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  • Roman Empire (now Turkey)
    Friday Dec 13, 0115

    115 Antioch Earthquake

    Roman Empire (now Turkey)
    Friday Dec 13, 0115

    The 115 Antioch earthquake occurred on 13 December 115 AD. It had an estimated magnitude of 7.5 on the surface wave magnitude scale and an estimated maximum intensity of XI (Extreme) on the Mercalli intensity scale. The origin of the reported death toll of 260,000 is uncertain, as it only appears in catalogues of about the last hundred years.



  • Roman Empire
    2nd Century

    Antonine Plague

    Roman Empire
    2nd Century

    The Antonine Plague of 165 to 180 AD, also known as the Plague of Galen (from the name of the Greek physician living in the Roman Empire who described it), was an ancient pandemic brought back to the Roman Empire by troops returning from campaigns in the Near East. The disease broke out again nine years later, according to the Roman historian Dio Cassius (155–235), causing up to 2,000 deaths a day in Rome, one quarter of those who were affected, giving the disease a mortality rate of about 25%. The total deaths have been estimated at five million, and the disease killed as much as one-third of the population in some areas and devastated the Roman army.



  • Roman Empire (now Turkey)
    0342

    342 Antioch Earthquake

    Roman Empire (now Turkey)
    0342

    342 Antioch earthquake occurred on 342, in Roman Empire (now Turkey), there were an estimated 40,000 deaths.



  • Crete, Greece
    Saturday Jul 21, 0356

    365 Crete Earthquake

    Crete, Greece
    Saturday Jul 21, 0356

    The 365 Crete earthquake occurred at about sunrise on 21 July 365 in the Eastern Mediterranean, with an assumed epicentre near Crete. Geologists today estimate the undersea earthquake to have been a magnitude 8.0 or higher. The Crete earthquake was followed by a tsunami which devastated the southern and eastern coasts of the Mediterranean, particularly Libya, Alexandria and the Nile Delta, killing thousands and hurling ships 3 km (1.9 mi) inland.



  • Byzantine Empire (now Turkey)
    Sep, 0458

    458 Antioch Earthquake

    Byzantine Empire (now Turkey)
    Sep, 0458

    458 Antioch earthquake occurred in September 458 in Byzantine Empire (now Turkey), there were an estimated 80,000 deaths.



  • Byzantine Empire (now Turkey)
    May, 0526

    526 Antioch Earthquake

    Byzantine Empire (now Turkey)
    May, 0526

    The 526 Antioch earthquake hit Syria (region) and Antioch in the Byzantine Empire in 526. It struck during late May, probably between 20–29 May, at mid-morning, killing approximately 250,000 people. The earthquake was followed by a fire that destroyed most of the buildings left standing by the earthquake. The maximum intensity in Antioch is estimated to be between VIII (Severe) and IX (Violent) on the Mercalli intensity scale.



  • Byzantine Empire (now Syria)
    Sunday Nov 29, 0533

    533 Aleppo Earthquake

    Byzantine Empire (now Syria)
    Sunday Nov 29, 0533

    533 Aleppo earthquake occurred on November 29, 533 in Byzantine Empire (now Syria), there were an estimated 130,000 deaths.

  • Asia, Europe, Africa
    550s

    Plague of Justinian

    Asia, Europe, Africa
    550s

    The Plague of Justinian (541–542 AD) was a pandemic that afflicted the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire and especially its capital, Constantinople, as well as the Sasanian Empire, and port cities around the entire Mediterranean Sea, as merchant ships harbored rats that carried fleas infected with plague. Some historians believe the plague of Justinian was one of the deadliest pandemics in history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated 25–50 million people during two centuries of recurrence, a death toll equivalent to 13–26% of the world's population at the time of the first outbreak.

  • Byzantine Empire (now Turkey)
    Sunday Sep 30, 0587

    587 Antioch Earthquake

    Byzantine Empire (now Turkey)
    Sunday Sep 30, 0587

    587 Antioch earthquake occurred on September 30, 587 in Byzantine Empire (now Turkey), there were an estimated 60,000 deaths.

  • China
    0616

    Destroying a Wall-Attacking Tower

    China
    0616

    A large meteorite fell onto the rebel Lu Ming-Yueh's camp, destroying a wall-attacking tower in 616. The death toll from this enent is estimated to be more than 10 people.

  • Umayyad Caliphate (now Iran)
    Saturday Apr 26, 0662

    662 Damghan Earthquake

    Umayyad Caliphate (now Iran)
    Saturday Apr 26, 0662

    662 Damghan earthquake occurred on April 26, 662, in Umayyad Caliphate (now Iran), there were an estimated 40,000 deaths.

  • Abbasid Caliphate (now Syria)
    Sunday Sep 18, 0844

    844 Damascus Earthquake

    Abbasid Caliphate (now Syria)
    Sunday Sep 18, 0844

    844 Damascus earthquake occurred on September 18, 844, in Abbasid Caliphate (now Syria), there were an estimated 50,000 deaths.

  • Abbasid Caliphate (now Syria)
    0847

    847 Damascus Earthquake

    Abbasid Caliphate (now Syria)
    0847

    847 Damascus earthquake occurred in 847, in Abbasid Caliphate (now Syria), there were an estimated 70,000 deaths.

  • Abbasid Caliphate (now Iran)
    Friday Jul 15, 0850

    850 Iran Earthquake

    Abbasid Caliphate (now Iran)
    Friday Jul 15, 0850

    850 Iran earthquake occurred on July 15, 850, in Abbasid Caliphate (now Iran), there were an estimated 45,000 deaths.

  • Byzantine Empire (now Greece)
    Nov, 0856

    856 Corinth Earthquake

    Byzantine Empire (now Greece)
    Nov, 0856

    856 Corinth earthquake occurred in November 856, in Byzantine Empire (now Greece), there were an estimated 45,000 deaths.

  • Abbasid Caliphate (now Tunisia)
    Sunday Dec 03, 0856

    856 Tunisia Earthquake

    Abbasid Caliphate (now Tunisia)
    Sunday Dec 03, 0856

    856 Tunisia earthquake occurred on December 3, 856, in Abbasid Caliphate (now Tunisia), there were an estimated 45,000 deaths.

