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  • Hungary
    Sunday Nov 04, 1945

    1945 Hungarian parliamentary election

    Hungary
    Sunday Nov 04, 1945

    Toward the end of World War II, the Soviet Army occupied Hungary, with the country coming under the Soviet Union's sphere of influence. Immediately after World War II, Hungary was a multiparty democracy, and elections in 1945 produced a coalition government under Prime Minister Zoltán Tildy.




  • Hungary
    1946

    The post-war Hungarian Economy Suffered From Multiple Challenges

    Hungary
    1946

    The post-war Hungarian economy suffered from multiple challenges. Hungary agreed to pay war reparations approximating US$300 million to the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia and to support Soviet garrisons. The Hungarian National Bank in 1946 estimated the cost of reparations as "between 19 and 22 per cent of the annual national income".




  • Hungary
    1946

    The Hungarian Currency Experienced Marked Depreciation

    Hungary
    1946

    In 1946, the Hungarian currency experienced marked depreciation, resulting in the highest historic rates of hyperinflation known. Hungary's participation in the Soviet-sponsored COMECON (Council of Mutual Economic Assistance) prevented it from trading with the West or receiving Marshall Plan aid.




  • Hungary
    1949

    Arresting The Leader of The Hungarian Catholic Church

    Hungary
    1949

    Russian language study and Communist political instruction were made mandatory in schools and universities nationwide. Religious schools were nationalized and church leaders were replaced by those loyal to the government. In 1949 the leader of the Hungarian Catholic Church, Cardinal József Mindszenty, was arrested and sentenced to life imprisonment for treason. Under Rákosi, Hungary's government was among the most repressive in Europe.




  • Hungary
    1949

    The Communist Party merged With The Social Democratic Party

    Hungary
    1949

    The brief period of multi-party democracy came to an end when the Communist Party merged with the Social Democratic Party to become the Hungarian Working People's Party, which stood its candidate list unopposed in 1949. The People's Republic of Hungary was then declared.




  • Moscow, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union (Now Russia)
    Thursday Mar 05, 1953

    Joseph Stalin Death

    Moscow, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union (Now Russia)
    Thursday Mar 05, 1953

    On 5 March 1953, Joseph Stalin died, ushering in a period of moderate liberalization, when most European communist parties developed a reform wing. In Hungary, the reformist Imre Nagy replaced Rákosi, "Stalin's Best Hungarian Disciple", as Prime Minister. However, Rákosi remained General Secretary of the Party, and was able to undermine most of Nagy's reforms.




  • Hungary
    Apr, 1955

    Rákosi Removed Nagy From Office

    Hungary
    Apr, 1955

    By April 1955, Rákosi had Nagy discredited and removed from office.


  • Warsaw, Poland
    Saturday May 14, 1955

    The Warsaw Pact

    Warsaw, Poland
    Saturday May 14, 1955

    On 14 May 1955, the Soviet Union created the Warsaw Pact, binding Hungary to the Soviet Union and its satellite states in Central and Eastern Europe. Among the principles of this alliance were "respect for the independence and sovereignty of states" and "non-interference in their internal affairs".


  • Hungary
    1956

    Relations between Hungary and The United States began to Improve

    Hungary
    1956

    In the summer of 1956, relations between Hungary and the United States began to improve. At that time, the United States responded very favourably to Hungary's overtures about a possible expansion of bilateral trade relations. Hungary's desire for better relations was partly attributable to the country's catastrophic economic situation. Before any results could be achieved, however, the pace of negotiations was slowed by the Hungarian Ministry of Internal Affairs, which feared that better relations with the West might weaken Communist rule in Hungary.


  • Hungary
    Wednesday Jul 18, 1956

    Rákosi was deposed as General Secretary of The Hungarian Working People's Party

    Hungary
    Wednesday Jul 18, 1956

    After Khrushchev's "secret speech" of February 1956, which denounced Stalin and his protégés, Rákosi was deposed as General Secretary of the Party and replaced by Ernő Gerő on 18 July 1956.


  • Hungary
    Saturday Oct 06, 1956

    László Rajk was Reburied

    Hungary
    Saturday Oct 06, 1956

    On 6 October 1956, László Rajk, who had been executed by the Rákosi government, was reburied in a moving ceremony that strengthened the party opposition.


