism as a doctrine was already dead"

    Italy
    1919

    Much later Mussolini said he felt by 1919 "Socialism as a doctrine was already dead; it continued to exist only as a grudge".


  • Italy
    Sep, 1920

    Mussolini's speech about "natural law"

    Italy
    Sep, 1920

    Mussolini asserted there was a "natural law" for stronger peoples to subject and dominate "inferior" peoples such as the "barbaric" Slavic peoples of Yugoslavia. He stated in a September 1920 speech.


  • Italy
    1921

    Mussolini won the election

    Italy
    1921

    In 1921, Mussolini won the election to the Chamber of Deputies for the first time.


  • Italy
    Saturday Oct 28, 1922

    Benito Mussolini took power

    Italy
    Saturday Oct 28, 1922

    On the morning of 28 October, King Victor Emmanuel III, who according to the Albertine Statute held the supreme military power, refused the government request to declare martial law, which led to Facta's resignation. The King then handed over power to Mussolini (who stayed in his headquarters in Milan during the talks) by asking him to form a new government.


  • Italy
    Dec, 1922

    Turin massacre

    Italy
    Dec, 1922

    The 1922 Turin massacre refers to the attack by Italian Fascists against members of a local labor movement in Turin, Italy, during a three-day terror campaign from 18–20 December 1922, to break the resistance of the labor movement and working-class to Fascism.


  • Greece
    1923

    Mussolini sent Italian forces to invade Corfu

    Greece
    1923

    In 1923, Mussolini sent Italian forces to invade Corfu during the Corfu incident. In the end, the League of Nations proved powerless, and Greece was forced to comply with Italian demands.


  • Italy
    Sunday Apr 6, 1924

    The national alliance won the elections

    Italy
    Sunday Apr 6, 1924

    In the elections of 6 April 1924. The national alliance, consisting of Fascists, most of the old Liberals, and others, won 64% of the vote.


  • Italy
    1924

    Contraception a criminal offense during Mussolini's rule

    Italy
    1924

    In 1924, Mussolini made advocating or giving information about contraception a criminal offense.


  • Italy
    Wednesday Dec 31, 1924

    Warings to Mussolini

    Italy
    Wednesday Dec 31, 1924

    On 31 December 1924, MVSN (Milizia Volontaria di Sicurezza Nazionale) consuls met with Mussolini and gave him an ultimatum: crush the opposition or they would do so without him. Fearing a revolt by his own militants, Mussolini decided to drop all pretense of democracy.


  • Italy
    1925

    Mussolini "the leader"

    Italy
    1925

    From 1925, Mussolini styled himself Il Duce (the leader).


  • Italy
    Thursday Dec 24, 1925

    Mussolini's formal title changed

    Italy
    Thursday Dec 24, 1925

    A law passed on 24 December 1925—Christmas Eve for the largely Roman Catholic country—changed Mussolini's formal title from "President of the Council of Ministers" to "Head of the Government", although he was still called "Prime Minister" by most non-Italian news sources.


  • Italy
    Wednesday Apr 7, 1926

    First assassination was failed

    Italy
    Wednesday Apr 7, 1926

    On 7 April 1926, Mussolini survived the first assassination attempt by Violet Gibson, an Irish woman, and daughter of Lord Ashbourne, who was deported after her arrest.


  • Italy
    Sunday Oct 31, 1926

    Second assassination was failed

    Italy
    Sunday Oct 31, 1926

    On 31 October 1926, 15-year-old Anteo Zamboni attempted to shoot Mussolini in Bologna. Zamboni was lynched on the spot.


  • Italy
    1926

    Mussolini plans to get ready for war

    Italy
    1926

    In 1926, Mussolini ordered every Italian woman to double the number of children that they were willing to bear. For Mussolini, Italy's current population of 40 million was insufficient to fight a major war, and he needed to increase the population to at least 60 million Italians before he would be ready for war.


  • Italy
    1927

    Mussolini was re-baptized

    Italy
    1927

    In 1927, Mussolini was re-baptized by a Roman Catholic priest.


  • Italy
    1928

    Battle for Land

    Italy
    1928

    Mussolini initiated the "Battle for Land", a policy based on land reclamation outlined.


  • Italy
    Monday Feb 11, 1929

    Mussolini signed a concordat and treaty with the Roman Catholic Church

    Italy
    Monday Feb 11, 1929

    On 11 February 1929, he signed a concordat and treaty with the Roman Catholic Church. Mussolini tried to win popular support by appeasing the Catholic majority in Italy.


  • Italy
    1929

    The 1929 treaty

    Italy
    1929

    The 1929 treaty included a legal provision whereby the Italian government would protect the honor and dignity of the Pope by prosecuting offenders.


  • Italy
    Jul, 1932

    Mussolini suggested an anti-French Italo-German alliance

    Italy
    Jul, 1932

    In July 1932, Mussolini sent a message to German Defense Minister General Kurt von Schleicher, suggesting an anti-French Italo-German alliance, an offer Schleicher responded to favorably, albeit with the condition that Germany needed to rearm first.


  • Italy
    1932

    Philosopher Giovanni Gentile and Mussolini made principles of the doctrine of Fascism

    Italy
    1932

    The principles of the doctrine of Fascism were laid down in an article by eminent philosopher Giovanni Gentile and Mussolini himself that appeared in 1932 in the Enciclopedia Italiana.