  • Abbasid Caliphate (now Iran)
    Friday Dec 22, 0856

    856 Damghan Earthquake

    Abbasid Caliphate (now Iran)
    Friday Dec 22, 0856

    The 856 Damghan earthquake or the 856 Qumis earthquake occurred on 22 December 856 (242 AH). The earthquake had an estimated magnitude of 7.9, and a maximum intensity of X (Extreme) on the Mercalli intensity scale. The earthquake's epicenter is estimated to be close to the city of Damghan, which was then the capital of the Persian province of Qumis. It caused approximately 200,000 deaths and is listed by the USGS as the sixth deadliest earthquake in recorded history.

  • Abbasid Caliphate (now Iran)
    Monday Mar 23, 0893

    893 Ardabil Earthquake

    Abbasid Caliphate (now Iran)
    Monday Mar 23, 0893

    Several earthquake catalogues and historical sources describe the 893 Ardabil earthquake as a destructive earthquake that struck the city of Ardabil, Iran, on 23 March 893. The magnitude is unknown, but the death toll was reported to be very large. The USGS, in their "List of Earthquakes with 50,000 or More Deaths", give an estimate that 150,000 were killed, which would make it the ninth deadliest earthquake in history.

  • Iran
    Monday Jun 21, 0990
    07:30:00 AM

    1990 Manjil–Rudbar Earthquake

    Iran
    Monday Jun 21, 0990

    The 1990 Manjil–Rudbar earthquake occurred on June 21 at 00:30:14 local time in northern Iran. The shock had a moment magnitude of 7.4 and a Mercalli Intensity of X (Extreme). Widespread damage occurred to the northwest of the capital city of Tehran, including the cities of Rudbar and Manjil. The National Geophysical Data Center estimated that $8 billion in damage occurred in the affected area. Other earthquake catalogs presented estimates of the loss of life in the range of 35,000–50,000, with a further 60,000–105,000 that were injured.

  • Sumatra and Kalimantan, Indonesia
    Sep, 0997

    1997 Indonesian Forest Fires

    Sumatra and Kalimantan, Indonesia
    Sep, 0997

    The 1997 group of forest fires in Indonesia that lasted well into 1998 were probably among the two or three, if not the largest, forest fires group in the last two centuries of recorded history. In the middle of 1997 forest fires burning in Indonesia began to affect neighbouring countries, spreading thick clouds of smoke and haze to Malaysia and Singapore. A total of 240 people perished in the wildfires.

  • Fatimid Caliphate (now West Bank),
    Tuesday Dec 10, 1033

    1033 Ramala Earthquake

    Fatimid Caliphate (now West Bank),
    Tuesday Dec 10, 1033

    1033 Ramala earthquake occurred on December 10, 1033 in Fatimid Caliphate (now West Bank), there were an estimated 77,000 deaths.

  • Abbasid Caliphate (now Iran)
    Friday Nov 04, 1042

    1042 Tabriz Earthquake

    Abbasid Caliphate (now Iran)
    Friday Nov 04, 1042

    1042 Tabriz earthquake occurred on November 4, 1042, in Abbasid Caliphate (now Iran), there were an estimated 50,000 deaths.

  • Great Seljuq Empire (now Iran)
    1101

    1101 Khorasan Earthquake

    Great Seljuq Empire (now Iran)
    1101

    1101 Khorasan earthquake occurred in 1101, in Great Seljuq Empire (now Iran), there were an estimated 60,000 deaths.

  • Zengid dynasty (now Syria)
    Tuesday Oct 11, 1138

    1138 Aleppo Earthquake

    Zengid dynasty (now Syria)
    Tuesday Oct 11, 1138

    The 1138 Aleppo earthquake was among the deadliest earthquakes in history. Its name was taken from the city of Aleppo, in northern Syria, where the most casualties were sustained. The quake occurred on 11 October 1138 and was preceded by a smaller quake on the 10th. However, the figure of 230,000 dead is based on a historical conflation of this earthquake with earthquakes in November 1137 on the Jazira plain and the large seismic event of 30 September 1139 in the Transcaucasian city of Ganja. The first mention of a 230,000 death toll was by Ibn Taghribirdi in the fifteenth century.

  • Zengid dynasty (now Syria)
    1169

    1169 Aleppo Earthquake

    Zengid dynasty (now Syria)
    1169

    1169 Aleppo earthquake occurred in 1169, in Zengid dynasty (now Syria), there were an estimated 80,000 deaths.

  • Holy Roman Empire
    1212

    North Sea Flood

    Holy Roman Empire
    1212

    North Sea flood happened in 1212, in Holy Roman Empire. The death toll from this flood is estimated to be 60,000 people.

  • Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (now Turkey)
    1268

    1268 Cilicia Earthquake

    Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (now Turkey)
    1268

    The Cilicia earthquake occurred northeast of the city of Adana in 1268. Over 60,000 people perished in the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia in southern Asia Minor.

  • Holy Roman Empire
    Sunday Dec 14, 1287

    St. Lucia's Flood

    Holy Roman Empire
    Sunday Dec 14, 1287

    St. Lucia's flood (Sint-Luciavloed) was a storm tide that affected the Netherlands and Northern Germany on 14 December 1287, the day after St. Lucia Day, killing approximately 50,000 to 80,000 people in one of the largest floods in recorded history.

  • Mongol Empire (now China)
    Wednesday Sep 27, 1290

    1290 Chihli Earthquake

    Mongol Empire (now China)
    Wednesday Sep 27, 1290

    The 1290 Chihli earthquake occurred on 27 September with an epicenter near Ningcheng, Zhongshu Sheng (Zhili or Chihli), Yuan Empire. The earthquake had an estimated surface wave magnitude of 6.8 and a maximum felt intensity of IX (Violent) on the Mercalli intensity scale. One estimate places the death toll at 7,270, while another has it at 100,000.

  • Mongol Empire (now China)
    Tuesday Sep 25, 1303

    1303 Hongdong Earthquake

    Mongol Empire (now China)
    Tuesday Sep 25, 1303

    The 1303 Hongdong earthquake occurred in China, then part of the Mongol Empire, on September 25. The shock was estimated to have a magnitude of 8.0 and it had a maximum Mercalli intensity of XI (Extreme). With catastrophic damage, it was one of the deadliest recorded earthquakes of all time. In Taiyuan and Pingyang, nearly 100,000 houses collapsed and over 200,000 people died from collapsing buildings and loess caves in a similar manner to the situation that would be experienced 253 years later in the 1556 Shaanxi earthquake (陕西).

