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  • Romania
    Sunday Aug 27, 1916

    Romania Entered The World War I

    Romania
    Sunday Aug 27, 1916

    In 1916, Romania entered World War I on the side of the Allies. In doing so, Romania's goal was to unite all the territories with a Romanian national majority into one state. In the Treaty of Bucharest (1916), terms for Romania's acquisition of territories within Austria-Hungary were stipulated.




  • Austria-Hungary
    1918

    The Austro-Hungarian Monarchy Politically Collapsed

    Austria-Hungary
    1918

    In 1918, the Austro-Hungarian monarchy politically collapsed and disintegrated as a result of a defeat in the Italian Front (World War I). During the war Count Mihály Károlyi led a small but very active pacifist anti-war maverick fraction in the Hungarian parliament.




  • Brest-Litovsk, Belarus
    Sunday Mar 03, 1918

    The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

    Brest-Litovsk, Belarus
    Sunday Mar 03, 1918

    In 1918, after the October Revolution, the Bolsheviks signed a separate peace with the Central Powers in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk.




  • Moldova (Then Bessarabia)
    Tuesday Apr 09, 1918

    Signing The Union of Bessarabia with Romania

    Moldova (Then Bessarabia)
    Tuesday Apr 09, 1918

    The Union of Bessarabia with Romania was signed on 9 April 1918. The unification act that brought these lands within the modern Romanian state was not recognized by Bolshevik Soviet Russia, but it was occupied with fighting the White movement, Poland and the Ukraine in its war for independence, and resources were not available to challenge Romania.




  • Buftea, Romania
    Tuesday May 07, 1918

    The Treaty of Bucharest

    Buftea, Romania
    Tuesday May 07, 1918

    Romania was alone on the Eastern Front, a situation that far surpassed its military capabilities. Therefore, on 7 May 1918, Romania sued for peace. The prime minister of Romania, Alexandru Marghiloman, signed the Treaty of Bucharest (1918) with the Central Powers. However, this treaty was never signed by King Ferdinand of Romania.




  • Budapest, Hungary
    Thursday Oct 31, 1918

    The Aster Revolution in Budapest

    Budapest, Hungary
    Thursday Oct 31, 1918

    On 31 October 1918, the Aster Revolution in Budapest brought Hungarian liberal aristocrat Mihály Károlyi, a supporter of the Allied Powers, to power. The Hungarian Royal Honvéd army still had more than 1.400.000 soldiers when Mihály Károlyi was announced as prime minister of Hungary. Károlyi yielded to U.S. President Woodrow Wilson's demand for pacifism by ordering the disarmament of the Hungarian army. This happened under the direction of Béla Linder, minister of war in the Károlyi government. Due to the full disarmament of its army, Hungary remained without a national defence at a time of particular vulnerability.




  • Hungary (then Kingdom of Hungary)
    Tuesday Nov 05, 1918

    The Serbian Army Attack

    Hungary (then Kingdom of Hungary)
    Tuesday Nov 05, 1918

    On 5 November 1918, the Serbian army, with the help of the French army, crossed southern borders.


  • Hungary (then Kingdom of Hungary)
    Friday Nov 08, 1918

    The Czechoslovak Army Attack

    Hungary (then Kingdom of Hungary)
    Friday Nov 08, 1918

    On 8 November, the Czechoslovak Army crossed the northern borders.


  • Romania
    Sunday Nov 10, 1918

    Romania Re-entered The War on The Side of The Allied Forces

    Romania
    Sunday Nov 10, 1918

    On 10 November 1918, taking advantage of the Central Powers' precarious situation, Romania re-entered the war on the side of the Allied forces, with similar objectives to those of 1916. King Ferdinand called for the mobilization of the Romanian army and ordered it to attack by crossing the Carpathian Mountains into Transylvania. The end of World War I that soon followed did not bring an end to fighting for the Romanian army. Its action continued into 1918 and 1919 in the Hungarian–Romanian war.


