Historydraft LogoHistorydraft Logo HistorydraftbetaHistorydraft Logo Historydraftbeta

  • Rome, Italy
    Wednesday Jan 05, 1938

    Born

    Rome, Italy
    Wednesday Jan 05, 1938

    Juan Carlos was born to Infante Juan, Count of Barcelona, and Princess María de las Mercedes of Bourbon-Two Sicilies in Rome, Italy, where his grandfather King Alfonso XIII of Spain and other members of the Spanish royal family lived in exile following the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic in 1931.




  • Military Academy, Zaragoza, Spain.
    1955

    Joining The Army

    Military Academy, Zaragoza, Spain.
    1955

    He then joined the army, doing his officer training from 1955 to 1957 at the Military Academy of Zaragoza.




  • Marín, Pontevedra, Spain
    1957

    Joining The Naval School

    Marín, Pontevedra, Spain
    1957

    In 1957, Juan Carlos spent a year in the naval school at Marín, Pontevedra, and another in the Air Force school in San Javier in Murcia.




  • Complutense University of Madrid, Av. Séneca, Madrid, Spain
    1960

    Education

    Complutense University of Madrid, Av. Séneca, Madrid, Spain
    1960

    In 1960–61, he studied Law, International Political Economy and Public Finance at Complutense University. He then went to live in the Palace of Zarzuela and began carrying out official engagements.




  • Athens, Greece
    Monday May 14, 1962

    Marriage

    Athens, Greece
    Monday May 14, 1962

    Juan Carlos was married in Athens on 14 May 1962, to Princess Sophia of Greece and Denmark, daughter of King Paul of Greece, first in a Roman Catholic ceremony at the Church of St. Denis, followed by a Greek Orthodox ceremony at the Metropolitan Cathedral of Athens. She converted from her Greek Orthodox religion to Roman Catholicism.




  • Madrid, Spain
    Tuesday Jul 22, 1969

    The Spanish Parliament ratifie on Juan as The Prince of Spain

    Madrid, Spain
    Tuesday Jul 22, 1969

    Franco decided to skip a generation and name Juan de Borbón's son, Prince Juan Carlos, as his personal successor. Franco hoped the young prince could be groomed to take over the nation while still maintaining the ultraconservative and authoritarian nature of his regime. In 1969, Juan Carlos was officially designated heir-apparent and was given the new title of Prince of Spain (not the traditional Prince of Asturias). As a condition of being named heir-apparent, he was required to swear loyalty to Franco's Movimiento Nacional, which he did with little outward hesitation. His choice was ratified by the Spanish parliament on 22 July 1969.




  • Madrid, Spain
    Thursday Oct 30, 1975

    Franco gives full control to Juan Carlos

    Madrid, Spain
    Thursday Oct 30, 1975

    During periods of Franco's temporary incapacity in 1974 and 1975, Juan Carlos was acting head of state. On 30 October 1975, Franco gave full control to Juan Carlos.


  • Madrid, Spain
    Thursday Nov 20, 1975

    Franco's Death

    Madrid, Spain
    Thursday Nov 20, 1975

    Franco died on 20 November, three weeks after giving full control to Juan.


  • Madrid, Spain
    Saturday Nov 22, 1975

    Juan Carlos King of Spain

    Madrid, Spain
    Saturday Nov 22, 1975

    On 22 November, two days after Franco's death, the Cortes Españolas proclaimed Juan Carlos King of Spain.


  • The Church of San Jerónimo el Real in Madrid, Spain
    Tuesday Nov 25, 1975

    Church Ceremony

    The Church of San Jerónimo el Real in Madrid, Spain
    Tuesday Nov 25, 1975

    On 27 November, a Mass of the Holy Spirit was celebrated in the church of San Jerónimo el Real in Madrid to inaugurate his reign. He opted not to call himself Juan III or Carlos V, but Juan Carlos I.


  • Madrid, Spain
    Saturday May 14, 1977

    His Father formally renounced his claim to the throne

    Madrid, Spain
    Saturday May 14, 1977

    Further legitimacy was restored to Juan Carlos's position on 14 May 1977, when his father (whom many monarchists had recognized as the legitimate, exiled King of Spain during the Franco era) formally renounced his claim to the throne and recognized his son as the sole head of the Spanish Royal House, transferring to him the historical heritage of the Spanish monarchy, thus making Juan Carlos both de facto and de jure king in the eyes of the traditional monarchists.


