Historydraft LogoHistorydraft Logo HistorydraftbetaHistorydraft Logo Historydraftbeta

  • Saint Ann's Bay, Jamaica
    Wednesday Aug 17, 1887

    Birth

    Saint Ann's Bay, Jamaica
    Wednesday Aug 17, 1887

    Marcus Mosiah Garvey was born on 17 August 1887 in Saint Ann's Bay, a town in the Colony of Jamaica.




  • Saint Ann's Bay, Jamaica
    1901

    Garvey attended a local church school

    Saint Ann's Bay, Jamaica
    1901

    Up to the age of 14, Garvey attended a local church school; further education was unaffordable for the family.




  • Saint Ann's Bay, Jamaica
    1901

    Marcus was apprenticed to his godfather

    Saint Ann's Bay, Jamaica
    1901

    In 1901, Marcus was apprenticed to his godfather, a local printer.




  • Port Maria, Jamaica
    1904

    Traveling to Port Maria each morning

    Port Maria, Jamaica
    1904

    In 1904, the printer opened another branch at Port Maria, where Garvey began to work, traveling from Saint Ann's Bay each morning.




  • Kingston, Jamaica
    1905

    Marcus moved to Kingston

    Kingston, Jamaica
    1905

    In 1905, Marcus moved to Kingston, where he boarded in Smith Village, a working-class neighbourhood. In the city, he secured work with the printing division of the P.A. Benjamin Manufacturing Company. He rose quickly through the company ranks, becoming their first Afro-Jamaican foreman.




  • Kingston, Jamaica
    Monday Jan 14, 1907

    Kingston was hit by an earthquake

    Kingston, Jamaica
    Monday Jan 14, 1907

    In January 1907, Kingston was hit by an earthquake that reduced much of the city to rubble. He, his mother, and his sister were left to sleep in the open for several months.




  • Kingston, Jamaica
    Mar, 1908

    Mother died

    Kingston, Jamaica
    Mar, 1908

    In March 1908, his mother died. While Garvey converted to Roman Catholicism.


  • Jamaica
    Nov, 1908

    Garvey became a trade unionist and took a leading role

    Jamaica
    Nov, 1908

    Garvey became a trade unionist and took a leading role in the November 1908 print workers' strike. The strike was broken several weeks later and Garvey was sacked. Henceforth branded a troublemaker, Garvey was unable to find work in the private sector. He then found temporary employment with a government printer. As a result of these experiences, Garvey became increasingly angry at the inequalities present in Jamaican society.


  • Jamaica
    1910

    The Watchman

    Jamaica
    1910

    In early 1910, Garvey began publishing a magazine, Garvey's Watchman—its name a reference to George William Gordon's The Watchman—although it only lasted three issues. He claimed it had a circulation of 3000, although this was likely an exaggeration. Garvey also enrolled in elocution lessons with the radical journalist Robert J. Love, whom Garvey came to regard as a mentor. With his enhanced skill at speaking in a Standard English manner, he entered several public speaking competitions.


  • Jamaica
    Apr, 1910

    First assistant secretary

    Jamaica
    Apr, 1910

    Garvey involved himself with the National Club, Jamaica's first nationalist organization, becoming its first assistant secretary in April 1910. The group campaigned to remove the British Governor of Jamaica, Sydney Olivier, from office, and to end the migration of Indian "coolies", or indentured workers, to Jamaica, as they were seen as a source of economic competition by the established population. With fellow Club member Wilfred Domingo he published a pamphlet expressing the group's ideas, The Struggling Mass.


  • Costa Rica
    1910

    Garvey traveled to Costa Rica

    Costa Rica
    1910

    Economic hardship in Jamaica led to growing emigration from the island. In mid-1910, Garvey traveled to Costa Rica, where an uncle had secured him employment as a timekeeper on a large banana plantation in the Limón Province owned by the United Fruit Company (UFC).


  • Costa Rica
    1911

    La Nación

    Costa Rica
    1911

    In the spring of 1911 be launched a bilingual newspaper, Nation/La Nación, which criticized the actions of the UFC and upset many of the dominant strata of Costa Rican society in Limón. Marcus's coverage of a local fire, in which he questioned the motives of the fire brigade, resulted in him being brought in for police questioning. After his printing press broke, he was unable to replace the faulty part and terminated the newspaper.