  • Prisăcani River, Romania
    Wednesday Nov 13, 1918

    The 7th Entered Transylvania

    Prisăcani River, Romania
    Wednesday Nov 13, 1918

    Following the 1918 Treaty of Bucharest, the bulk of the Romanian Army was demobilized. Only the 9th and 10th infantry divisions and the 1st and 2nd cavalry divisions were at full strength. However, those units were engaged in the protection of Bessarabia against the Bolshevik Soviet Russians. The 1st, 7th and 8th Vânători divisions, stationed in Moldavia, were the first units to be mobilized. The 8th was sent to Bukovina and the other two were sent to Transylvania. On 13 November, the 7th entered Transylvania at the Prisăcani River in the eastern Carpathians. The 1st then entered Transylvania at Palanca, Bacău.


  • Belgrade, Serbia
    Wednesday Nov 13, 1918

    Károlyi Signed an Armistice With The Allied Nations

    Belgrade, Serbia
    Wednesday Nov 13, 1918

    On 13 November, Károlyi signed an armistice with the Allied nations in Belgrade. It limited the size of the Hungarian army to six infantry and two cavalry divisions. Demarcation lines defining the territory to remain under Hungarian control were made.


  • Hungary (then Kingdom of Hungary)
    Wednesday Nov 13, 1918

    The Romanian Army Attack

    Hungary (then Kingdom of Hungary)
    Wednesday Nov 13, 1918

    On 13 November, the Romanian army crossed the eastern borders of the Kingdom of Hungary.


  • Pécs, Hungary
    Thursday Nov 14, 1918

    Serbia Occupied Pécs

    Pécs, Hungary
    Thursday Nov 14, 1918

    The lines would apply until definitive borders could be established. Under the terms of the armistice, Serbian and French troops advanced from the south, taking control of the Banat and Croatia. Czechoslovakia took control of Upper Hungary and Carpathian Ruthenia. Romanian forces were permitted to advance to the River Maros (Mureș) . However, on 14 November, Serbia occupied Pécs.


  • Alba Iulia, Romania
    Sunday Dec 01, 1918

    Union of Transylvania With Romania

    Alba Iulia, Romania
    Sunday Dec 01, 1918

    On 1 December, the Union of Transylvania with Romania was officiated by the elected representatives of the Romanian people of Transylvania, who proclaimed a union with Romania. Later the Transylvanian Saxons and Banat Swabians also supported the union.


  • Mureș River, Romania
    Dec, 1918

    Reaching The Line of The Maros (Mureş) River

    Mureș River, Romania
    Dec, 1918

    Later, Romanian units reached the line of the Maros (Mureş) River. This was a demarcation line agreed upon by the representatives of the Allied powers and Hungary at the Armistice of Belgrade. At the same time units of the German army, under the command of Marshal August von Mackensen, retreated to the west.


  • Cluj-Napoca (Kolozsvár), Romania
    Tuesday Dec 24, 1918

    Entering Kolozsvár

    Cluj-Napoca (Kolozsvár), Romania
    Tuesday Dec 24, 1918

    On 24 December, units of the Romanian Army entered Kolozsvár.


  • Romania
    Wednesday Jan 22, 1919

    The Romanian Army Controlled All The Territory To The Maros River

    Romania
    Wednesday Jan 22, 1919

    By 22 January 1919, the Romanian army controlled all the territory to the Maros River. The 7th and 1st divisions were spread thin, so the 2nd Division was sent to Nagyszeben and the 6th Division to Brassó (Braşov). Two new infantry divisions, the 16th and 18th, were formed from Romanian soldiers previously mobilized in the Austro-Hungarian Army. A unified command of the Romanian army in Transylvania was established.


  • Paris, France
    Friday Feb 28, 1919

    The Paris Peace Conference

    Paris, France
    Friday Feb 28, 1919

    On 28 February 1919, at the Paris Peace Conference, the council of the Allied nations notified Hungary of a new demarcation line to which the Romanian army would advance. This line coincided with railways connecting Szatmárnémeti, Nagyvárad, and Arad. However, the Romanian army was not to enter these cities.


  • Hungary
    Wednesday Mar 19, 1919

    Hungary Received Notification of The New Demarcation Line

    Hungary
    Wednesday Mar 19, 1919

    On 19 March, Hungary received notification of the new demarcation line and demilitarized zone from French Lieutenant Colonel Fernand Vix (the "Vix note"). The Károlyi government would not accept the terms and this was a trigger for the coup d'état by Béla Kun, who formed the Hungarian Soviet Republic.