  • Budapest, Hungary
    Monday Oct 22, 1956

    Resurrect MEFESZ Student Union

    Budapest, Hungary
    Monday Oct 22, 1956

    By 22 October 1956, Technical University students had resurrected the banned MEFESZ student union.


  • Budapest, Hungary
    Tuesday Oct 23, 1956

    Technical University Students Staged a demonstration

    Budapest, Hungary
    Tuesday Oct 23, 1956

    Technical University students staged a demonstration on 23 October that set off a chain of events leading directly to the revolution.


  • Budapest, Hungary
    Tuesday Oct 23, 1956

    Protesters Convened Next To The Statue of József Bem

    Budapest, Hungary
    Tuesday Oct 23, 1956

    On the afternoon of 23 October 1956, approximately 20,400 protesters convened next to the statue of József Bem—a national hero of Poland and Hungary.


  • Budapest, Hungary
    Tuesday Oct 23, 1956

    The Incident at Radio Budapest building

    Budapest, Hungary
    Tuesday Oct 23, 1956

    A large crowd gathered at the Radio Budapest building, which was heavily guarded by the ÁVH. The flash point was reached as a delegation attempting to broadcast their demands was detained and the crowd grew increasingly unruly as rumours spread that the protesters had been shot. Tear gas was thrown from the upper windows and the ÁVH opened fire on the crowd, killing many. The ÁVH tried to re-supply itself by hiding arms inside an ambulance, but the crowd detected the ruse and intercepted it. Hungarian soldiers sent to relieve the ÁVH hesitated and then, tearing the red stars from their caps, sided with the crowd. Provoked by the ÁVH attack, protesters reacted violently. Police cars were set ablaze, guns were seized from military depots and distributed to the masses and symbols of the Communist regime were vandalised.


  • Budapest, Hungary
    Tuesday Oct 23, 1956

    Ernő Gerő Requested Soviet Military Intervention

    Budapest, Hungary
    Tuesday Oct 23, 1956

    During the night of 23 October, Hungarian Working People's Party Secretary Ernő Gerő requested Soviet military intervention "to suppress a demonstration that was reaching an ever greater and unprecedented scale". The Soviet leadership had formulated contingency plans for intervention in Hungary several months before.


  • Hungary
    Tuesday Oct 23, 1956
    08:00:00 PM

    Ernő Gerő broadcast a Speech Condemning The writers' and Students' Demands

    Hungary
    Tuesday Oct 23, 1956

    At 20:00, First Secretary Ernő Gerő broadcast a speech condemning the writers' and students' demands.


  • Budapest, Hungary
    Tuesday Oct 23, 1956
    09:30:00 PM

    The Removal of Stalin's Bronze Statue

    Budapest, Hungary
    Tuesday Oct 23, 1956

    Angered by Gerő's hard-line rejection, some demonstrators decided to carry out one of their demands, the removal of Stalin's 30-foot-high (9.1 m) bronze statue that was erected in 1951 on the site of a church, which was demolished to make room for the monument. By 21:30, the statue was toppled and crowds celebrated by placing Hungarian flags in Stalin's boots, which was all that was left of the statue.


  • Budapest, Hungary
    Wednesday Oct 24, 1956
    02:00:00 AM

    The Soviet Tanks Entered Budapest

    Budapest, Hungary
    Wednesday Oct 24, 1956

    By 02:00 on 24 October, acting in accordance with orders of Georgy Zhukov, the Soviet defense minister, Soviet tanks entered Budapest.


  • Moscow, Russian SFSR
    Wednesday Oct 24, 1956

    The Politburo discussed The Political Upheavals In Poland and Hungary

    Moscow, Russian SFSR
    Wednesday Oct 24, 1956

    On 24 October, the Presidium of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (the Politburo) discussed the political upheavals in Poland and Hungary.


  • Budapest, Hungary
    Wednesday Oct 24, 1956

    Imre Nagy Replaced András Hegedüs as Prime Minister

    Budapest, Hungary
    Wednesday Oct 24, 1956

    On 24 October, Imre Nagy replaced András Hegedüs as Prime Minister. On the radio, Nagy called for an end to violence and promised to initiate political reforms that had been shelved three years earlier. The population continued to arm itself as sporadic violence erupted.