  • China
    1310

    1310 Western Hubei Landslide

    China
    1310

    1310 Western Hubei landslide in 1310, in China. The death toll from this landslide is estimated to be 3,466 people.

  • Europe
    1320s

    Great European Famine

    Europe
    1320s

    The Great Famine of 1315–1317 (occasionally dated 1315–1322) was the first of a series of large-scale crises that struck Europe early in the 14th century. Most of Europe (extending east to Russia and south to Italy) was affected. The famine caused millions of deaths (7,500,000) over an extended number of years and marked a clear end to the period of growth and prosperity from the 11th to the 13th centuries.

  • Eurasia
    14th Century

    Black Death

    Eurasia
    14th Century

    The Black Death, also known as the Pestilence (Pest for short), the Great Plague or the Plague, or less commonly the Black Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated 75 to 200 million people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351.

  • Holy Roman Empire
    Saturday Jan 16, 1362

    St. Marcellus Flood

    Holy Roman Empire
    Saturday Jan 16, 1362

    Saint Marcellus' flood or Grote Mandrenke was a massive southwesterly Atlantic gale (also known as a European windstorm) which swept across the British Isles, the Netherlands, northern Germany, and Denmark (including Schleswig/Southern Jutland) around 16 January 1362, causing at minimum 25,000 deaths.

  • Crown of Aragon (now Italy)
    Wednesday Dec 05, 1455

    1455 Naples Earthquake

    Crown of Aragon (now Italy)
    Wednesday Dec 05, 1455

    1455 Naples earthquake occurred on December 5, 1455, in Crown of Aragon (now Italy), there were an estimated 40,000 deaths.

  • Qingyang, Gansu, China
    1490

    1490 CH'Ing-Yang Event

    Qingyang, Gansu, China
    1490

    The Ch'ing-yang event of 1490 (also Ch'ing-yang, Chi-ing-yang or Chíing-yang meteor shower) is a presumed meteor shower or air burst in Qingyang in March or April 1490. The area was in the province of Shaanxi but is now part of Gansu. If a meteor shower did occur, it may have been the result of the disintegration of an asteroid during an atmospheric entry air burst. More than 10,000 people were struck dead. All of the people in the city fled to other places.

  • Japan
    Monday Sep 19, 1498
    11:00:00 PM

    1498 Meiō Nankaidō Earthquake

    Japan
    Monday Sep 19, 1498

    The 1498 Nankai earthquake (明応地震 Meiō Jishin) occurred off the coast of Nankaidō, Japan, at about 08:00 local time on 20 September 1498. It had a magnitude estimated at 8.6 Ms and triggered a large tsunami. The death toll associated with this event is uncertain, but between 5,000 and 41,000 casualties were reported.

  • Cremona, Lombardy, Italy
    1511

    A Monk and Several Animals Were Killed

    Cremona, Lombardy, Italy
    1511

    A monk and several animals were killed by stones weighing up to 50 kg in Cremona, Lombardy, Italy, in 1511.

  • Holy Roman Empire
    Wednesday Nov 05, 1530

    St. Felix's Flood

    Holy Roman Empire
    Wednesday Nov 05, 1530

    The St. Felix's flood (in Dutch Sint-Felixvloed) happened on Saturday, 5 November 1530, the name day of St. Felix. This day was later known as Evil Saturday (kwade zaterdag). Large parts of Flanders and Zeeland were washed away, including the Verdronken Land van Reimerswaal. According to Audrey M. Lambert, "all the Oost Wetering of Zuid-Beveland was lost, save only the town of Reimerswaal." More than 100,000 were killed in Netherlands by the St. Felix's flood.

  • Malta
    Sunday Sep 23, 1551

    The Valletta, Malta Tornado

    Malta
    Sunday Sep 23, 1551

    The Grand Harbour of Malta tornado was a tornado that hit the Grand Harbour of Malta on September 23, 1551 with very intense strength. It began as a waterspout killing at least 600 people.

  • China
    Sunday Jan 22, 1556

    1556 Shaanxi Earthquake

    China
    Sunday Jan 22, 1556

    The 1556 Shaanxi earthquake or Huaxian earthquake is the deadliest earthquake in recorded history: according to imperial records approximately 830,000 people lost their lives. It occurred on the morning of 23 January 1556 in Shaanxi, during the Ming Dynasty. More than 97 counties in the provinces of Shaanxi, Shanxi, Henan, Gansu, Hebei, Shandong, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu and Anhui were affected.

  • Indonesia
    1586

    Mount Kelud

    Indonesia
    1586

    Mount Kelud was a volcanic eruptions in Indonesia. It began in 1586. The death toll from this disaster estimated to be 10,000 people.

  • Russia (Muscovy)
    1610s

    Russian Famine of 1601–1603

    Russia (Muscovy)
    1610s

    The Russian famine of 1601–1603 was Russia's worst famine in terms of proportional effect on the population, killing perhaps two million people, about 30% of the Russian people.

  • Mughal Empire (now india)
    1630s

    Deccan Famine of 1630–32

    Mughal Empire (now india)
    1630s

    The Deccan famine of 1630–1632 was a famine in the Deccan Plateau and Gujarat. The famine was the result of three consecutive staple crop failures, leading to intense hunger, disease, and displacement in the region. This famine remains one of the most devastating famines in the history of India, and was the most serious famine to occur in the Mughal Empire. The Dutch report gives an overall death toll of 7.4 million by late 1631, which might be for the whole region.

  • Milan, Lombardy, Italy
    1633

    A Monk Died After Being Struck by a Meteorite

    Milan, Lombardy, Italy
    1633

    A monk died after being struck on the thigh by a meteorite on Milan, Lombardy, Italy, in 1633.

  • Changshou District, Chongqing, China
    1639

    10 Homes Destroyed

    Changshou District, Chongqing, China
    1639

    10 homes destroyed in Changshou District, Chongqing, China, in 1639. The death toll from this event is estimated to be "Tens" .