  • Honduras, Ecuador, Colombia, and Venezuela
    1911

    Garvey then traveled through Central America

    Honduras, Ecuador, Colombia, and Venezuela
    1911

    Garvey then traveled through Central America, undertaking casual work as he made his way through Honduras, Ecuador, Colombia, and Venezuela. While in the port of Colón in Panama, he set up a new newspaper, La Prensa ("The Press").


  • Kingston, Jamaica
    1911

    Marcus decided to return to Kingston

    Kingston, Jamaica
    1911

    In 1911, Marcus became seriously ill with a bacterial infection and decided to return to Kingston.


  • England, United Kingdom
    1912

    Marcus sailed to England

    England, United Kingdom
    1912

    Marcus then decided to travel to London, the administrative center of the British Empire, in the hope of advancing his informal education. In the spring of 1912, he sailed to England. Renting a room along Borough High Street in South London, he visited the House of Commons, where he was impressed by the politician David Lloyd George.


  • London, England, United Kingdom
    Aug, 1912

    Sister joined him in London

    London, England, United Kingdom
    Aug, 1912

    In August 1912, his sister Indiana joined him in London, where she worked as a domestic servant.


  • London, England, United Kingdom
    1913

    Messenger for the African Times and Orient Review

    London, England, United Kingdom
    1913

    In early 1913, Marcus was employed as a messenger and handyman for the African Times and Orient Review, a magazine based in Fleet Street that was edited by Dusé Mohamed Ali.


  • England, United Kingdom
    1914

    Mohamed Ali began employing Garvey's services as a writer for the magazine

    England, United Kingdom
    1914

    In 1914, Mohamed Ali began employing Garvey's services as a writer for the magazine.


  • Atlantic Ocean
    Jun, 1914

    Three-week journey across the Atlantic

    Atlantic Ocean
    Jun, 1914

    After managing to save the funds for a fare, he boarded the SS Trent in June 1914 for a three-week journey across the Atlantic. En route home, Garvey talked with an Afro-Caribbean missionary who had spent time in Basutoland and taken a Basuto wife. Discovering more about colonial Africa from this man, Garvey began to envision a movement that would politically unify black people of African descent across the world.


  • London, England, United Kingdom
    1914

    Back in London

    London, England, United Kingdom
    1914

    Back in London, he wrote an article on Jamaica for the Tourist magazine, and spent time reading in the library of the British Museum. There he discovered Up from Slavery, a book by the African-American entrepreneur and activist Booker T. Washington.


  • Jamaica
    Jul, 1914

    Garvey arrived back in Jamaica

    Jamaica
    Jul, 1914

    Garvey arrived back in Jamaica in July 1914. There, he saw his article for Tourist republished in The Gleaner. He began earning money selling greeting and condolence cards which he had imported from Britain, before later switching to selling tombstones.


  • Jamaica
    Wednesday Jul 15, 1914

    One Aim. One God. One Destiny

    Jamaica
    Wednesday Jul 15, 1914

    Also in July 1914, Garvey launched the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League, commonly abbreviated as UNIA. Adopting the motto of "One Aim. One God. One Destiny", it declared its commitment to "establish a brotherhood among the black race, to promote a spirit of race pride, to reclaim the fallen and to assist in civilizing the backward tribes of Africa".


  • Jamaica
    1914

    UNIA officially expressed its loyalty to the British Empire

    Jamaica
    1914

    UNIA officially expressed its loyalty to the British Empire, King George V, and the British effort in the ongoing First World War.


  • Jamaica
    Aug, 1914

    Garvey met Amy Ashwood

    Jamaica
    Aug, 1914

    In August 1914, Garvey attended a meeting of the Queen Street Baptist Literary and Debating Society, where he met Amy Ashwood, recently graduated from the Westwood Training College for Women. She joined UNIA and rented a better premises for them to use as their headquarters, secured using her father's credit. She and Garvey embarked on a relationship, which was opposed by her parents. In 1915 they secretly became engaged. When she suspended the engagement, he threatened to commit suicide, at which she resumed it.


