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  • Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, England, United Kingdom
    Tuesday Jun 05, 1883

    Birth

    Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, England, United Kingdom
    Tuesday Jun 05, 1883

    John Maynard Keynes was born in Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, England, to an upper-middle-class family.




  • Cambridge, England
    May, 1904

    First class BA in mathematics

    Cambridge, England
    May, 1904

    In May 1904, he received a first class BA in mathematics.




  • Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, England, United Kingdom
    1908

    Return to Cambridge

    Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, England, United Kingdom
    1908

    He enjoyed his work at first, but by 1908 had become bored and resigned his position to return to Cambridge and work on probability theory, at first privately funded only by two dons at the university – his father and the economist Arthur Pigou.




  • London, England
    Oct, 1908

    Civil Service career

    London, England
    Oct, 1908

    In October 1908, Keynes's Civil Service career began as a clerk in the India Office.




  • England
    1909

    First professional economics article

    England
    1909

    By 1909 Keynes had published his first professional economics article in The Economic Journal, about the effect of a recent global economic downturn on India.




  • Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, England, United Kingdom
    1909

    Political Economy Club

    Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, England, United Kingdom
    1909

    He founded the Political Economy Club, a weekly discussion group.




  • England
    1913

    First book

    England
    1913

    By 1913 he had published his first book, Indian Currency and Finance.


  • England
    Jan, 1915

    Official government position at the Treasury

    England
    Jan, 1915

    In January 1915, Keynes took up an official government position at the Treasury.


  • London, England
    1917

    Companion of the Order of the Bath for his wartime work

    London, England
    1917

    In the 1917 King's Birthday Honors, Keynes was appointed Companion of the Order of the Bath for his wartime work.


  • Versailles, Paris, France
    Saturday Jun 28, 1919

    Financial representative for the Treasury to the 1919 Versailles peace conference

    Versailles, Paris, France
    Saturday Jun 28, 1919

    Keynes was appointed financial representative for the Treasury to the 1919 Versailles peace conference. He was also appointed Officer of the Belgian Order of Leopold.


  • England
    1921

    A Treatise on Probability

    England
    1921

    Keynes had completed his A Treatise on Probability before the war, but published it in 1921.


  • England
    1922

    Keynes continued to advocate reduction of German reparations

    England
    1922

    In 1922 Keynes continued to advocate reduction of German reparations with A Revision of the Treaty.


  • England
    1924

    Fiscal response

    England
    1924

    From 1924 he was also advocating a fiscal response, where the government could create jobs by spending on public works.


  • England
    1925

    Marriage

    England
    1925

    In 1921, Keynes wrote that he had fallen "very much in love" with Lydia Lopokova, a well-known Russian ballerina and one of the stars of Diaghilev's Ballets Russes. In the early years of his courtship, he maintained an affair with a younger man, Sebastian Sprott, in tandem with Lopokova, but eventually chose Lopokova exclusively. They were married in 1925.


  • England
    1930

    Treatise on Money

    England
    1930

    Treatise on Money, was published in 1930 in two volumes.


  • England
    1936

    The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money

    England
    1936

    The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money was published in 1936.


  • England
    1940

    How to Pay for the War

    England
    1940

    Keynes argued in How to Pay for the War, published in 1940, that the war effort should be largely financed by higher taxation and especially by compulsory saving (essentially workers lending money to the government), rather than deficit spending, in order to avoid inflation.


  • England
    Sep, 1941

    Proposed to fill a vacancy in the Court of Directors of the Bank of England

    England
    Sep, 1941

    In September 1941 he was proposed to fill a vacancy in the Court of Directors of the Bank of England, and subsequently carried out a full term from the following April.


  • England
    Jun, 1942

    Rewarded for his service with a hereditary peerage

    England
    Jun, 1942

    In June 1942, Keynes was rewarded for his service with a hereditary peerage in the King's Birthday Honors.


  • England
    Tuesday Jul 07, 1942

    Baron Keynes, of Tilton, in the County of Sussex

    England
    Tuesday Jul 07, 1942

    On 7 July his title was gazetted as "Baron Keynes, of Tilton, in the County of Sussex" and he took his seat in the House of Lords on the Liberal Party benches.


  • U.S.
    1944

    Bretton Woods system

    U.S.
    1944

    As the Allied victory began to look certain, Keynes was heavily involved, as leader of the British delegation and chairman of the World Bank commission, in the mid-1944 negotiations that established the Bretton Woods system.


  • East Sussex, England
    Sunday Apr 21, 1946

    Death

    East Sussex, England
    Sunday Apr 21, 1946

    Keynes died of a heart attack at Tilton, his farmhouse home near Firle, East Sussex, England, on 21 April 1946, at the age of 62.


  • U.S.
    Mar, 2008

    The death of the dream of global free-market capitalism

    U.S.
    Mar, 2008

    The global financial crisis of 2007–08 led to public skepticism about the free market consensus even from some on the economic right. In March 2008, Martin Wolf, chief economics commentator at the Financial Times, announced the death of the dream of global free-market capitalism.


  • U.S.
    Dec, 2008

    Sudden resurgence of Keynesian policy

    U.S.
    Dec, 2008

    By the end of December 2008, the Financial Times reported that "the sudden resurgence of Keynesian policy is a stunning reversal of the orthodoxy of the past several decades".


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