1911-06-16 to Present
New York, U.S.International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York. IBM produces and sells computer hardware, middleware and software, and provides hosting and consulting services in areas ranging from mainframe computers to nanotechnology.
On June 16, 1911, the four companies of, Julius E. Pitrap (patented the computing scale), Alexander Dey (inventing the dial record), Herman Hollerith (patented the Electric Tabulating Machine), and Willard Bundy (invented a time clock to record a worker's arrival and departure time on paper tape), amalgamated in New York State by Charles Ranlett Flint forming a fifth company, the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (CTR) based in Endicott, New York.
In 1915, Watson was made President when court cases relating to his time at NCR were resolved. Having learned Patterson's pioneering business practices, Watson proceeded to put the stamp of NCR onto CTR's companies. His favorite slogan, "THINK", became a mantra for each company's employees.
On 7 April 1964, IBM announced the first computer system family, the IBM System/360. It spanned the complete range of commercial and scientific applications from large to small, allowing companies to upgrade to models with greater computing capability without having to rewrite their applications.
Five IBMers have received the Nobel Prize: Leo Esaki, of the Thomas J. Watson Research Center in Yorktown Heights, N.Y., in 1973, for work in semiconductors; Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer, of the Zurich Research Center, in 1986, for the scanning tunneling microscope, and Georg Bednorz and Alex Müller, also of Zurich, in 1987, for research in superconductivity.
In 2003, after acquiring PwC consulting, IBM initiated a project to redefine company values, hosting a three-day online discussion of key business issues with 50,000 employees. The result was three values: "Dedication to every client's success", "Innovation that matters—for our company and for the world", and "Trust and personal responsibility in all relationships".
IBM was recognized as one of the Top 20 Best Workplaces for Commuters by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 2005, which recognized Fortune 500 companies that provided employees with excellent commuter benefits to help reduce traffic and air pollution.
In 2014, the company revealed TrueNorth, a neuromorphic CMOS integrated circuit, and announced a $3 billion investment over the following five years to design a neural chip that mimics the human brain, with 10 billion neurons and 100 trillion synapses, but that uses just 1 kilowatt of power.