  • Jamaica
    Apr, 1915

    Brigadier General L. S. Blackden lectured to the group on the war effort

    Jamaica
    Apr, 1915

    In April 1915, Brigadier General L. S. Blackden lectured to the group on the war effort; Garvey endorsed Blackden's calls for more Jamaicans to sign up to fight for the Empire on the Western Front. The group also sponsored musical and literary evenings as well as a February 1915 elocution contest, at which Garvey took first prize.


  • Jamaica
    1915

    Garvey attracted financial contributions from many prominent patrons

    Jamaica
    1915

    Garvey attracted financial contributions from many prominent patrons, including the Mayor of Kingston and the Governor of Jamaica, William Manning.


  • U.S.
    Mar, 1916

    Marcus sailed to U.S.

    U.S.
    Mar, 1916

    Marcus became increasingly aware of how UNIA had failed to thrive in Jamaica and decided to migrate to the United States, sailing there aboard the SS Tallac in March 1916.


  • Harlem, New York City, New York, U.S.
    1916

    Arrived U.S.

    Harlem, New York City, New York, U.S.
    1916

    Arriving in the United States, Garvey initially lodged with a Jamaican expatriate family living in Harlem, a largely black area of New York City. He began lecturing in the city, hoping to make a career as a public speaker, although at his first public speech was heckled and fell off the stage.


  • U.S.
    1916

    Speaking tour, crossing 38 states

    U.S.
    1916

    From New York City, Marcus embarked on a U.S. speaking tour, crossing 38 states. At stopovers on his journey he listened to preachers from the African Methodist Episcopal Church and the Black Baptist churches. While in Alabama, he visited the Tuskegee Institute and met with its new leader, Robert Russa Moton.


  • Harlem, New York City, New York, U.S.
    Apr, 1916

    UNIA also obtained Liberty Hall

    Harlem, New York City, New York, U.S.
    Apr, 1916

    UNIA also obtained a partially-constructed church building at 114 West 138 Street in Harlem, which Garvey named "Liberty Hall" after its namesake in Dublin, Ireland, which had been established during the Easter Rising of 1916.


  • New York City, New York, U.S.
    1916

    Marcus returned to New York City

    New York City, New York, U.S.
    1916

    After six months traveling across the U.S. lecturing, Marcus returned to New York City.


  • U.S.
    Apr, 1917

    Garvey initially signed up to fight but was ruled physically unfit to do so

    U.S.
    Apr, 1917

    After the U.S. entered the First World War in April 1917, Garvey initially signed up to fight but was ruled physically unfit to do so. He later became an opponent of African-American involvement in the conflict, following Harrison in accusing it of being a "white man's war".


  • New York, U.S.
    May, 1917

    Garvey launched a New York branch of UNIA

    New York, U.S.
    May, 1917

    In May 1917, Garvey launched a New York branch of UNIA. He declared membership open to anyone "of Negro blood and African ancestry" who could pay the 25 cents a month membership fee. In his speeches, he sought to reach across to both Afro-Caribbean migrants like himself and native African-Americans. Through this, he began to associate with Hubert Harrison, who was promoting ideas of black self-reliance and racial separatism.


  • U.S.
    May, 1917

    Garvey began calling for armed self-defense

    U.S.
    May, 1917

    In the wake of the East St. Louis Race Riots in May to July 1917, in which white mobs targeted black people, Garvey began calling for armed self-defense. He produced a pamphlet, "The Conspiracy of the East St Louis Riots", which was widely distributed; proceeds from its sale went to victims of the riots. The Bureau of Investigation began monitoring him, noting that in speeches he employed more militant language than that used in print; it for instance reported him expressing the view that "for every Negro lynched by whites in the South, Negroes should lynch a white in the North".


  • U.S.
    Jun, 1917

    Garvey shared a stage with Harrison at the inaugural meeting of the latter's Liberty League of Negro-Americans

    U.S.
    Jun, 1917

    In June, Garvey shared a stage with Harrison at the inaugural meeting of the latter's Liberty League of Negro-Americans. Through his appearance here and at other events organised by Harrison, Garvey attracted growing public attention.