  • Hungary (then Kingdom of Hungary)
    Thursday Mar 20, 1919

    Releasing Béla Kun

    Hungary (then Kingdom of Hungary)
    Thursday Mar 20, 1919

    The Károlyi government failed to manage both domestic and military issues and lost popular support. On 20 March 1919, Béla Kun, who had been imprisoned in the Markó Street prison, was released.


  • Hungary (then Kingdom of Hungary)
    Friday Mar 21, 1919

    The Successful Communist Coup d'état

    Hungary (then Kingdom of Hungary)
    Friday Mar 21, 1919

    On 21 March, Béla Kun led a successful communist coup d'état. Károlyi was deposed and arrested. Kun formed a social democratic, communist coalition government and proclaimed the Hungarian Soviet Republic. Days later the Communists purged the Social Democrats from the government.


  • Tiraspol, Moldova
    Friday Mar 21, 1919

    Occupation of Tiraspol

    Tiraspol, Moldova
    Friday Mar 21, 1919

    On 21 March 1919, Romanian troops of the 39th Regiment occupied Tiraspol.


  • Hungary
    Saturday Mar 22, 1919

    Beginning The Retreat of The Hungarian Army behind The demilitarized Zone

    Hungary
    Saturday Mar 22, 1919

    A demilitarized zone was to be created, extending from the new demarcation line to 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) beyond the line. The demilitarized zone represented the extent of Romanian territorial requests on Hungary. The retreat of the Hungarian army behind the western border of the demilitarized zone was to begin on 22 March.


  • Hungary
    Friday Apr 04, 1919

    Sending South African General Jan Smuts To Hungary

    Hungary
    Friday Apr 04, 1919

    On 4 April, South African General Jan Smuts was sent to Hungary. He carried the proposition that the Hungarian communist government under Kun abide by the conditions previously presented to Károlyi in the Vix note. Smuts' mission also represented official recognition of the Kun communist government by the Allied council.


  • Romania
    Tuesday Apr 15, 1919

    The Hungarians Launched a Preemptive Attack.

    Romania
    Tuesday Apr 15, 1919

    When Kun became aware of Romanian preparations for an offensive, he fortified mountain passes in the territory controlled by the Hungarian Army. Then, on the night of 15–16 April, the Hungarians launched a preemptive attack.


  • Romania
    Wednesday Apr 16, 1919

    Romania Planned To Take an Offensive Action

    Romania
    Wednesday Apr 16, 1919

    When Kun declined the terms of the Vix note, Romania acted to enforce the new railway demarcation line. Romania planned to take an offensive action on 16 April 1919. The north battalion was to take Nagykároly and Nagyvárad. This would separate the elite Hungarian Székely division from the rest of the Hungarian army. The north battalion would then outflank the Hungarian Army. Simultaneously, the south battalion would advance to Máriaradna and Belényes.


  • Hungary (then Kingdom of Hungary)
    Friday Apr 18, 1919

    The Hungarian Front was broken

    Hungary (then Kingdom of Hungary)
    Friday Apr 18, 1919

    By 18 April, the first elements of the Romanian offensive were completed and the Hungarian front was broken.


  • Carei (Nagykároly), Romania
    Saturday Apr 19, 1919

    Romania Took Nagykároly

    Carei (Nagykároly), Romania
    Saturday Apr 19, 1919

    On 19 April, Romanian forces took Nagykároly.


  • Nagyvárad (Oradea), Romania - Nagyszalonta (Salonta), Romania
    Sunday Apr 20, 1919

    Romania Took Nagyvárad and Nagyszalonta

    Nagyvárad (Oradea), Romania - Nagyszalonta (Salonta), Romania
    Sunday Apr 20, 1919

    On 20 April they took Nagyvárad (Oradea) and Nagyszalonta (Salonta). Rather than following the instructions of the Vix note, the Romanian army pressed on for the Tisza River, an easily defended natural military obstacle.


  • Debrecen, Hungary
    Wednesday Apr 23, 1919

    Romania occupied Debrecen

    Debrecen, Hungary
    Wednesday Apr 23, 1919

    On 23 April, Debrecen was occupied by Romanian forces.


