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  • Beijing, China
    Tuesday Jun 06, 1916

    Death of Yuan Shikai

    Beijing, China
    Tuesday Jun 06, 1916

    Following the collapse of the Qing dynasty in the aftermath of the Xinhai Revolution, China fell into a brief period of civil war before Yuan Shikai assumed the presidency of the newly formed Republic of China. The administration became known as the Beiyang Government, with its capital in Peking. Yuan Shikai was frustrated in a short-lived attempt to restore monarchy in China, with himself as the Hongxian Emperor. After the death of Yuan Shikai in 1916, the following years were characterized by the power struggle between different cliques in the former Beiyang Army. In the meantime, the Kuomintang, led by Sun Yat-sen, created a new government in Guangzhou to resist the rule of Beiyang Government through a series of movements.




  • Soviet Union, (Russia)
    1921

    Sun Yat-sen turned to the Soviet Union

    Soviet Union, (Russia)
    1921

    Sun's efforts to obtain aid from the several countries were ignored, thus he turned to the Soviet Union in 1921. For political expediency, the Soviet leadership initiated a dual policy of support for both Sun and the newly established Communist Party of China, which would eventually found the People's Republic of China. Thus the struggle for power in China began between the KMT and the CPC.




  • China
    1923

    Membership base

    China
    1923

    Communist members were allowed to join the KMT on an individual basis. The CPC itself was still small at the time, having a membership of 300 in 1922 and only 1,500 by 1925. As of 1923, the KMT had 50,000 members.




  • China
    Friday Jan 26, 1923

    Joint statement by Sun and Soviet representative Adolph Joffe in Shanghai pledged Soviet assistance to China's unification

    China
    Friday Jan 26, 1923

    In 1923, a joint statement by Sun and Soviet representative Adolph Joffe in Shanghai pledged Soviet assistance to China's unification. The Sun-Joffe Manifesto was a declaration of cooperation among the Comintern, KMT and CPC. Comintern agent Mikhail Borodin arrived in China in 1923 to aid in the reorganization and consolidation of the KMT along the lines of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. The CPC joined the KMT to form the First United Front.




  • China
    1924

    Chiang became the head of the Whampoa Military Academy

    China
    1924

    In 1923, Sun sent Chiang Kai-shek, one of his lieutenants from his Tongmenghui days, for several months of military and political study in the Soviet capital Moscow. By 1924, Chiang became the head of the Whampoa Military Academy, and rose to prominence as Sun's successor as head of the KMT.




  • China
    Thursday Mar 12, 1925

    Sun's Death

    China
    Thursday Mar 12, 1925

    However, after Sun died in 1925, the KMT split into left- and right-wing movements. KMT members worried that the Soviets were trying to destroy the KMT from inside using the CPC. The CPC then began movements in opposition of the Northern Expedition, passing a resolution against it at a party meeting.




  • China
    1927

    KMT-CPC rivalry led to a split in the revolutionary ranks

    China
    1927

    In early 1927, the KMT-CPC rivalry led to a split in the revolutionary ranks. The CPC and the left wing of the KMT had decided to move the seat of the KMT government from Guangzhou to Wuhan, where communist influence was strong.


  • China
    Mar, 1927

    KMT held its second party meeting where the Soviets helped pass resolutions against the Expedition

    China
    Mar, 1927

    Then, in March 1927, the KMT held its second party meeting where the Soviets helped pass resolutions against the Expedition and curbing Chiang's power. Soon, the KMT would be clearly divided.


  • China
    Thursday Apr 07, 1927

    Chiang and several other KMT leaders held a meeting during which they proposed that Communist activities

    China
    Thursday Apr 07, 1927

    On April 7, Chiang and several other KMT leaders held a meeting, during which they proposed that Communist activities were socially and economically disruptive and had to be undone for the Nationalist revolution to proceed.


  • Nanchang, China
    Monday Aug 01, 1927

    The Communist Party launched an uprising in Nanchang

    Nanchang, China
    Monday Aug 01, 1927

    On 1 August 1927, the Communist Party launched an uprising in Nanchang against the Nationalist government in Wuhan. This conflict led to the creation of the Red Army.


  • China
    Sunday Aug 07, 1927

    CPC meeting confirmed the objective of the party was to seize the political power by force

    China
    Sunday Aug 07, 1927

    A CPC (Communist Party of China) meeting on August 7 confirmed the objective of the party was to seize the political power by force, but the CPC was quickly suppressed the next day on August 8 by the Nationalist government in Wuhan led by Wang Jingwei.