  • Malacca Ship, Indian Ocean
    1648

    2 Sailors Killed on Board a Ship

    Malacca Ship, Indian Ocean
    1648

    2 Sailors Killed on Board a Ship in 1648, in Indian Ocean.

  • Safavid dynasty (now Azerbaijan)
    Friday Nov 25, 1667

    1667 Shamakhi Earthquake

    Safavid dynasty (now Azerbaijan)
    Friday Nov 25, 1667

    The 1667 Shamakhi earthquake occurred on 25 November 1667 with an epicenter close to the city of Shamakhi, Azerbaijan (then part of Safavid Iran). It had an estimated surface wave magnitude of 6.9 and a maximum felt intensity of X (Extreme) on the Mercalli intensity scale. An estimated 80,000 people died.

  • Qing Empire (now China)
    Wednesday Jul 25, 1668

    1668 Shandong Earthquake

    Qing Empire (now China)
    Wednesday Jul 25, 1668

    1668 Shandong earthquake occurred on July 25, 1668, in Qing Empire (now China), there were an estimated 42,571 deaths.

  • Kingdom of Sicily (now Italy)
    Sunday Jan 11, 1693
    09:00:00 AM

    1693 Sicily Earthquake

    Kingdom of Sicily (now Italy)
    Sunday Jan 11, 1693

    The 1693 Sicily earthquake struck parts of southern Italy near Sicily, Calabria, and Malta on January 11 at around 21:00 local time. The main quake had an estimated magnitude of 7.4 on the moment magnitude scale, the most powerful in Italian recorded history, and a maximum intensity of XI (Extreme) on the Mercalli intensity scale, destroying at least 70 towns and cities, seriously affecting an area of 5,600 square kilometres (2,200 sq mi) and causing the death of about 60,000 people.

  • France
    1700s

    French Famine

    France
    1700s

    French Famine (1693–1694) was a famine in France. It began in 1693. The death toll from this famine is estimated to be in the range of 1,300,000–1,500,000.

  • India
    1710s

    Deccan Famine of 1702–1704

    India
    1710s

    Deccan Famine of 1702–1704 was a famine in India. It began in 1702. The death toll from this famine is estimated to be in the range of 2 million people.

  • (Chūbu region, Kansai region, Shikoku, Kyūshū), Japan
    Friday Oct 28, 1707
    02:00:00 PM

    1707 HōEi Earthquake

    (Chūbu region, Kansai region, Shikoku, Kyūshū), Japan
    Friday Oct 28, 1707

    The 1707 Hōei earthquake (Hōei jishin 宝永地震) struck south-central Japan at 14:00 local time on 28 October 1707. It caused moderate to severe damage throughout southwestern Honshu, Shikoku and southeastern Kyūshū. The earthquake, and the resulting destructive tsunami, caused more than 5,000 casualties.

  • Qing Empire (now China)
    Sunday Jun 19, 1718

    1718 Gansu Earthquake

    Qing Empire (now China)
    Sunday Jun 19, 1718

    1718 Gansu earthquake occurred on June 19, 1718 in Qing Empire (now China), there were an estimated 73,000 deaths.

  • Norway
    1719

    Carolean Death March

    Norway
    1719

    The Carolean Death March or the Catastrophe of Øyfjellet is the disastrous retreat by a Swedish-Carolean army under the command of Carl Gustaf Armfeldt across the Tydal mountain range in Trøndelag around the new year 1718–1719. About 3,000 men remained on the mountain, frozen to death. During the continued voyage down to Duved, where lodging had been arranged for the soldiers, another 700 men died. About 600 of the surviving 2,100 soldiers were crippled for life.

  • Tabriz, East Azarbaijan, Iran
    Saturday Apr 26, 1721

    1721 Tabriz Earthquake

    Tabriz, East Azarbaijan, Iran
    Saturday Apr 26, 1721

    The 1721 Tabriz earthquake occurred on April 26, with an epicenter near the city of Tabriz, Iran. It leveled some three-quarters of the city, The total number of casualties caused by the earthquake is between 8,000 and 250,000; it was most likely approximately 80,000.

  • Tabriz, East Azarbaijan, Iran
    Tuesday Nov 18, 1727

    1727 Tabriz Earthquake

    Tabriz, East Azarbaijan, Iran
    Tuesday Nov 18, 1727

    The 1727 Tabriz earthquake occurred on 18 November with an epicenter near Tabriz in northwest Iran. The maximum felt intensity was VIII (Severe) on the Mercalli intensity scale, and there were an estimated 77,000 deaths.

  • India
    Monday Oct 07, 1737

    1737 Calcutta Cyclone

    India
    Monday Oct 07, 1737

    On 7 October 1737, a natural disaster struck the city of Calcutta (modern-day Kolkata) in India. For a long time this was believed in Europe to have been the result of an earthquake, but it is now believed to have been a tropical cyclone. Thomas Joshua Moore, the duties collector for the British East India Company in Calcutta, wrote in his official report that a storm and flood had destroyed nearly all the thatched buildings and killed 3,000 of the city's inhabitants. Other reports from merchant ships indicated an earthquake and tidal surge were to blame, destroying 20,000 ships in the harbor and killing 300,000 people. The population of Calcutta at the time was around 3,000–20,000.

  • Ottoman Empire (now Egypt)
    Monday Sep 02, 1754

    1754 Cairo Earthquake

    Ottoman Empire (now Egypt)
    Monday Sep 02, 1754

    1754 Cairo earthquake occurred on September 2, 1754, in Ottoman Empire (now Egypt), there were an estimated 40,000 deaths.

  • Iran
    Saturday Jun 07, 1755

    1755 Tabriz Earthquake

    Iran
    Saturday Jun 07, 1755

    1755 Tabriz earthquake occurred on June 7, 1755, in Iran, there were an estimated 40,000 deaths.

  • Lisbon, Portugal
    Saturday Nov 01, 1755
    09:40:00 PM

    1755 Lisbon Earthquake

    Lisbon, Portugal
    Saturday Nov 01, 1755

    The 1755 Lisbon earthquake, also known as the Great Lisbon earthquake, occurred in the Kingdom of Portugal on the morning of Saturday, 1 November, Feast of All Saints, at around 09:40 local time. In combination with subsequent fires and a tsunami, the earthquake almost totally destroyed Lisbon and adjoining areas. Estimates place the death toll in Lisbon alone between 10,000 and 100,000 people, making it one of the deadliest earthquakes in history.