  • Békéscsaba, Hungary
    Saturday Apr 26, 1919

    Békéscsaba Fell To Romanian Forces

    Békéscsaba, Hungary
    Saturday Apr 26, 1919

    The Romanian Army began preparations for an assault on Békéscsaba. On 25–26 April, after some heavy fighting, Békéscsaba fell to Romanian forces.


  • Szolnok, Hungary
    Tuesday Apr 29, 1919

    Breaking Through The Tisza River defense Lines

    Szolnok, Hungary
    Tuesday Apr 29, 1919

    The Hungarians retreated to Szolnok and from there across the Tisza River. They established two concentric defense lines extending from the Tisza River around Szolnok. Between 29 April and 1 May, the Romanian Army broke through these lines.


  • Paris, France
    Wednesday Apr 30, 1919

    French Foreign Minister Stéphen Pichon Summoned Ion I.C. Brătianu

    Paris, France
    Wednesday Apr 30, 1919

    On 30 April, French Foreign Minister Stéphen Pichon summoned Ion I.C. Brătianu, the Romanian representative to the Paris Peace Conference. Romania was told to cease its advance at the Tisza River and retreat to the first demarcation line imposed by the Allied council. Brătianu promised that Romanian troops would not cross the Tisza River.


  • Moldova (Then Bessarabia)
    Thursday May 01, 1919

    Romania Was Ordered To Leave Bessarabia

    Moldova (Then Bessarabia)
    Thursday May 01, 1919

    On 1 May, Bolshevik Soviet Russian Foreign Minister Georgy Chicherin issued an ultimatum to the Romanian government. Romania was ordered to leave Bessarabia.


  • Tisza River, Hungary
    Thursday May 01, 1919

    Romania controled The Entire East bank of The Tisza River

    Tisza River, Hungary
    Thursday May 01, 1919

    On the evening of 1 May the entire east bank of the Tisza River was under the control of the Romanian army.


  • Hungary
    Friday May 02, 1919

    Hungary Sued For Peace

    Hungary
    Friday May 02, 1919

    On 2 May, Hungary sued for peace via a request delivered by his representative, Lieutenant Colonel Henrik Werth. Kun was prepared to recognize all of Romania's territorial demands; requested the cessation of hostilities; and asked for ongoing control of Hungarian internal affairs.


  • Moldova (Then Bessarabia)
    Saturday May 10, 1919

    The Bolshevik Soviet Russian Troops' Large Attack On Bessarabia

    Moldova (Then Bessarabia)
    Saturday May 10, 1919

    Under the command of Vladimir Antonov-Ovseyenko, Bolshevik Soviet Russian troops gathered along the Dniester River in preparation for a large attack on Bessarabia on 10 May.


  • Miskolc, Hungary
    Tuesday May 20, 1919

    Hungary Attacked Miskolc

    Miskolc, Hungary
    Tuesday May 20, 1919

    With cessation of hostilities, Kun worked to improve his battered international position. On 20 May 1919, a force under Colonel Aurél Stromfeld attacked and routed Czech troops from Miskolc.


  • Bender (Then Tighina), Moldova
    Tuesday May 27, 1919

    The Action at Tighina

    Bender (Then Tighina), Moldova
    Tuesday May 27, 1919

    Bolshevik Soviet Russian attacks in Bessarabia intensified, peaking on 27–28 May with an action at Tighina.


  • Moldova (Then Bessarabia)
    Jun, 1919

    The Tensions In Bessarabia Had Eased

    Moldova (Then Bessarabia)
    Jun, 1919

    The Romanian Army's 4th and 5th infantry divisions were moved to Bessarabia. In southern Bessarabia a territorial command unit formed by the Romanian Army's 15th Infantry Division was established. By the end of June tensions in the area had eased.


  • Tisza River, Hungary
    Tuesday Jun 03, 1919

    Romania was Forced Into Further Retreat

    Tisza River, Hungary
    Tuesday Jun 03, 1919

    On 3 June, Romania was forced into further retreat but extended its line of defence along the Tisza River and reinforced its position with the 8th Division, which had been moving forward from Bukovina since 22 May.


  • Hungary
    Monday Jun 23, 1919

    Hungary Signed an armistice With Czechoslovakia

    Hungary
    Monday Jun 23, 1919

    On 23 June, Hungary signed an armistice with Czechoslovakia.