  • China
    Sunday Aug 14, 1927

    Chiang Kai-shek announced his temporary retirement

    China
    Sunday Aug 14, 1927

    On August 14, Chiang Kai-shek announced his temporary retirement, as the Wuhan faction and Nanjing faction of the Kuomintang were allied once again with common goal of suppressing the Communist Party after the earlier split.


  • Nanchang, China
    Sunday Sep 04, 1927

    Nationalist forces quickly reoccupied Nanchang

    Nanchang, China
    Sunday Sep 04, 1927

    On August 4, the main forces of the Red Army left Nanchang and headed southwards for an assault on Guangdong. Nationalist forces quickly reoccupied Nanchang while the remaining members of the CPC in Nanchang went into hiding.


  • Guangzhou, China
    Sunday Dec 11, 1927

    Guangzhou Uprising

    Guangzhou, China
    Sunday Dec 11, 1927

    On December 11, the CPC started the Guangzhou Uprising, establishing a soviet there the next day, but lost the city by December 13 to a counter-attack under the orders of General Zhang Fakui.


  • France
    Friday Dec 16, 1927

    Wang Jingwei fled to France

    France
    Friday Dec 16, 1927

    On December 16, Wang Jingwei fled to France. There were now three capitals in China: the internationally recognized republic capital in Beijing, the CPC and left-wing KMT (Kuomintang) at Wuhan and the right-wing KMT regime at Nanjing, which would remain the KMT capital for the next decade.


  • Beijing, China
    Jun, 1928

    KMT captured Beijing

    Beijing, China
    Jun, 1928

    Eventually, the left wing of the KMT also expelled CPC members from the Wuhan government, which in turn was toppled by Chiang Kai-shek. The KMT resumed its campaign against warlords and captured Beijing in June 1928.


  • China
    1931

    Japan's invasion and occupation of Manchuria

    China
    1931

    During Japan's invasion and occupation of Manchuria Chiang Kai-shek, who saw the CPC (Communist Party of China) as a greater threat, refused to ally with them to fight against the Imperial Japanese Army. Chiang preferred to unite China by eliminating the warlords and CPC forces first. He believed that he was still too weak to launch an offensive to chase out Japan and that China needed time for a military build-up. Only after unification would it be possible for the KMT (Kuomintang) to mobilize a war against Japan. So he would rather ignore the discontent and anger among Chinese people at his policy of compromise with the Japanese, and ordered KMT generals Zhang Xueliang and Yang Hucheng to carry out suppression of the CPC; however, their provincial forces suffered significant casualties in battles with the Red Army.


  • China
    1934

    Chiang launched a fifth campaign that involved the systematic encirclement of the Jiangxi Soviet region

    China
    1934

    Finally, in late 1934, Chiang launched a fifth campaign that involved the systematic encirclement of the Jiangxi Soviet region with fortified blockhouses.


  • China
    Oct, 1934

    CPC took advantage and broke out of the encirclement

    China
    Oct, 1934

    In October 1934 the CPC took advantage of gaps in the ring of blockhouses (manned by the forces of a warlord ally of Chiang Kai-shek's, rather than regular KMT troops) and broke out of the encirclement.


  • China
    1936

    Chiang was placed under house arrest

    China
    1936

    In 1936, Zhou Enlai and Zhang Xueliang grew closer, with Zhang even suggesting that he join the CPC. However, this was turned down by the Comintern in the USSR. Later on, Zhou persuaded Zhang and Yang Hucheng, another warlord, to instigate the Xi'an Incident. Chiang was placed under house arrest and forced to stop his attacks on the Red Army, instead focusing on the Japanese threat.


  • Xi'an, China
    Saturday Dec 12, 1936

    Xi'an Incident

    Xi'an, China
    Saturday Dec 12, 1936

    On 12 December 1936, the disgruntled Zhang Xueliang and Yang Hucheng conspired to kidnap Chiang and force him into a truce with the CPC. The incident became known as the Xi'an Incident.


  • China
    1937

    Japan launched its full-scale invasion of China

    China
    1937

    In 1937 Japan launched its full-scale invasion of China and its well-equipped troops overran KMT defenders in northern and coastal China.


  • China
    1940s

    The level of actual cooperation and coordination between the CPC and KMT during World War II was at best minimal

    China
    1940s

    The alliance of CPC and KMT was in name only. Unlike the KMT forces, CPC troops shunned conventional warfare and instead engaged in guerrilla warfare against the Japanese. The level of actual cooperation and coordination between the CPC and KMT during World War II was at best minimal. In the midst of the Second United Front, the CPC and the KMT were still vying for territorial advantage in "Free China" (i.e., areas not occupied by the Japanese or ruled by Japanese puppet governments such as Manchukuo and the Reorganized National Government of China).