  • Bengal, India
    1770s

    Great Bengal Famine of 1770

    Bengal, India
    1770s

    The Great Bengal Famine of 1770 was a famine between 1769 and 1773 (1176 to 1180 in the Bengali calendar) that affected the lower Gangetic plain of India from Bihar to the Bengal region. The famine is estimated to have caused the deaths of about 10 million people.

  • Iran
    Saturday Jan 08, 1780

    1780 Tabriz Earthquake

    Iran
    Saturday Jan 08, 1780

    1780 Tabriz earthquake occurred on January 8, 1780 in Iran, there were an estimated 200,000 deaths.

  • Philippines
    Jul, 1780

    July 1780 Typhoon

    Philippines
    Jul, 1780

    July 1780 typhoon was a typhoon in Philippines. It began in July 1780. The death toll from this typhoon is estimated to be 100,000 people.

  • India
    1790s

    Chalisa Famine

    India
    1790s

    The Chalisa famine of 1783–1784 in the Indian subcontinent followed unusual El Niño events that began in 1780 and caused droughts throughout the region. The famine affected many parts of North India, especially the Delhi territories, present-day Uttar Pradesh, Eastern Punjab, Rajputana, and Kashmir, then all ruled by different Indian rulers. It is thought that up to 11 million people may have died in the two famines.

  • Kingdom of Naples (now Italy)
    1783

    1783 Calabrian Earthquakes

    Kingdom of Naples (now Italy)
    1783

    The 1783 Calabrian earthquakes were a sequence of five strong earthquakes that hit the region of Calabria in southern Italy (then part of the Kingdom of Naples), the first two of which produced significant tsunamis. The epicenter of the first earthquake occurred in the plain of Palmi. The earthquakes occurred over a period of nearly two months, all with estimated magnitudes of 5.9 or greater. Estimates of the total number of deaths lie in the range 32,000 to 50,000.

  • Sichuan, China
    1786

    1786 Dadu River Landslide Dam

    Sichuan, China
    1786

    1786 Dadu River landslide dam; triggered by the 1786 Kangding-Luding earthquake in China. The death toll from this landslide is estimated to be 100,000 people.

  • Gascony, France
    1790

    A Farmer Was Reportedly Struck by a Meteorite

    Gascony, France
    1790

    A farmer was reportedly struck and killed by a meteorite in 1790, in Gascony, France.

  • India
    1800s

    Doji Bara Famine

    India
    1800s

    The Doji bara famine (also, Skull famine) of 1791-92 in the Indian subcontinent was brought on by a major El Niño event lasting from 1789 CE to 1795 CE and producing prolonged droughts. The resulting famine, which was severe, caused widespread mortality in Hyderabad, Southern Maratha Kingdom, Deccan, Gujarat, and Marwar.

  • Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan
    Monday May 21, 1792

    1792 Unzen Earthquake and Tsunami

    Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan
    Monday May 21, 1792

    The 1792 Unzen earthquake and tsunami resulted from the volcanic activities of Mount Unzen (in the Shimabara Peninsula of Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan) on 21 May. This caused the collapse of the southern flank of the Mayuyama dome in front of Mount Unzen, resulting in a tremendous megatsunami, killing 15,000 people altogether.

  • Riobamba, Spanish Empire (now Ecuador)
    Saturday Feb 04, 1797
    12:30:00 PM

    1797 Riobamba Earthquake

    Riobamba, Spanish Empire (now Ecuador)
    Saturday Feb 04, 1797

    The 1797 Riobamba earthquake occurred at 12:30 UTC on 4 February. It devastated the city of Riobamba and many other cities in the Interandean valley, causing between 6,000–40,000 casualties.

  • (Sumbawa, Lesser Sunda Islands, Dutch East Indies), Indonesia
    Monday Apr 10, 1815

    1815 Eruption of Mount Tambora

    (Sumbawa, Lesser Sunda Islands, Dutch East Indies), Indonesia
    Monday Apr 10, 1815

    The 1815 eruption of Mount Tambora was the most powerful in human recorded history, with a Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) of 7. Although its eruption reached a violent climax on 10 April 1815, increased steaming and small phreatic eruptions occurred during the next six months to three years. Tanguy pointed out that there may have been additional victims on Bali and East Java because of famine and disease. Their estimate was 11,000 Oppenheimer wrote that there were at least 71,000 deaths in total. Reid has estimated that 100,000 people on Sumbawa, Bali, and other locations died from the direct and indirect effects of the eruption.

  • Indonesia
    1822

    Mount Galunggung

    Indonesia
    1822

    Galunggung had its first historical eruption in 1822 that produced pyroclastic flows and lahars that killed 4,011 people.

  • Miramichi, Canada
    Oct, 1825

    Miramichi Fire

    Miramichi, Canada
    Oct, 1825

    The 1825 Miramichi fire, or Great Miramichi Fire, or Great Fire of Miramichi, as it came to be known, was a massive forest fire complex that devastated forests and communities throughout much of northern New Brunswick in October 1825. It ranks among the three largest forest fires ever recorded in North America. About 160 people died in and around Newcastle, including prisoners in the Newcastle Jail. Elsewhere, the totals were likely higher, given the number of lumbermen in the forests at the time (about 3000). To escape the blaze many residents took refuge with livestock and wildlife in the Miramichi River.

  • India
    Wednesday Sep 25, 1839

    1839 India Cyclone

    India
    Wednesday Sep 25, 1839

    On 25 November 1839, an enormous cyclone caused a 40-foot storm surge (unconfirmed) that hit Coringa, Andhra Pradesh, wiped out the harbor city, destroyed vessels in its bay, and killed 300,000 people. Survivors never entirely rebuilt the city.

  • Natchez and Mississippi, U.S.
    Thursday May 07, 1840

    The Great Natchez Tornado

    Natchez and Mississippi, U.S.
    Thursday May 07, 1840

    The Great Natchez Tornado hit Natchez, Mississippi, on Thursday, May 7, 1840. This tornado was the second deadliest tornado in United States history; at least 317 people were killed and at least 109 were injured.

