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  • London, England
    1872

    The First modern analog Computer

    London, England
    1872

    During the first half of the 20th century, many scientific computing needs were met by increasingly sophisticated analog computers, which used a direct mechanical or electrical model of the problem as a basis for computing. However, these were not programmable and generally lacked the versatility and accuracy of modern digital computers. The first modern analog computer was a tide-predicting machine, invented by Sir William Thomson in 1872.




  • England
    1888

    First Computing Device

    England
    1888

    Charles Babbage, an English mechanical engineer and polymath, originated the concept of a programmable computer. Considered the "father of the computer", he conceptualized and invented the first mechanical computer in the early 19th century. After working on his revolutionary difference engine, designed to aid in navigational calculations, in 1833 he realized that a much more general design, an Analytical Engine, was possible. The input of programs and data was to be provided to the machine via punched cards, a method being used at the time to direct mechanical looms such as the Jacquard loom. For output, the machine would have a printer, a curve plotter and a bell. The machine would also be able to punch numbers onto cards to be read in later. The Engine incorporated an arithmetic logic unit, control flow in the form of conditional branching and loops, and integrated memory, making it the first design for a general-purpose computer that could be described in modern terms as Turing-complete. The machine was about a century ahead of its time. All the parts for his machine had to be made by hand – this was a major problem for a device with thousands of parts. Eventually, the project was dissolved with the decision of the British Government to cease funding. Babbage's failure to complete the analytical engine can be chiefly attributed to political and financial difficulties as well as his desire to develop an increasingly sophisticated computer and to move ahead faster than anyone else could follow. Nevertheless, his son, Henry Babbage, completed a simplified version of the analytical engine's computing unit (the mill) in 1888. He gave a successful demonstration of its use in computing tables in 1906.




  • Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.
    1927

    The art of mechanical analog computing reached its zenith

    Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.
    1927

    The art of mechanical analog computing reached its zenith with the differential analyzer, built by H. L. Hazen and Vannevar Bush at MIT starting in 1927. This built on the mechanical integrators of James Thomson and the torque amplifiers invented by H. W. Nieman. A dozen of these devices were built before their obsolescence became obvious. By the 1950s, the success of digital electronic computers had spelled the end for most analog computing machines, but analog computers remained in use during the 1950s in some specialized applications such as education (control systems) and aircraft (slide rule).




  • Germany
    Thursday Nov 12, 1936

    The principle of The Modern Computer

    Germany
    Thursday Nov 12, 1936

    The principle of the modern computer was proposed by Alan Turing in his seminal 1936 paper,On Computable Numbers. Turing proposed a simple device that he called "Universal Computing machine" and that is now known as a universal Turing machine. He proved that such a machine is capable of computing anything that is computable by executing instructions (program) stored on tape, allowing the machine to be programmable. The fundamental concept of Turing's design is the stored program, where all the instructions for computing are stored in memory. Von Neumann acknowledged that the central concept of the modern computer was due to this paper.




  • Germany
    1939

    One of The Earliest Examples of an Electromechanical relay Computer.

    Germany
    1939

    Early digital computers were electromechanical; electric switches drove mechanical relays to perform the calculation. These devices had a low operating speed and were eventually superseded by much faster all-electric computers, originally using vacuum tubes. The Z2, created by German engineer Konrad Zuse in 1939, was one of the earliest examples of an electromechanical relay computer.




  • Germany
    1941

    The world's First working Electromechanical Programmable

    Germany
    1941

    In 1941, Zuse followed his earlier machine up with the Z3, the world's first working electromechanical programmable, fully automatic digital computer. The Z3 was built with 2000 relays, implementing a 22 bit word length that operated at a clock frequency of about 5–10 Hz. Program code was supplied on punched film while data could be stored in 64 words of memory or supplied from the keyboard.




  • Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, U.S.
    1942

    The First "automatic electronic digital computer"

    Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, U.S.
    1942

    In the US, John Vincent Atanasoff and Clifford E. Berry of Iowa State University developed and tested the Atanasoff–Berry Computer (ABC) in 1942, the first "automatic electronic digital computer". This design was also all-electronic and used about 300 vacuum tubes, with capacitors fixed in a mechanically rotating drum for memory.