  • Zarzuela Palace, Carretera del Pardo, Madrid, Spain
    Friday May 20, 1977

    Endorsement of The Monarchy From Spain's Political Left

    Zarzuela Palace, Carretera del Pardo, Madrid, Spain
    Friday May 20, 1977

    On 20 May 1977, the leader of the only recently legalized Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE), Felipe González, accompanied by Javier Solana, visited Juan Carlos in the Zarzuela Palace. The event represented a key endorsement of the monarchy from Spain's political left, who had been historically republican. Left-wing support for the monarchy grew when the Communist Party of Spain was legalized shortly thereafter, a move Juan Carlos had pressed for, despite enormous right-wing military opposition at that time, during the Cold War.


  • Spain
    Wednesday Jun 15, 1977

    The First post-Franco Democratic Elections

    Spain
    Wednesday Jun 15, 1977

    On 15 June 1977, Spain held its first post-Franco democratic elections.


  • Spain
    Wednesday Dec 06, 1978

    The People ratify on The New Constitution

    Spain
    Wednesday Dec 06, 1978

    In 1978, the government promulgated a new constitution that acknowledged Juan Carlos as rightful heir of the Spanish dynasty and king; specifically, Title II, Section 57 asserted Juan Carlos's right to the throne of Spain by dynastic succession in the Bourbon tradition, as "the legitimate heir of the historic dynasty" rather than as the designated successor of Franco. The Constitution was passed by the democratically elected Constituent Cortes, ratified by the people in a referendum (6 December) and then signed into law by the King before a solemn meeting of the Cortes.


  • Spain
    Monday Feb 23, 1981

    Military Coup attempted

    Spain
    Monday Feb 23, 1981

    There was an attempted military coup, known as 23-F, on 23 February 1981, when the Cortes were seized by members of the Guardia Civil in the parliamentary chamber. During the coup, the King, in the uniform of the Captain-General of the Spanish armed forces, gave a public television broadcast calling for unambiguous support for the legitimate democratic government. The broadcast is believed to have been a major factor in foiling the coup.


  • Spain
    Thursday Oct 28, 1982

    The 1982 General Election

    Spain
    Thursday Oct 28, 1982

    The victory of the PSOE in 1982 under González marked the effective end of the King's active involvement in Spanish politics. González would govern for 14 years, longer than any democratically elected Prime Minister. His administration helped consolidate Spanish democracy and thus maintained the stability of the nation.


  • Catalonia, Spain
    Friday Sep 28, 2007

    The Protesters Catalonia

    Catalonia, Spain
    Friday Sep 28, 2007

    The issue of the monarchy re-emerged on 28 September 2007 as photos of the king were burnt in public in Catalonia by small groups of protesters wanting the restoration of the Republic.


  • Botswana
    Apr, 2012

    The Botswana Hunting Trip

    Botswana
    Apr, 2012

    In April 2012, Juan Carlos faced criticism for making an elephant-hunting trip in Botswana. Spaniards found out about the trip only after the King injured himself and a special aircraft was sent to bring him home. Spanish officials stated that the expenses of the trip were not paid by taxpayers or by the palace, but by Mohamed Eyad Kayali, a businessman of Syrian origin. Cayo Lara Moya of the United Left party said the king's trip "demonstrated a lack of ethics and respect toward many people in this country who are suffering a lot" while Tomás Gómez of the Socialist party said Juan Carlos should choose between "public responsibilities or an abdication". In April 2012, Spain's unemployment was at 23 percent and nearly 50 percent for young workers. El País estimated the total cost of a hunting trip at 44,000 euros, about twice the average annual salary in Spain.


  • Madrid, Spain
    Monday Jun 02, 2014

    Prime Minister's televised announcement about the king's intention to abdicate

    Madrid, Spain
    Monday Jun 02, 2014

    Spanish news media speculated about the King's future in early 2014, following public criticism over his taking an elephant hunting safari in Botswana and an embezzlement scandal involving his daughter Cristina, and her husband Inaki Urdangarin. The King's chief of staff in a briefing denied that the 'abdication option' was being considered. On the morning of 2 June 2014, Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy made a televised announcement that the King had told him of his intention to abdicate. Later, the King delivered a televised address and announced that he would abdicate the throne in favour of the Prince of Asturias. Royal officials described the King's choice as a personal decision which he had been contemplating since his 76th birthday at the start of the year. The King reportedly said, "No queremos que mi hijo se marchite esperando como el príncipe Carlos." As required by the Spanish constitution, any abdication would be settled by means of an organic law.


  • Madrid, Spain
    Saturday Jun 01, 2019

    Retirement

    Madrid, Spain
    Saturday Jun 01, 2019

    In June 2019, the former King announced his retirement from official duties.


<