  • Budapest, Hungary
    Wednesday Oct 24, 1956

    Soviet Tanks were stationed outside the Parliament

    Budapest, Hungary
    Wednesday Oct 24, 1956

    By noon, on 24 October, Soviet tanks were stationed outside the Parliament, and Soviet soldiers guarded key bridges and crossroads. Armed revolutionaries quickly set up barricades to defend Budapest, and were reported to have already captured some Soviet tanks by mid-morning.


  • Budapest, Hungary
    Thursday Oct 25, 1956

    A mass of Protesters Gathered in Front of The Parliament Building

    Budapest, Hungary
    Thursday Oct 25, 1956

    On 25 October, a mass of protesters gathered in front of the Parliament Building. ÁVH units began shooting into the crowd from the rooftops of neighbouring buildings. Some Soviet soldiers returned fire on the ÁVH, mistakenly believing that they were the targets of the shooting. Supplied by arms taken from the ÁVH or given by Hungarian soldiers who joined the uprising, some in the crowd started shooting back.


  • Kecskemét, Hungary
    Friday Oct 26, 1956

    The Military Action Towards The demonstrations in Front of The Office of State Security and The Local Jail

    Kecskemét, Hungary
    Friday Oct 26, 1956

    In the town of Kecskemét on 26 October, demonstrations in front of the office of State Security and the local jail led to military action by the Third Corps under the orders of Major General Lajos Gyurkó, in which seven protesters were shot and several of the organizers were arrested.


  • Csepel, Budapest, Hungary
    Saturday Oct 27, 1956

    The Army Units Were brought In To Secure Csepel and Restore Order

    Csepel, Budapest, Hungary
    Saturday Oct 27, 1956

    On 27 October, army units were brought in to secure Csepel and restore order.


  • Hungary
    Sunday Oct 28, 1956

    A Ceasefire Was Arranged

    Hungary
    Sunday Oct 28, 1956

    Hungarian general Béla Király, freed from a life sentence for political offences and acting with the support of the Nagy government, sought to restore order by unifying elements of the police, army and insurgent groups into a National Guard. A ceasefire was arranged on 28 October.


  • Hungary
    Monday Oct 29, 1956

    The Army Units withdrew from Csepel

    Hungary
    Monday Oct 29, 1956

    The army units withdrew from Csepel on 29 October, after which the rebels seized control of the area.


  • Hungary
    Monday Oct 29, 1956

    There Were 71 Cases of Armed Clashes between The Army and The Populace In Fifty Communities

    Hungary
    Monday Oct 29, 1956

    From 24 to 29 October, however, there were 71 cases of armed clashes between the army and the populace in fifty communities, ranging from the defence of attacks on civilian and military objectives to fighting with insurgents depending on the commanding officer.


  • Moscow, Russian SFSR
    Tuesday Oct 30, 1956

    The Presidium decided not to temove the New Hungarian Government

    Moscow, Russian SFSR
    Tuesday Oct 30, 1956

    After some debate, the Presidium on 30 October decided not to remove the new Hungarian government.


  • Budapest, Hungary
    Tuesday Oct 30, 1956

    Attacking The Central Committee of The Communist Party building

    Budapest, Hungary
    Tuesday Oct 30, 1956

    On 30 October, Király's forces attacked the Central Committee of the Communist Party building.


  • Budapest, Hungary
    Tuesday Oct 30, 1956

    Most Soviet Troops had Withdrawn from Budapest

    Budapest, Hungary
    Tuesday Oct 30, 1956

    By 30 October most Soviet troops had withdrawn from Budapest to garrisons in the Hungarian countryside.


  • Hungary
    Tuesday Oct 30, 1956

    The Local Revolutionary Councils Had been Officially Sanctioned

    Hungary
    Tuesday Oct 30, 1956

    Local revolutionary councils formed throughout Hungary, generally without involvement from the preoccupied National Government in Budapest, and assumed various responsibilities of local government from the defunct Communist party. By 30 October, these councils had been officially sanctioned by the Hungarian Working People's Party, and the Nagy government asked for their support as "autonomous, democratic local organs formed during the Revolution".


  • Budapest, Hungary
    Tuesday Oct 30, 1956

    Armed Protesters Attacked The ÁVH detachment Guarding The Budapest Hungarian Working People's Party Headquarters

    Budapest, Hungary
    Tuesday Oct 30, 1956

    On 30 October, armed protesters attacked the ÁVH detachment guarding the Budapest Hungarian Working People's Party headquarters on Köztársaság tér (Republic Square), incited by rumours of prisoners held there and the earlier shootings of demonstrators by the ÁVH in the city of Mosonmagyaróvár.