  • London, England
    Dec, 1943

    The World's First Electronic Digital Programmable Computer

    London, England
    Dec, 1943

    During World War II, the British at Bletchley Park achieved a number of successes at breaking encrypted German military communications. The German encryption machine, Enigma, was first attacked with the help of the electro-mechanical bombes which were often run by women. To crack the more sophisticated German Lorenz SZ 40/42 machine, used for high-level Army communications, Max Newman and his colleagues commissioned Flowers to build the Colossus. He spent eleven months from early February 1943 designing and building the first Colossus. After a functional test in December 1943, Colossus was shipped to Bletchley Park, where it was delivered on 18 January 1944. Colossus was the world's first electronic digital programmable computer.


  • Bletchley Park, Sherwood Dr, Bletchley, Milton Keynes, England
    Saturday Feb 05, 1944

    Colossus's First Attack

    Bletchley Park, Sherwood Dr, Bletchley, Milton Keynes, England
    Saturday Feb 05, 1944

    The Colossus attacked its first message on 5 February 1944.


  • University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
    1945

    The First Electronic Programmable Computer built In The U.S.

    University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
    1945

    The ENIAC(Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) was the first electronic programmable computer built in the U.S. Although the ENIAC was similar to the Colossus, it was much faster, more flexible, and it was Turing-complete. It combined the high speed of electronics with the ability to be programmed for many complex problems. It could add or subtract 5000 times a second, a thousand times faster than any other machine. It also had modules to multiply, divide, and square root. High speed memory was limited to 20 words (about 80 bytes). Built under the direction of John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert at the University of Pennsylvania, ENIAC's development and construction lasted from 1943 to full operation at the end of 1945. The machine was huge, weighing 30 tons, using 200 kilowatts of electric power and contained over 18,000 vacuum tubes, 1,500 relays, and hundreds of thousands of resistors, capacitors, and inductors.


  • Murray Hill, New Jersey, U.S.
    Dec, 1947

    The Invention of The Bipolar Transistor

    Murray Hill, New Jersey, U.S.
    Dec, 1947

    William Shockley, John Bardeen and Walter Brattain at Bell Labs invented the first practical transistor, the point-contact transistor, in 1947.


  • Manchester, England
    Monday Jun 21, 1948

    The world's First Stored-Program Computer

    Manchester, England
    Monday Jun 21, 1948

    The Manchester Baby was the world's first stored-program computer. It was built at the Victoria University of Manchester by Frederic C. Williams, Tom Kilburn and Geoff Tootill, and ran its first program on 21 June 1948. It was designed as a testbed for the Williams tube, the first random-access digital storage device. Although the computer was considered "small and primitive" by the standards of its time, it was the first working machine to contain all of the elements essential to a modern electronic computer.


  • Washington, D.C., U.S.
    Wednesday May 07, 1952

    The First public description of an integrated Circuit

    Washington, D.C., U.S.
    Wednesday May 07, 1952

    The next great advance in computing power came with the advent of the integrated circuit. The idea of the integrated circuit was first conceived by a radar scientist working for the Royal Radar Establishment of the Ministry of Defence, Geoffrey W.A. Dummer. Dummer presented the first public description of an integrated circuit at the Symposium on Progress in Quality Electronic Components in Washington, D.C. on 7 May 1952.


  • Harwell, Didcot, England
    Feb, 1955

    The First Completely Transistorized Computer

    Harwell, Didcot, England
    Feb, 1955

    The first completely transistorized computer was the Harwell CADET of 1955, built by the electronics division of the Atomic Energy Research Establishment at Harwell.


  • Texas, U.S.
    Friday Sep 12, 1958

    The First working integrated example

    Texas, U.S.
    Friday Sep 12, 1958

    The first practical ICs were invented by Jack Kilby at Texas Instruments and Robert Noyce at Fairchild Semiconductor. Kilby recorded his initial ideas concerning the integrated circuit in July 1958, successfully demonstrating the first working integrated example on 12 September 1958.


  • Texas, U.S.
    Friday Feb 06, 1959

    Kilby's patent application

    Texas, U.S.
    Friday Feb 06, 1959

    In Kilby's patent application of 6 February 1959, Kilby described his new device as "a body of semiconductor material ... wherein all the components of the electronic circuit are completely integrated".


  • U.S.
    1971

    The First single-chip microprocessor

    U.S.
    1971

    The first single-chip microprocessor was the Intel 4004, designed and realized by Ted Hoff, Federico Faggin, and Stanley Mazor at Intel.


  • U.S.
    Thursday Apr 01, 1982

    The Grid Compass

    U.S.
    Thursday Apr 01, 1982

    The first mobile computers were heavy and ran from mains power. The first laptops, such as the Grid Compass, removed this requirement by incorporating batteries – and with the continued miniaturization of computing resources and advancements in portable battery life.


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