  • Harlem, New York, U.S.
    Apr, 1918

    Negro World

    Harlem, New York, U.S.
    Apr, 1918

    In April, Garvey launched a weekly newspaper, the Negro World, which Cronon later noted remained "the personal propaganda organ of its founder".


  • U.S.
    Jul, 1918

    Commercial arm

    U.S.
    Jul, 1918

    UNIA membership grew rapidly in 1918. In June that year it was incorporated, and in July a commercial arm, the African Communities' League, filed for incorporation.


  • U.S.
    Nov, 1918

    Amy Ashwood became General Secretary of UNIA

    U.S.
    Nov, 1918

    In November, Amy Ashwood became General Secretary of UNIA.


  • U.S.
    Nov, 1918

    Branches in 25 U.S. states

    U.S.
    Nov, 1918

    UNIA grew rapidly and in just over 18 months it had branches in 25 U.S. states, as well as divisions in the West Indies, Central America, and West Africa.


  • U.S.
    Thursday Jan 02, 1919

    International League for Darker People

    U.S.
    Thursday Jan 02, 1919

    After the First World War ended, President Woodrow Wilson declared his intention to present a 14-point plan for world peace at the forthcoming Paris Peace Conference. Garvey joined various African-Americans in forming the International League for Darker People, a group which sought to lobby Wilson and the conference to give greater respect to the wishes of people of color; their delegates nevertheless were unable to secure the travel documentation.


  • U.S.
    1919

    Circulation of Negro World was nearing 10,000

    U.S.
    1919

    By the end of its first year, the circulation of Negro World was nearing 10,000; copies circulated not only in the U.S., but also in the Caribbean, Central, and South America. Several British colonies in the Caribbean banned the publication.


  • U.S.
    Jun, 1919

    Two million members

    U.S.
    Jun, 1919

    The exact membership is not known, although Garvey—who often exaggerated numbers—claimed that by June 1919 it had two million members.


  • U.S.
    1919

    There were tensions between UNIA and the NAACP

    U.S.
    1919

    There were tensions between UNIA and the NAACP and the latter's supporters accused Garvey of stymieing their efforts at bringing about racial integration in the U.S. Garvey was dismissive of the NAACP leader W. E. B. Du Bois, and in one issue of the Negro World called him a "reactionary under the pay of white men". Du Bois generally tried to ignore Garvey, regarding him as a demagogue, but at the same time wanted to learn all he could about Garvey's movement.


  • U.S.
    1919

    Amy Jacques became his personal secretary

    U.S.
    1919

    In 1919, a young middle-class Jamaican migrant, Amy Jacques, became his personal secretary.


  • New York City, New York, U.S.
    1919

    UNIA also began selling shares for the Black Star Line

    New York City, New York, U.S.
    1919

    UNIA also began selling shares for a new business, the Black Star Line. The Black Star Line based its name on the White Star Line.[ Garvey envisioned a shipping and passenger line travelling between Africa and the Americas, which would be black-owned, black-staffed, and utilized by black patrons.


  • Harlem, New York City, New York, U.S.
    Jul, 1919

    Liberty Hall's dedication ceremony

    Harlem, New York City, New York, U.S.
    Jul, 1919

    Liberty Hall's dedication ceremony was held in July 1919.


  • U.S.
    Sep, 1919

    Black Star Line company had accumulated $50,000

    U.S.
    Sep, 1919

    People continued buying stock regardless and by September 1919, the Black Star Line company had accumulated $50,000 by selling stock. It could thus afford a thirty-year old tramp ship, the SS Yarmouth. The ship was formally launched in a ceremony on the Hudson River on 31 October.


  • U.S.
    Oct, 1919

    Assassination attempt

    U.S.
    Oct, 1919

    In October 1919, George Tyler, a part-time vendor of the Negro World, entered the UNIA office and tried to assassinate Garvey. The latter received two bullets in his legs but survived. Tyler was soon apprehended but died in an escape attempt from jail; it was never revealed why he tried to kill Garvey. Garvey soon recovered from his wounds; five days later he gave a public speech in Philadelphia.[178] After the assassination attempt, Garvey hired a bodyguard, Marcellus Strong.