  • Ireland
    1850s

    Great Irish Famine

    Ireland
    1850s

    The Great Famine, or the Great Hunger, was a period of mass starvation and disease in Ireland from 1845 to 1849. During the famine, about one million people died and a million more emigrated from Ireland, causing the island's population to fall by between 20% and 25%.

  • Sicily, Two Sicilies (now Italy)
    Dec, 1851

    The Sicily Tornadoes

    Sicily, Two Sicilies (now Italy)
    Dec, 1851

    The Sicily tornadoes were two tornadoes that swept the Marsala countryside in western Sicily, Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (now Italy) in early December (possibly late November) 1851. The total number of victims is unknown, but is assessed at over 500. It is one of the 10 deadliest tornadoes ever, achieving the highest death toll for a tornado event in continental Europe and the second in European history after the Valletta, Malta Tornado.

  • Japan
    Nov, 1854

    1854 Great Nankaidō Earthquake

    Japan
    Nov, 1854

    In November, 1854, Great Nankaidō earthquakes and tsunamis kill 80,000 people. An earthquake and tsunami struck Shimoda on the Izu peninsula.

  • Worldwide
    19th Century

    Third Pandemic of Bubonic Plague (1855–1960)

    Worldwide
    19th Century

    Third Pandemic is the designation of a major bubonic plague pandemic that began in Yunnan province in China in 1855, fifth year of the Xianfeng Emperor of the Qing dynasty. This episode of bubonic plague spread to all inhabited continents, and ultimately more than 12 million people died in India and China, with about 10 million killed in India alone. According to the World Health Organization, the pandemic was considered active until 1960, when worldwide casualties dropped to 200 per year.

  • India
    1860s

    Upper Doab Famine of 1860–1861

    India
    1860s

    The Doab famine of 1860–1861 was a famine in India that affected the Ganga-Yamuna Doab in the North-Western Provinces, large parts of Rohilkhand and Awadh, the Delhi and Hissar divisions of the Punjab, all in British India, then under Crown rule, and the eastern regions of the princely states of Rajputana. Up to 2 million people are thought to have perished in the famine.

  • Odisha, India
    1866

    Orissa Famine of 1866

    Odisha, India
    1866

    The Orissa famine of 1866 affected the east coast of India from Madras northwards, an area covering 180,000 miles and containing a population of 47,500,000; the impact of the famine, however, was greatest in Orissa, now Odisha, which at that time was quite isolated from the rest of India. In Odisha, one third of the population died due to famine. In Odisha alone, at least 1 million people, a third of the population, died in 1866, and overall in the region approximately 4 to 5 million died in the two-year period

  • Arica, Chile
    Thursday Aug 13, 1868
    09:30:00 PM

    1868 Arica Earthquake

    Arica, Chile
    Thursday Aug 13, 1868

    The 1868 Arica earthquake occurred on 13 August 1868, near Arica, then part of Peru, now part of Chile, at 21:30 UTC. It had an estimated magnitude between 8.5 and 9.0. A tsunami (or multiple tsunamis) in the Pacific Ocean was produced by the earthquake, which was recorded in Hawaii, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand. The earthquake caused almost complete destruction in the southern part of Peru, including Arica, Tacna, Moquegua, Mollendo, Ilo, Iquique, Torata and Arequipa, resulting in an estimated 25,000 casualties.

  • Ecuador
    Saturday Aug 15, 1868
    07:30:00 PM

    1868 Ecuador Earthquakes

    Ecuador
    Saturday Aug 15, 1868

    The 1868 Ecuador earthquakes occurred at 19:30 UTC on August 15 and 06:30 UTC on 16 August 1868. They caused severe damage in the northeastern part of Ecuador and in southwestern Colombia. They had an estimated magnitude of 6.3 and 6.7 and together caused up to 70,000 casualties.

  • India
    1870s

    Rajputana Famine of 1869

    India
    1870s

    The Rajputana famine of 1869 (1868-1870) affected an area of 296,000 square miles (770,000 km2) and a population of 44,500,000, primarily in the princely states of Rajputana, India, and the British territory of Ajmer. The death toll from this famine is estimated to be in the range of 1.5 million people.

  • Iran
    1870s

    Persian Famine of 1870–1872

    Iran
    1870s

    The Great Persian famine of 1870–1872 was a period of mass starvation and disease in Persia between 1870 and 1872. There is no agreement among scholars as to the total number of deaths during the famine, although it is believed that it resulted a considerable decline in Iran's population. The death toll from this famine is estimated to be in the range of 1.5 million people.

  • Wisconsin, United States
    Sunday Oct 08, 1871

    Peshtigo Fire

    Wisconsin, United States
    Sunday Oct 08, 1871

    The Peshtigo fire was a very large forest fire that took place on October 8, 1871, in northeastern Wisconsin, including much of the Door Peninsula, and adjacent parts of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. The largest community in the affected area was Peshtigo, Wisconsin. With the estimated deaths of around 1,500 people, and possibly as many as 2,500.

  • China
    1874

    A Cottage Was Crushed by a Meteorite

    China
    1874

    A cottage was crushed by a meteorite, killing a child in 1874, on Chin-kuei Shan, China.

  • British Raj (now Bangladesh)
    Oct, 1876

    Great Backerganj Cyclone of 1876

    British Raj (now Bangladesh)
    Oct, 1876

    The Great Backerganj Cyclone of 1876 (29 October – 1 November 1876) was one of the deadliest cyclones in history. It hit the coast of Backerganj (near Meghna estuary) in present-day Barisal, Bangladesh, killing about 200,000 people, half of whom were drowned by the storm surge, while the rest died from the subsequent famine.

  • China
    1880s

    Northern Chinese Famine of 1876–1879

    China
    1880s

    The Northern Chinese Famine of 1876–1879 occurred in the late Qing dynasty in China. It is usually referred to as Dīngwù Qíhuāng (丁戊奇荒) in China. A drought began in northern China in 1875, leading to crop failures the following years. The provinces of Shanxi, Zhili (now mostly part of Hebei), Henan, Shandong and the northern parts of Jiangsu were affected. Between 9 and 13 million people died in the famine, out of 108 million in the five affected provinces.