  • Moscow, Russian SFSR
    Thursday Nov 01, 1956

    Khrushchev left Moscow to Meet with his Warsaw Pact Allies

    Moscow, Russian SFSR
    Thursday Nov 01, 1956

    From 1 to 3 November, Khrushchev left Moscow to meet with his Warsaw Pact allies and inform them of the decision to intervene.


  • Hungary
    Thursday Nov 01, 1956

    Nagy Formally declared Hungary's Withdrawal From The Warsaw Pact

    Hungary
    Thursday Nov 01, 1956

    On 1 November, in a radio address to the Hungarian people, Nagy formally declared Hungary's withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact as well as Hungary's stance of neutrality.


  • Hungary
    Thursday Nov 01, 1956

    The Soviet Forces Had Entered Hungary From The East

    Hungary
    Thursday Nov 01, 1956

    On 1 November, Imre Nagy received reports that Soviet forces had entered Hungary from the east and were moving towards Budapest. Nagy sought and received assurances (which proved false) from Soviet ambassador Yuri Andropov that the Soviet Union would not invade. The Cabinet, with János Kádár in agreement, declared Hungary's neutrality, withdrew from the Warsaw Pact, and requested assistance from the diplomatic corps in Budapest and Dag Hammarskjöld, UN Secretary-General, to defend Hungary's neutrality. Ambassador Andropov was asked to inform his government that Hungary would begin negotiations on the removal of Soviet forces immediately.


  • Tököl, Hungary
    Saturday Nov 03, 1956

    The Negotiations On The Soviet Withdrawal

    Tököl, Hungary
    Saturday Nov 03, 1956

    On 3 November, a Hungarian delegation led by the Minister of Defense Pál Maléter was invited to attend negotiations on Soviet withdrawal at the Soviet Military Command at Tököl, near Budapest. At around midnight that evening, General Ivan Serov, Chief of the Soviet Security Police (KGB) ordered the arrest of the Hungarian delegation, and the next day, the Soviet army again attacked Budapest.


  • Budapest, Hungary
    Saturday Nov 03, 1956
    09:30:00 PM

    The Soviet Army Had Completely Encircled Budapest

    Budapest, Hungary
    Saturday Nov 03, 1956

    The second Soviet intervention, codenamed "Operation Whirlwind", was launched by Marshal Ivan Konev. And By 21:30 on 3 November, the Soviet Army had completely encircled Budapest.


  • Budapest, Hungary
    Sunday Nov 04, 1956
    03:00:00 AM

    Soviet Tanks Penetrated Budapest

    Budapest, Hungary
    Sunday Nov 04, 1956

    At 03:00 on 4 November, Soviet tanks penetrated Budapest along the Pest side of the Danube in two thrusts: one up the Soroksári road from the south and the other down the Váci road from the north.


  • Budapest, Hungary
    Sunday Nov 04, 1956
    04:25:00 AM

    Armoured Units Crossed Into Buda and Fired The First Shots at The Army Barracks on Budaörsi Road

    Budapest, Hungary
    Sunday Nov 04, 1956

    Thus before a single shot was fired, the Soviets had effectively split the city in half, controlled all bridgeheads, and were shielded to the rear by the wide Danube river. Armoured units crossed into Buda and at 04:25 fired the first shots at the army barracks on Budaörsi Road. Soon after, Soviet artillery and tank fire was heard in all districts of Budapest.


  • Hungary
    Sunday Nov 04, 1956
    05:20:00 AM

    Imre Nagy Broadcast His Final Plea To The Nation and The World

    Hungary
    Sunday Nov 04, 1956

    At 05:20 on 4 November, Imre Nagy broadcast his final plea to the nation and the world, announcing that Soviet Forces were attacking Budapest and that the Government remained at its post.


  • Szolnok, Hungary
    Sunday Nov 04, 1956
    06:00:00 AM

    János Kádár Proclaimed The "Hungarian Revolutionary Worker-Peasant Government"

    Szolnok, Hungary
    Sunday Nov 04, 1956

    At 06:00, on 4 November, in the town of Szolnok, János Kádár proclaimed the "Hungarian Revolutionary Worker-Peasant Government". His statement declared "We must put an end to the excesses of the counter-revolutionary elements. The hour for action has sounded. We are going to defend the interest of the workers and peasants and the achievements of the people's democracy."