  • Kingston, Jamaica
    1919

    UNIA obtained Edelweiss Park in Cross Roads, which it established as its new headquarters

    Kingston, Jamaica
    1919

    Back in Kingston, UNIA obtained Edelweiss Park in Cross Roads, which it established as its new headquarters. They held a conference there, opened by a parade through the city which attracted tens of thousands of onlookers.


  • Harlem, New York City, New York, U.S.
    Thursday Dec 25, 1919

    Marriage

    Harlem, New York City, New York, U.S.
    Thursday Dec 25, 1919

    Shortly after the incident, Garvey proposed marriage to Amy Ashwood and she accepted. On Christmas Day, they had a private Roman Catholic church wedding, followed by a major ceremonial celebration in Liberty Hall, attended by 3000 UNIA members. Jacques was Ashwood's maid of honor. After the wedding, Garvey moved into Ashwood's apartment.


  • U.S.
    Jan, 1920

    Garvey incorporated the Negro Factories League

    U.S.
    Jan, 1920

    In January 1920, Garvey incorporated the Negro Factories League, through which he opened a string of grocery stores, a restaurant, a steam laundry, and publishing house.


  • Canada
    Jan, 1920

    Two-week honeymoon in Canada

    Canada
    Jan, 1920

    The newlyweds embarked on a two-week honeymoon in Canada, accompanied by a small UNIA retinue, including Jacques. There, Garvey spoke at two mass meetings in Montreal and three in Toronto.


  • U.S.
    Jul, 1920

    Garvey sacked both the Black Star Line's secretary and its captain

    U.S.
    Jul, 1920

    In July 1920, Garvey sacked both the Black Star Line's secretary, Edward D. Smith-Green, and its captain, Joshua Cockburn; the latter was accused of corruption.


  • Madison Square Gardens, New York City, New York, U.S.
    Aug, 1920

    25,000 people assembled in Madison Square Gardens

    Madison Square Gardens, New York City, New York, U.S.
    Aug, 1920

    In August 1920, UNIA organized the First International Conference of the Negro Peoples in Harlem. This parade was attended by Gabriel Johnson, the Mayor of Monrovia in Liberia. As part of it, an estimated 25,000 people assembled in Madison Square Gardens.


  • New York City, New York, U.S.
    1921

    Separated

    New York City, New York, U.S.
    1921

    Three months into the marriage (Feb-Mar 1919), Garvey sought an annulment, on the basis of Ashwood's alleged adultery and the claim that she had used "fraud and concealment" to induce the marriage. She launched a counter-claim for desertion, requesting $75 a week alimony. The court rejected this sum, instead ordering Garvey to pay her $12 a week. It refused to grant him the divorce. The court proceedings continued for two years. Now separated (Year 1921), Garvey moved into a 129th Street apartment with Jacques and Henrietta Vinton Davis, an arrangement that at the time could have caused some social controversy. He was later joined there by his sister Indiana and her husband, Alfred Peart. Ashwood, meanwhile, went on to become a lyricist and musical director for musicals amid the Harlem Renaissance.


  • U.S.
    1921

    Garvey twice reached out to Du Bois

    U.S.
    1921

    In 1921, Garvey twice reached out to Du Bois, asking him to contribute to UNIA publications, but the offer was rebuffed.


  • U.S.
    Jan, 1922

    Garvey was arrested

    U.S.
    Jan, 1922

    In January 1922, Garvey was arrested and charged with mail fraud for having advertised the sale of stocks in a ship, the Orion, which the Black Star Line did not yet own. He was bailed for $2,500.


  • Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.
    Jun, 1922

    Garvey met with Edward Young Clarke

    Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.
    Jun, 1922

    In June 1922, Garvey met with Edward Young Clarke, the Imperial Wizard pro tempore of the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) at the Klan's offices in Atlanta. Garvey made a number of incendiary speeches in the months leading up to that meeting; in some, he thanked the whites for Jim Crow. Garvey once stated: I regard the Klan, the Anglo-Saxon clubs and White American societies, as far as the Negro is concerned, as better friends of the race than all other groups of hypocritical whites put together. I like honesty and fair play. You may call me a Klansman if you will, but, potentially, every white man is a Klansman as far as the Negro in competition with whites socially, economically and politically is concerned, and there is no use lying. News of Garvey's meeting with the KKK soon spread and it was covered on the front page of many African-American newspapers, causing widespread upset.