  • India
    1880s

    Indian Great Famine of 1876–78

    India
    1880s

    The Great Famine of 1876–1878 (also the Southern India famine of 1876–1878 or the Madras famine of 1877) was a famine in India under Crown rule. It began in 1876 after an intense drought resulting in crop failure in the Deccan Plateau. The death toll from this famine is estimated to be in the range of 5.5 million people.

  • Dun-le-Poëlier, France
    1879

    A Farmer Was Killed by a Meteorite

    Dun-le-Poëlier, France
    1879

    A farmer was killed by a meteorite in 1879, on Dun-le-Poëlier, France.

  • Newtown, Indiana, U.S.
    1879

    A Man Was Killed in Bed by a Meteorite

    Newtown, Indiana, U.S.
    1879

    A man was killed in bed by a meteorite in 1879, at Newtown, Indiana, United States.

  • Michigan, U.S.
    Monday Sep 05, 1881

    Thumb Fire

    Michigan, U.S.
    Monday Sep 05, 1881

    The Thumb Fire took place on September 5, 1881, in the Thumb area of Michigan in the United States. The fire, which burned over a million acres (4,000 km²) in less than a day, was the consequence of drought, hurricane-force winds, heat, the after-effects of the Port Huron Fire of 1871, and the ecological damage wrought by the era's logging techniques. The blaze, also called the Great Thumb Fire, the Great Forest Fire of 1881 and the Huron Fire, killed 282 people in Sanilac, Lapeer, Tuscola and Huron counties. The damage estimate was $2,347,000 in 1881.

  • Haiphong, Vietnam
    Saturday Oct 08, 1881

    1881 Haiphong Typhoon

    Haiphong, Vietnam
    Saturday Oct 08, 1881

    The 1881 Haiphong typhoon was a typhoon that struck Haiphong, in Dai Nam (now Vietnam), and the northern part of the Captaincy General of the Philippines (now the Philippines) on October 8, 1881. About 300000 people were killed in and around Haiphong by the typhoon alone (casualties likely went up even in the storm's passing due to disease and starvation)

  • Indonesia
    Sunday Aug 26, 1883

    1883 Eruption of Krakatoa

    Indonesia
    Sunday Aug 26, 1883

    The 1883 eruption of Krakatoa (Indonesian: Krakatau ) in the Sunda Strait began on the afternoon of Sunday, 26 August 1883, and peaked on the late morning of Monday, 27 August 1883, when over 70% of the island of Krakatoa and its surrounding archipelago were destroyed as it collapsed into a caldera. At least 36,417 deaths are attributed to the eruption and the tsunamis it created.

  • China
    Sep, 1887

    1887 Yellow River Flood

    China
    Sep, 1887

    The 1887 Yellow River flood was a devastating flood on the Yellow River (Huang He) in China. This river is prone to flooding due to the elevated nature of the river, running between dikes above the broad plains surrounding it. The flood, which began in September 1887, killed about 900,000 people. It was one of the deadliest natural disasters ever recorded.

  • U.S.
    Thursday Jan 12, 1888

    Schoolhouse Blizzard

    U.S.
    Thursday Jan 12, 1888

    The Schoolhouse Blizzard, also known as the Schoolchildren's Blizzard, School Children's Blizzard, or Children's Blizzard, hit the U.S. plains states on January 12, 1888. The blizzard came unexpectedly on a relatively warm day, and many people were caught unaware, including children in one-room schoolhouses. The death toll from this blizzard is estimated to be in the range of 235 people.

  • U.S.
    Mar, 1888

    Great Blizzard of 1888

    U.S.
    Mar, 1888

    The Great Blizzard of 1888, Great Blizzard of '88, or the Great White Hurricane (March 11–14, 1888) was one of the most severe recorded blizzards in American history. The storm paralyzed the East Coast from the Chesapeake Bay to Maine, as well as the Atlantic provinces of Canada. The death toll from this blizzard is estimated to be 400 people.

  • Minnesota, United States
    Sep, 1894

    Great Hinckley Fire

    Minnesota, United States
    Sep, 1894

    The Great Hinckley Fire was a conflagration in the pine forests of the U.S. state of Minnesota in September 1894, which burned an area of at least 200,000 acres (810 km2; 310 sq mi) (perhaps more than 250,000 acres [1,000 km2; 390 sq mi]), including the town of Hinckley. The official death count was 418; the actual number of fatalities was likely higher.

  • Coast of Iwate Prefecture, Honshu, Japan
    Monday Jun 15, 1896
    07:32:00 PM

    1896 Sanriku Earthquake

    Coast of Iwate Prefecture, Honshu, Japan
    Monday Jun 15, 1896

    The 1896 Sanriku earthquake was one of the most destructive seismic events in Japanese history. The 8.5 magnitude earthquake occurred at 19:32 (local time) on June 15, 1896, approximately 166 kilometres (103 mi) off the coast of Iwate Prefecture, Honshu. It resulted in two tsunamis which destroyed about 9,000 homes and caused at least 22,000 deaths.

  • India
    1900s

    Indian Famine

    India
    1900s

    Indian Famine of 1896–1902 was a famine in India. It began in 1896. The death toll from this famine is estimated to be in the range of 2 million people.

  • Worldwide
    2nd Millenium

    Smallpox

    Worldwide
    2nd Millenium

    1900 to eradication. Declared eradicated May 8, 1980. 300 million smallpox deaths between 1900 and eradication would mean that, out of 4,713,503,215 worldwide deaths between 1900 and 1995, 6.36% were from smallpox. Applied to the estimated total of ca. 95 billion deaths between 50000 BC and 1900, this would mean that over 6 billion deaths in this period were from smallpox.

  • Martinique
    Wednesday May 07, 1902

    Mount Pelée

    Martinique
    Wednesday May 07, 1902

    Mount Pelée (Montagne Pelée, meaning "bald mountain" or "peeled mountain") is a volcano at the northern end of Martinique, an island and French overseas department in the Lesser Antilles island arc of the Caribbean. Its volcanic cone is composed of stratified layers of hardened ash and solidified lava. The stratovolcano's eruption in 1902 destroyed the town of Saint-Pierre, killing 28,000 people in the space of a few minutes, in the worst volcanic disaster of the 20th century.

