1976-06-01 to Present
WorldwideEbola virus disease (EVD), or simply Ebola, is a viral hemorrhagic fever of humans and other primates caused by Ebola viruses. Signs and symptoms typically start between two days and three weeks after contracting the virus with a fever, sore throat, muscular pain, and headaches. Vomiting, diarrhea and rash usually follow, along with decreased function of the liver and kidneys. At this time, some people begin to bleed both internally and externally. The disease has a high risk of death, killing 25% to 90% of those infected, with an average of about 50%. This is often due to low blood pressure from fluid loss, and typically follows six to 16 days after symptoms appear.
The first Ebola outbreak was in Sudan from June 1976 to November 1976, known as the SUDV with 284 human cases and 151 human deaths making the case fatality rate 53%. The outbreak occurred in Nzara (the source town), Maridi, Tambura, and Juba (cities in present-day South Sudan). The index cases were workers in a cotton factory. The disease was spread by close contact with an acute case, usually from patients to their nurses. Many medical care personnel was infected.
In August 1976, the EBOV virus appeared in Yambukuand surrounding areas in what was then Zaire (the present-day Democratic Republic of the Congo). It spread through personal contact and by use of contaminated needles and syringes in hospitals and clinics. Hitting 318 human cases and killing 280 with a fatality rate of 88%.
This occurred in Kikwit and surrounding areas. The outbreak was traced to a patient who worked in a forest adjoining the city. The epidemic spread through families and hospital admissions. This outbreak infected 315 and killed 254.
This occurred in the village of Mayibout 2 and neighboring areas. A chimpanzee found dead in the forest was eaten by villagers hunting for food. Nineteen people involved in the butchery of the animal became ill, and other cases occurred in their family members. These events resulted in the infection of 31 and the death of 21.
The third outbreak in Gabon occurred in the Booué area with the transport of patients to Libreville. The index case-patient was a hunter who lived in a forest timber camp. The disease was spread by close contact with infected persons. A dead chimpanzee found in the forest at the time was determined to be infected. With 60 infections and 45 deaths, this was the highest case fatality rate of 75%
This outbreak occurred in the Gulu, Masindi, and Mbarara districts of Uganda. The three greatest risks associated with Sudan virus infection were attending funerals of case-patients, having contact with case-patients in one's family, and providing medical care to case-patients without using adequate personal protective measures. This outbreak has the most infections in a single country major outbreak with 425 infections and 224 deaths.
This occurred on both sides of the border between Gabon and the Republic of the Congo (RC). This outbreak included the first reported occurrence of the Ebola virus disease in the RC. As this outbreak was on course with the Gabon outbreak in that time this outbreak infected 59 and killed 44.
The Ebola virus kept hitting the Republic of the Congo three consecutive times from October 2001 till December 2002 and the third time occurred in Mbomo and Mbandza villages, located in Mbomo District in the Cuvette-Ouest Department. The third outbreak was the least in numbers infecting only 35 and killing 29.
This occurred in Yambio county in Western Equatoria of southern Sudan (present-day South Sudan). This outbreak was concurrent with an outbreak of measles in the same area, and several suspected EVD cases were reclassified later as measles cases. This outbreak infected 17 and killed 7.
This occurred in the Bundibugyo District in western Uganda. This was the first identification of the Bundibugyo virus (BDBV). This new virus had infected 149 cases and killed 37 cases with the least case fatality rate for the Ebola outbreaks of 25%.
It is generally believed that a one or two-year-old boy, later identified as Emile Ouamouno, died in December 2013 in the village of Méliandou, Guéckédou Prefecture, Guinea, was the index case of the Western African epidemic. Scientists have deduced that bats are involved in the spread of the virus, and, incidentally, the boy's home was in the vicinity of a large colony of Angolan free-tailed bats, according to media reports. Later the virus was transmitted to 9 more countries other than Guinea all over the World.
This occurred in Équateur province. Outbreak detected 24 August and, as of 28 October 2014, the WHO said that twenty days had passed since the last reported case was discharged and no new contacts were being followed. Declared over on 15 November 2014. This outbreak infected 66 and killed 49.
This was the most severe Ebola outbreak in recorded history in regard to both the number of human cases and fatalities. It began in Guéckédou, Guinea, in December 2013 and spread abroad. Flare-ups of the disease continued into 2016, and the outbreak was declared over on 9 June 2016. The epidemic ended up infecting 28,616 cases and killing 11,310 overall.
On 8 May 2018, the government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo reported two confirmed cases of Ebola infection in the northwestern town of Bikoro. On 17 May, a case was confirmed in the city of Mbandaka. Health authorities are planning to ring vaccinate with rVSV-ZEBOV, a recently developed experimental Ebola vaccine, to contain the outbreak. The outbreak is ongoing as of 24 June 2018, in 2014 a different area of Equateur province was affected On July 24, 2018, the outbreak was declared over. This resulted in 54 infections and 33 deaths.
On 1 August 2018, the Democratic Republic of the Congo Ministry of Health declared an outbreak when 4 individuals tested positive for the Ebola virus. On 11 June 2019, the WHO confirmed that a five-year-old boy in Uganda died after being diagnosed with Ebola. As of 20 February 2020, the outbreak is still ongoing. So far the outbreak infected 3,874 cases and killed 2,253.