  • Hungary
    Friday Jul 04, 1919

    The Hungarian Army Had Retreated South of The Hungarian–Czechoslovak demarcation Line

    Hungary
    Friday Jul 04, 1919

    By 4 July, the Hungarian Army had retreated 15 km south of the Hungarian–Czechoslovak demarcation line.


  • Hungary
    Friday Jul 11, 1919

    The Coordinated Attack against Hungary

    Hungary
    Friday Jul 11, 1919

    The Allied council demanded that Romania leave Tiszántúl and respect the new borders. Romania said it would only do so after the Hungarian Army demobilized. Kun said he would continue to depend on the might of his army. On 11 July, the Allied council ordered Marshal Ferdinand Foch to prepare a coordinated attack against Hungary using Serb, French and Romanian forces. Hungary, in turn, prepared for action along the Tisza River.


  • Hungary
    Sunday Jul 20, 1919
    03:00:00 AM

    The Hungarian Infantry Crossed The Tisza River and Attacked Romanian Positions.

    Hungary
    Sunday Jul 20, 1919

    On 20 July, at about 3 a.m., after a fierce bombardment, Hungarian infantry including all three groups crossed the Tisza River and attacked Romanian positions.


  • Rakamaz, Hungary
    Sunday Jul 20, 1919

    The Hungarians Army took Rakamaz

    Rakamaz, Hungary
    Sunday Jul 20, 1919

    On 20 July, in the northern arena, the Hungarians army took Rakamaz and some nearby villages. Troops of the Romanian 16th and 2nd Vânători divisions took back the villages shortly and regained Rakamaz the next day. The Hungarians renewed their efforts and, supported by artillery fire, retook Rakamaz and two nearby villages but could not break out of the Rakamaz bridgehead.


  • Szolnok, Hungary
    Sunday Jul 20, 1919

    Hungarian Forces Established a Solid Bridgehead at Szolnok

    Szolnok, Hungary
    Sunday Jul 20, 1919

    On 20 July, Hungarian forces established a solid bridgehead on the east bank of the Tisza at Szolnok, opposed by the Romanian 91st Regiment of the 18th Infantry Division. The Hungarian army moved the 6th and 7th divisions across the Tisza River, formed up within the bridgehead, then attacked the Romanians in the first line of defense. The Hungarian 6th Infantry Division took Törökszentmiklós; the 7th Division advanced towards Mezőtúr and the 5th Division advanced towards Túrkeve.


  • Kunhegyes, Hungary
    Tuesday Jul 22, 1919

    Hungarian Forces Crossed The Tisza River and Took Kunhegyes

    Kunhegyes, Hungary
    Tuesday Jul 22, 1919

    On 22 July, Hungarian forces crossed the Tisza River at a point 20 kilometres (12 mi) north of Szolnok and took Kunhegyes from the Romanian 18th Vânători Regiment.


  • Hódmezővásárhely, Hungary
    Wednesday Jul 23, 1919

    Romanian Forces reoccupied Hódmezővásárhely

    Hódmezővásárhely, Hungary
    Wednesday Jul 23, 1919

    On 21–22 July, Hódmezővásárhely changed hands several times between Hungarian and Romanian troops of the 90th Infantry Regiment supported by the 1st Vânători Brigade. On 23 July, Romanian forces reoccupied Hódmezővásárhely, Szentes and Mindszent.


  • Túrkeve, Hungary - Mezőtúr, Hungary
    Wednesday Jul 23, 1919

    The Hungarian Took Túrkeve and Mezőtúr

    Túrkeve, Hungary - Mezőtúr, Hungary
    Wednesday Jul 23, 1919

    On 23 July, Hungarian forces took Túrkeve and Mezőtúr.


  • Tiszafüred, Hungary
    Thursday Jul 24, 1919

    The Romanian 20th Infantry Division Cleared The bridgehead at Tiszafüred

    Tiszafüred, Hungary
    Thursday Jul 24, 1919

    On 24 July, the Romanian 20th Infantry Division, brought in as reinforcements, cleared the bridgehead at Tiszafüred. Not being able to break out of Rakamaz, Hungarian forces fortified their positions and redeployed some troops. There was a lull in fighting in the north, as the Romanian troops did the same.