  • China
    1941

    The situation came to a head in late 1940 and early 1941 when clashes between Communist and KMT forces intensified

    China
    1941

    The situation came to a head in late 1940 and early 1941 when clashes between Communist and KMT forces intensified. Chiang demanded in December 1940 that the CPC's New Fourth Army evacuate Anhui and Jiangsu Provinces, due to its provocation and harassment of KMT forces in this area. Under intense pressure, the New Fourth Army commanders complied. The following year they were ambushed by KMT forces during their evacuation, which led to several thousand deaths.


  • China
    1943

    Chiang attacked the CPC in 1943 with the propaganda piece China's Destiny

    China
    1943

    Chiang attacked the CPC in 1943 with the propaganda piece China's Destiny, which questioned the CPC's power after the war, while the CPC strongly opposed Chiang's leadership and referred to his regime as fascist in an attempt to generate a negative public image. Both leaders knew that a deadly battle had begun between themselves.


  • Japan
    1945

    Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation

    Japan
    1945

    In the last month of World War II in East Asia, Soviet forces launched the huge Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation to attack the Japanese 2 million strong Kwantung Army in Manchuria and along the Chinese-Mongolian border.


  • China
    1945

    Communist Party Liberated Zone

    China
    1945

    By the end of the Second Sino-Japanese War, the power of the Communist Party grew considerably. Their main force grew to 1.2 million troops, backed with additional militia of 2 million, totalling 3.2 million troops. Their "Liberated Zone" in 1945 contained 19 base areas, including one-quarter of the country's territory and one-third of its population; this included many important towns and cities.


  • Chongqing, China
    Tuesday Aug 28, 1945

    First post-war peace negotiation

    Chongqing, China
    Tuesday Aug 28, 1945

    The first post-war peace negotiation was attended by both Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Zedong in Chongqing from 28 August 1945.


  • Chongqing, China
    Wednesday Oct 10, 1945

    Double Tenth Agreement

    Chongqing, China
    Wednesday Oct 10, 1945

    On 10 October 1945 the signing of the Double Tenth Agreement. Both sides stressed the importance of a peaceful reconstruction, but the conference did not produce any concrete results.


  • China
    Thursday Nov 15, 1945

    Preventing the CPC from strengthening its already strong base

    China
    Thursday Nov 15, 1945

    KMT troops were then airlifted by the US to occupy key cities in North China, while the countryside was already dominated by the CPC. On 15 November 1945, an offensive began with the intent of preventing the CPC from strengthening its already strong base.


  • Jinzhou, China
    Monday Nov 26, 1945

    Chiang Kai-shek's forces pushed as far as Chinchow (Jinzhou)

    Jinzhou, China
    Monday Nov 26, 1945

    Chiang Kai-shek's forces pushed as far as Chinchow (Jinzhou) by 26 November 1945, meeting with little resistance. This was followed by a Communist offensive on the Shandong Peninsula that was largely successful, as all of the peninsula, except what was controlled by the US, fell to the Communists.


  • China
    Mar, 1946

    The Soviet Red Army under the command of Marshal Rodion Malinovsky continued to delay pulling out of Manchuria

    China
    Mar, 1946

    In March 1946, despite repeated requests from Chiang, the Soviet Red Army under the command of Marshal Rodion Malinovsky continued to delay pulling out of Manchuria, while Malinovsky secretly told the CPC forces to move in behind them, which led to full-scale war for the control of the Northeast.


  • China
    Wednesday Mar 27, 1946

    Soviet diplomats requested a joint venture of industrial development with the Nationalist Party in Manchuria

    China
    Wednesday Mar 27, 1946

    Prior to giving control to Communist leaders, on March 27 Soviet diplomats requested a joint venture of industrial development with the Nationalist Party in Manchuria.


  • China
    Wednesday Jun 26, 1946

    The truce fell apart in June 1946 when full-scale war between CPC and KMT forces broke out

    China
    Wednesday Jun 26, 1946

    The truce fell apart in June 1946 when full-scale war between CPC and KMT forces broke out on June 26. China then entered a state of civil war that lasted more than three years.


  • China
    Saturday Jul 20, 1946

    Large-scale assault on Communist territory

    China
    Saturday Jul 20, 1946

    On 20 July 1946, Chiang Kai-shek launched a large-scale assault on Communist territory in North China with 113 brigades (a total of 1.6 million troops).