  • Budapest, Hungary
    Sunday Nov 04, 1956
    08:00:00 AM

    Organised Defence of The City Evaporated

    Budapest, Hungary
    Sunday Nov 04, 1956

    By 08:00 organised defense of the city evaporated after the radio station was seized, and many defenders fell back to fortified positions. During the same hour, the parliamentary guard laid down their arms, and forces under Major General K. Grebennik captured Parliament and liberated captured ministers of the Rákosi–Hegedüs government.


  • Budapest, Hungary
    Sunday Nov 04, 1956
    08:07:00 AM

    Free Kossuth Rádió Stopped Broadcasting

    Budapest, Hungary
    Sunday Nov 04, 1956

    The radio station, Free Kossuth Rádió, stopped broadcasting at 08:07. An emergency Cabinet meeting was held in the Parliament but was attended by only three ministers. As Soviet troops arrived to occupy the building, a negotiated evacuation ensued, leaving Minister of State István Bibó as the last representative of the National Government remaining at his post. He wrote For Freedom and Truth, a stirring proclamation to the nation and the world.


  • Hungary
    Sunday Nov 04, 1956

    Fighting Ceased

    Hungary
    Sunday Nov 04, 1956

    Fighting ceased between 28 October and 4 November, as many Hungarians believed that Soviet military units were withdrawing from Hungary.


  • Hungary
    Sunday Nov 04, 1956

    The Establishment of The "Revolutionary Workers'-Peasants' Government of Hungary"

    Hungary
    Sunday Nov 04, 1956

    During the early hours of 4 November, Ferenc Münnich announced on Radio Szolnok the establishment of the "Revolutionary Workers'-Peasants' Government of Hungary".


  • Budapest, Hungary
    Monday Nov 05, 1956

    The Councils decided To End The Nationwide Labour Strikes and Resume Work

    Budapest, Hungary
    Monday Nov 05, 1956

    In total there were approximately 2,100 local revolutionary and workers councils with over 28,000 members. These councils held a combined conference in Budapest, deciding to end the nationwide labour strikes and resume work on 5 November, with the more important councils sending delegates to the Parliament to assure the Nagy government of their support.


  • Budapest, Hungary
    Thursday Nov 08, 1956

    Most of Budapest Became Under Soviet Control

    Budapest, Hungary
    Thursday Nov 08, 1956

    With most of Budapest under Soviet control by 8 November, Kádár became Prime Minister of the "Revolutionary Worker-Peasant Government" and General Secretary of the Hungarian Communist Party. Few Hungarians rejoined the reorganised Party, its leadership having been purged under the supervision of the Soviet Praesidium, led by Georgy Malenkov and Mikhail Suslov.


  • Budapest, Hungary
    Thursday Nov 22, 1956

    Nagy and His Group Were Arrested

    Budapest, Hungary
    Thursday Nov 22, 1956

    Imre Nagy along with Georg Lukács, Géza Losonczy, and László Rajk's widow, Júlia, took refuge in the Embassy of Yugoslavia as Soviet forces overran Budapest. Despite assurances of safe passage out of Hungary by the Soviets and the Kádár government, Nagy and his group were arrested when attempting to leave the embassy on 22 November and taken to Romania.


  • Budapest, Hungary
    Jan, 1957

    Representatives of The Soviet Union, Bulgaria, Hungary, and Romania met to Review Internal Developments in Hungary

    Budapest, Hungary
    Jan, 1957

    In January 1957, representatives of the Soviet Union, Bulgaria, Hungary, and Romania met in Budapest to review internal developments in Hungary since the establishment of the Soviet-imposed government. A communiqué on the meeting "unanimously concluded" that Hungarian workers, with the leadership of the Kádár government and support of the Soviet army, defeated attempts "to eliminate the socialist achievements of the Hungarian people".


  • Budapest, Hungary
    Monday Jun 16, 1958

    Nagy was Executed

    Budapest, Hungary
    Monday Jun 16, 1958

    Nagy was executed, along with Pál Maléter and Miklós Gimes, after secret trials in June 1958. Their bodies were placed in unmarked graves in the Municipal Cemetery outside Budapest.


  • Hungary
    1963

    Releasing most of The Political Prisoners From The 1956 Hungarian Revolution

    Hungary
    1963

    By 1963, most political prisoners from the 1956 Hungarian revolution had been released.


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