  • Kunhegyes, Hungary
    Thursday Jul 24, 1919

    The Romanian Took Kunhegyes

    Kunhegyes, Hungary
    Thursday Jul 24, 1919

    On 24 July, the Romanian Army's northern maneuver group attacked. Elements of the 2nd Cavalry Division, supported by troops of the 18th Infantry Division, took Kunhegyes. The Romanian 1st Infantry Division attacked the Hungarian 6th Infantry Division and took Fegyvernek. The Romanian 6th Ddivision was less successful, being counterattacked on the left flank by the Hungarian reserve formations. Altogether, the attack pushed back the Hungarian army 20 kilometres (12 mi). Romanian forces were supported by the 2nd Vânători Division and some cavalry units when they became available.


  • Fegyvernek, Hungary
    Friday Jul 25, 1919

    Hungarian Forces Counterattacked at Fegyvernek

    Fegyvernek, Hungary
    Friday Jul 25, 1919

    On 25 July, fighting continued. Hungarian forces counterattacked at Fegyvernek, engaging the Romanian 1st Infantry Division. With their lines breaking, Hungarian troops began a retreat towards the Tisza River bridge at Szolnok.


  • Rakamaz, Hungary
    Saturday Jul 26, 1919
    10:00:00 PM

    The Romanians Cleared The Rakamaz Bridgehead

    Rakamaz, Hungary
    Saturday Jul 26, 1919

    On 26 July, the Romanians attacked, and by 10 p.m. had cleared the Rakamaz bridgehead. This left the Romanian army in control of the northern part of the Tisza's eastern bank.


  • Hungary
    Sunday Jul 27, 1919

    The Romanian Army Tested The Strength of The Hungarian Defense

    Hungary
    Sunday Jul 27, 1919

    After repelling the Hungarian attack, the Romanian army prepared to cross the Tisza River. From 27–29 July, the Romanian Army tested the strength of the Hungarian defense with small attacks. A plan was made to cross the Tisza River near Fegyvernek, where it makes a turn.


  • Tisza River, Hungary
    Tuesday Jul 29, 1919

    The Romanian Army crossed the Tisza River

    Tisza River, Hungary
    Tuesday Jul 29, 1919

    On the night of 29–30 July, the Romanian Army crossed the Tisza River. Decoy operations were mounted at other points along the river, bringing intense artillery duels. Romanian forces held the element of surprise.


  • Budapest, Hungary
    Thursday Jul 31, 1919

    Hungarian Army retreated Towards Budapest

    Budapest, Hungary
    Thursday Jul 31, 1919

    On 31 July the Hungarian army retreated towards Budapest.


  • The Austrian border, Hungary
    Saturday Aug 02, 1919

    Kun Fled Hungary Towards The Austrian Border

    The Austrian border, Hungary
    Saturday Aug 02, 1919

    On 2 August, Kun fled Hungary towards the Austrian border and eventually reached the Soviet Union.


  • Budapest, Hungary
    Sunday Aug 03, 1919

    Entering Budapest

    Budapest, Hungary
    Sunday Aug 03, 1919

    Romanian forces continued their advance towards Budapest. On 3 August, under the command of General Rusescu, three squadrons of the 6th Cavalry Regiment of the 4th Brigade entered Budapest.


  • Győr, Hungary
    Monday Aug 04, 1919

    The Romanian Forces Continued Their advance Into Hungary and Stopped at Győr

    Győr, Hungary
    Monday Aug 04, 1919

    Until midday on 4 August, 400 Romanian soldiers with two artillery guns held Budapest. Then the bulk of the Romanian troops arrived in the city and a parade was held through the city center in front of the commander, General Moşoiu. Romanian forces continued their advance into Hungary and stopped at Győr. As of 8 August, the Romanians had captured 1,235 Hungarian officers and 40,000 soldiers, seized 350 guns—including two with a caliber of 305 mm—332 machine guns, 52,000 rifles and 87 airplanes.


  • Hungary
    1920

    The Romanian Troops departed Hungary

    Hungary
    1920

    In early 1920, Romanian troops departed Hungary. They took with them resources including foodstuffs, mineral ores and transportation and factory equipment and also discovered historic bells of Romanian churches in Budapest taken by the Hungarians from Austro-Hungarian Army, which had not been melted then.


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