  • Italy
    Jan, 1936

    Mussolini meeting with the German Ambassador

    Italy
    Jan, 1936

    In January 1936, Mussolini told the German Ambassador Ulrich von Hassell that: "If Austria were in practice to become a German satellite, he would have no objection".


  • Italy
    Sunday Oct 25, 1936

    Mussolini agreement with Nazi Germany

    Italy
    Sunday Oct 25, 1936

    On 25 October 1936, Mussolini agreed to form a Rome-Berlin Axis, sanctioned by a cooperation agreement with Nazi Germany and signed in Berlin.


  • Italy
    Jan, 1937

    Gentleman's Agreement

    Italy
    Jan, 1937

    In January 1937, Britain signed a "Gentleman's Agreement" with Mussolini intended to limit Italian intervention in Spain, and was seen by the British Foreign Office as the first step towards creating an Anglo-Italian alliance.


  • Italy
    Apr, 1938

    Britain and Italy signed the Easter Accords

    Italy
    Apr, 1938

    In April 1938, Britain and Italy signed the Easter Accords under which Britain promised to recognize Ethiopia as Italian in exchange for Italy pulling out of the Spanish Civil War.


  • Italy
    1938

    Members of "TIGR" plotted to kill Mussolini

    Italy
    1938

    Members of TIGR, a Slovene anti-fascist group, plotted to kill Mussolini in Kobarid in 1938, but their attempt was unsuccessful.


  • Berlin, Germany
    Monday May 22, 1939

    The Pact of Steel

    Berlin, Germany
    Monday May 22, 1939

    The Axis agreement with Germany was strengthened by signing the Pact of Steel on 22 May 1939, which bound together Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany in a full military alliance.


  • Italy
    Monday Jun 10, 1940

    Italy declared war on Britain and France

    Italy
    Monday Jun 10, 1940

    As the Germans invaded France in June 1940, Mussolini announced Italy’s entrance into the war. Italy declared war on France and Great Britain on June 10, 1940.


  • Italy
    Thursday Aug 7, 1941

    Mussolini's third son was killed

    Italy
    Thursday Aug 7, 1941

    A third son, Bruno, was killed in an air accident while flying a Piaggio P.108 bomber on a test mission, on 7 August 1941.


  • Italy
    Wednesday Aug 26, 1942

    Mussolini's older son was murdered

    Italy
    Wednesday Aug 26, 1942

    Mussolini repeatedly told his son to stop declaring that he was his father. Benito Albino Mussolini was murdered on August 26, 1942, after repeated coma-inducing injections.


  • Egypt
    1942

    Mussolini entered the second world war in 1940

    Egypt
    1942

    Mussolini entered the war in 1940. Italy fared poorly from the outset, with ignominious defeats in North Africa, Greece, and the Soviet Union.


  • Italy
    1943

    The theory of economic socialization

    Italy
    1943

    In 1943, Mussolini proposed the theory of economic socialization.


  • Italy
    Sunday Jul 25, 1943

    Mussolini dismissal

    Italy
    Sunday Jul 25, 1943

    Italian radio statement announcing the dismissal of Mussolini and appointment of Badoglio, 25 July 1943.


  • Italy
    Sunday Sep 12, 1943

    Mussolini was rescued from his prison

    Italy
    Sunday Sep 12, 1943

    Mussolini was rescued by German troops from his prison in Campo Imperatore on 12 September 1943.


  • Italy and Malta
    Wednesday Oct 13, 1943

    Italy declared war on Nazi Germany

    Italy and Malta
    Wednesday Oct 13, 1943

    Italy finally declared war on Nazi Germany on 13 October 1943 from Malta. Thousands of troops were supplied to fight against the Germans, while others refused to switch sides and had joined the Germans. The Badoglio government held a political truce with the leftist partisans for the sake of Italy and to rid the land of the Nazis.


  • Italy
    Jun, 1944

    The fascist republic fought against the partisans

    Italy
    Jun, 1944

    The fascist republic fought against the partisans to keep control of the territory. The Fascists claimed their armed forces numbered 780,000 men and women, but sources indicate that there were no more than 558,000. Partisans and their active supporters numbered 82,000 in June 1944.


  • Italy
    Monday Jul 17, 1944

    Massacre in Florence

    Italy
    Monday Jul 17, 1944

    The Banda Carità, a special unit constituted within the 92nd Legion Blackshirts, operated in Tuscany and Veneto. It became infamous for violent repressions, such as the 1944 Piazza Tasso massacre in Florence.


  • Italy
    Wednesday Feb 7, 1945
    08:38:00 PM

    The Porzûs massacre

    Italy
    Wednesday Feb 7, 1945

    The Porzûs massacre was an intra-partisan massacre of the Italian resistance during late World War II, on 7 February 1945.


  • Spain
    Wednesday Apr 25, 1945

    Escaping to Spain

    Spain
    Wednesday Apr 25, 1945

    On 25 April 1945, Allied troops were advancing into northern Italy, and the collapse of the Salò Republic was imminent. Mussolini and his mistress Clara Petacci set out for Switzerland, intending to board a plane and escape to Spain.


  • Italy
    Saturday Apr 28, 1945

    Mussolini's death

    Italy
    Saturday Apr 28, 1945

    Mussolini was dead by execution by firing squad at Giulino di Mezzegra, Kingdom of Italy.


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