  • Washington and Oregon, U.S.
    Sep, 1902

    Yacolt Burn

    Washington and Oregon, U.S.
    Sep, 1902

    The Yacolt Burn is the collective name for dozens of fires in Washington state and Oregon occurring between September 8 and September 12, 1902, causing 38 deaths in the Lewis River area, at least nine deaths by fire in Wind River and 18 deaths in the Columbia River Gorge.

  • Guatemala
    Friday Oct 24, 1902

    Santa Maria

    Guatemala
    Friday Oct 24, 1902

    The first eruption of Santa María in recorded history occurred in October 1902. The eruption began on 24 October, and the largest explosions occurred over the following two days, ejecting an estimated 8 cubic kilometres (1.9 cu mi) of magma. Estimates are that 6,000 people died as a result of the eruption.

  • China
    1910s

    Chinese Famine of 1907

    China
    1910s

    Chinese Famine of 1907 was a period in China between the years 1907 and 1911. Estimates of deaths due to starvation 25,000,000.

  • Podkamennaya Tunguska River, Siberia, Russian Empire
    Tuesday Jun 30, 1908

    Tunguska Event

    Podkamennaya Tunguska River, Siberia, Russian Empire
    Tuesday Jun 30, 1908

    The Tunguska event was a large explosion that occurred near the Podkamennaya Tunguska River in Yeniseysk Governorate (now Krasnoyarsk Krai), Russia, on the morning of 30 June 1908 (NS). The explosion over the sparsely populated Eastern Siberian Taiga flattened 2,000 square kilometres (770 square miles) of forest, and may have caused up to three human casualties.

  • Italy
    Monday Dec 28, 1908

    1908 Messina Earthquake

    Italy
    Monday Dec 28, 1908

    The 1908 Messina earthquake (also known as the 1908 Messina and Reggio earthquake) occurred on 28 December in Sicily and Calabria, southern Italy with a moment magnitude of 7.1 and a maximum Mercalli intensity of XI (Extreme). The cities of Messina and Reggio Calabria were almost completely destroyed and between 75,000 and 82,000 lives were lost.

  • Montana and Idaho, U.S.
    Saturday Aug 20, 1910

    Great Fire of 1910

    Montana and Idaho, U.S.
    Saturday Aug 20, 1910

    The Great Fire of 1910 (also commonly referred to as the Big Blowup, the Big Burn, or the Devil's Broom fire) was a wildfire in the western United States that burned three million acres (4,700 sq mi; 12,100 km2) in North Idaho and Western Montana, with extensions into Eastern Washington and Southeast British Columbia, in the summer of 1910. It killed 87 people, mostly firefighters.

  • U.S.
    1910

    1901 Eastern United States Heat Wave

    U.S.
    1910

    The 1901 eastern U.S. heat wave was the most severe and deadly heat wave in the United States prior to the 1930s Dust Bowl. In the most extensive study of American heat waves, it was estimated that the 1901 Eastern heat wave had claimed the lives of 9,500 people, which makes it easily the most destructive disaster of its type in US history.

  • Ontario, Canada
    Tuesday Jul 11, 1911

    Great Porcupine Fire

    Ontario, Canada
    Tuesday Jul 11, 1911

    The Great Porcupine Fire of 1911 was one of the most devastating forest fires ever to strike the Ontario northland. Spring had come early that year, followed by an abnormally hot dry spell that lasted into the summer. This created ideal conditions for the ensuing disaster, in which a number of smaller fires converged. Official counts list 73 dead, though it is estimated the actual toll could have been as high as 200.

  • China
    1911

    1911 Yangtze River Flood

    China
    1911

    1911 Yangtze River flood happened in 1911, in China. The death toll from this flood is estimated to be up to 100,000 people.

  • U.S. and Canada (Great Lakes region)
    1913

    Great Lakes Storm of 1913

    U.S. and Canada (Great Lakes region)
    1913

    The Great Lakes Storm of 1913, historically referred to as the "Big Blow" the "Freshwater Fury," or the "White Hurricane," was a blizzard with hurricane-force winds that devastated the Great Lakes Basin in the Midwestern United States and Ontario, Canada from November 7 through November 10, 1913. The deadliest and most destructive natural disaster to hit the lakes in recorded history, the Great Lakes Storm killed more than 250 people, destroyed 19 ships, and stranded 19 others.

  • Ontario, Canada
    Saturday Jul 29, 1916

    Matheson Fire

    Ontario, Canada
    Saturday Jul 29, 1916

    The great Matheson Fire was a deadly forest fire that passed through the region surrounding the communities of Black River-Matheson and Iroquois Falls, Ontario, Canada, on July 29, 1916. 223 people were killed according to the official estimate.

  • Italy
    Wednesday Dec 13, 1916
    05:30:00 AM

    White Friday Avalanches

    Italy
    Wednesday Dec 13, 1916

    White Friday occurred during the Italian Front of World War I, when an avalanche struck an Austrian barracks on Mount Marmolada, killing 270 soldiers. Other avalanches the same day struck Italian and other Austrian positions, killing hundreds. An accurate estimation of the number of casualties from the White Friday avalanches is not available. Historical documents suggest at least 2,000 victims among the soldiers and a few dozens among civilians.

  • Persia (Iran)
    1920s

    Persian Famine of 1917–1919

    Persia (Iran)
    1920s

    The Persian famine of 1917–1919 was a period of widespread mass starvation and disease in Persia (Iran) under rule of Qajar dynasty during World War I. According to the estimates acknowledged by the mainstream view, about 2 million people died between 1917 and 1919 because of hunger and from diseases, which included cholera, plague and typhus, as well as influenza infected by 1918 flu pandemic.

  • Worldwide
    1920s

    Spanish Flu

    Worldwide
    1920s

    The 1918 influenza pandemic (January 1918 – December 1920; colloquially known as Spanish flu) was an unusually deadly influenza pandemic, the first of the two pandemics involving H1N1 influenza virus. It infected 500 million people around the world, including people on remote Pacific islands and in the Arctic. Probably 50 million, and possibly as high as 100 million (three to five percent of Earth's population at the time) died, making it one of the deadliest epidemics in human history.

  • Cloquet, Minnesota, U.S.
    Oct, 1918

    Cloquet Fire