  • Yanan, China
    Mar, 1947

    Symbolic victory

    Yanan, China
    Mar, 1947

    In March 1947 the KMT achieved a symbolic victory by seizing the CPC capital of Yan'an.


  • Shanghai, China
    Saturday Apr 12, 1947

    Shanghai Massacre

    Shanghai, China
    Saturday Apr 12, 1947

    On April 12, in Shanghai, many Communist members in the KMT were purged through hundreds of arrests and executions on the orders of General Bai Chongxi. The CPC referred to this as the April 12 Incident or Shanghai Massacre. This incident widened the rift between Chiang and Wang Jingwei, another warlord who controlled the city of Wuhan.


  • China
    Monday Jun 30, 1947

    The Communists counterattacked

    China
    Monday Jun 30, 1947

    The Communists counterattacked soon afterwards; on 30 June 1947 CPC troops crossed the Yellow River and moved to the Dabie Mountains area, restored and developed the Central Plain. At the same time, Communist forces also began to counterattack in Northeastern China, North China and East China.


  • China
    1948

    Huaihai Campaign

    China
    1948

    The Huaihai Campaign of late 1948 and early 1949 secured east-central China for the CPC.


  • China
    1948

    CPC eventually captured the northern cities

    China
    1948

    By late 1948, the CPC eventually captured the northern cities of Shenyang and Changchun and seized control of the Northeast after suffering numerous setbacks while trying to take the cities, with the decisive Liaoshen Campaign.


  • Changchun, China
    May, 1948

    Siege of Changchun

    Changchun, China
    May, 1948

    The New 1st Army, regarded as the best KMT army, was forced to surrender after the CPC conducted a brutal six-month siege of Changchun that resulted in more than 150,000 civilian deaths from starvation.


  • China
    Friday Sep 24, 1948

    Jinan and Shandong Captured

    China
    Friday Sep 24, 1948

    Following a fierce battle, the CPC captured Jinan and Shandong province on 24 September 1948.


  • China
    Sunday Nov 21, 1948

    Pingjin Campaign

    China
    Sunday Nov 21, 1948

    The Pingjin Campaign resulted in the Communist conquest of northern China. It lasted 64 days, from 21 November 1948, to 31 January 1949.


  • China
    1949

    Only Tibet was left

    China
    1949

    By late 1949 the People's Liberation Army was pursuing remnants of KMT forces southwards in southern China, and only Tibet was left.


  • Yangtze River, China
    Thursday Apr 21, 1949

    Yangtze River Crossing Campaign

    Yangtze River, China
    Thursday Apr 21, 1949

    After achieving decisive victory at Liaoshen, Huaihai and Pingjin campaigns, the CPC wiped out 144 regular and 29 irregular KMT divisions, including 1.54 million veteran KMT troops, which significantly reduced the strength of Nationalist forces. Stalin initially favored a coalition government in postwar China, and tried to persuade Mao to stop the CPC from crossing the Yangtze and attacking the KMT positions south of the river. Mao rejected Stalin's position and on 21 April, and began the Yangtze River Crossing Campaign.


  • Nanjing, China
    Saturday Apr 23, 1949

    CPC captured the KMT's capital

    Nanjing, China
    Saturday Apr 23, 1949

    On 23 April CPC captured the KMT's capital, Nanjing.


  • Beijing, China
    Saturday Oct 01, 1949

    Founding of the People's Republic of China

    Beijing, China
    Saturday Oct 01, 1949

    On 1 October 1949, Mao Zedong proclaimed the founding of the People's Republic of China with its capital at Beijng, which was returned to the former name Beijing.


  • Guangzhou, China
    Saturday Oct 15, 1949

    Retreated to Guangzhou

    Guangzhou, China
    Saturday Oct 15, 1949

    The KMT government retreated to Canton (Guangzhou) until October 15.


  • Chongqing, China
    Friday Nov 25, 1949

    Retreated to Chongqing

    Chongqing, China
    Friday Nov 25, 1949

    The KMT government retreated to Chongqing until November 25.


  • Taiwan
    Saturday Dec 10, 1949

    Retreated to Taiwan

    Taiwan
    Saturday Dec 10, 1949

    The KMT government retreated to Chengdu before retreating to Taiwan on December 10.


  • Chengdu, China
    Saturday Dec 10, 1949

    Fall of Chengdu

    Chengdu, China
    Saturday Dec 10, 1949

    Isolated Nationalist pockets of resistance remained in the area, but the majority of the resistance collapsed after the fall of Chengdu on 10 December 1949, with some resistance continuing in the far south.


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