  • U.S.
    Jun, 1922

    Garvey attracted Hubert Fauntleroy Julian

    U.S.
    Jun, 1922

    1922 also brought some successes for Garvey. He attracted the country's first black pilot, Hubert Fauntleroy Julian, to join UNIA and to perform aerial stunts to raise its profile.


  • Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
    Jul, 1922

    Second Marriage

    Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
    Jul, 1922

    Garvey also proposed marriage to his secretary, Jacques. She accepted, although later stated: "I did not marry for love. I did not love Garvey. I married him because I thought it was the right thing to do". They married in Baltimore in July 1922.


  • U.S.
    Aug, 1922

    Garvey called for the impeachment of several senior UNIA figures

    U.S.
    Aug, 1922

    At UNIA's August 1922 convention, Garvey called for the impeachment of several senior UNIA figures, including Adrian Johnson and J. D. Gibson, and declared that the UNIA cabinet should not be elected by the organization's members, but appointed directly by him.


  • U.S.
    May, 1923

    The trial finally came to court

    U.S.
    May, 1923

    Having been postponed at least three times, in May 1923, the trial finally came to court, with Garvey and three other defendants accused of mail fraud. The judge overseeing the proceedings was Julian Mack, although Garvey disliked his selection on the grounds that he thought Mack an NAACP sympathizer.


  • New York City, New York, U.S.
    Monday Jun 18, 1923

    The jurors found Garvey himself guilty

    New York City, New York, U.S.
    Monday Jun 18, 1923

    On 18 June, the jurors retired to deliberate on the verdict, returning after ten hours. They found Garvey himself guilty, but his three co-defendants not guilty. Garvey was furious with the verdict, shouting abuse in the courtroom and calling both the judge and district attorney "damned dirty Jews". Imprisoned in The Tombs jail while awaiting sentencing, he continued to blame a Jewish cabal for the verdict; in contrast, prior to this he had never expressed anti-semitic sentiment and was supportive of Zionism.


  • U.S.
    1923

    Du Bois described Garvey as "a little fat black man"

    U.S.
    1923

    Their relationship became acrimonious; in 1923, Du Bois described Garvey as "a little fat black man, ugly but with intelligent eyes and big head".


  • U.S.
    Sep, 1923

    Judge Martin Manton awarded Garvey bail for $15,000

    U.S.
    Sep, 1923

    In September, Judge Martin Manton awarded Garvey bail for $15,000—which was duly raised by UNIA—while he appealed his conviction. Again a free man, he toured the U.S., giving a lecture at the Tuskegee Institute. In speeches given during this tour he further emphasized the need for racial segregation through migration to Africa, calling the United States "a white man's country".


  • U.S.
    Feb, 1924

    UNIA put forward its plans to bring 3000 African-American migrants to Liberia

    U.S.
    Feb, 1924

    In February 1924, UNIA put forward its plans to bring 3000 African-American migrants to Liberia. The latter's President, Charles D. B. King, assured them that he would grant them area for three colonies. In June, a team of UNIA technicians was sent to start work in preparing for these colonies.


  • Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.
    Feb, 1925

    Imprisoned

    Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.
    Feb, 1925

    In early 1925, the U.S. Court of Appeal upheld the original court decision. Garvey was in Detroit at the time and was arrested while aboard a train back to New York City. In February he was taken to the Atlanta Federal Penitentiary and incarcerated there. Imprisoned, he was made to carry out cleaning tasks. On one occasion he was reprimanded for insolence towards the white prison officers. There, he became increasingly ill with chronic bronchitis and lung infections; two years into his imprisonment he would be hospitalized with influenza.


  • New York City, New York, U.S.
    Feb, 1926

    Dissatisfaction with Sherrill's leadership

    New York City, New York, U.S.
    Feb, 1926

    With Garvey absent, William Sherrill became acting head of UNIA. Garvey was angry and in February 1926 wrote to the Negro World expressing his dissatisfaction with Sherrill's leadership. From prison, he organized an emergency UNIA convention in Detroit, where delegates voted to depose Sherrill.


  • U.S.
    Friday Nov 18, 1927

    Released

    U.S.
    Friday Nov 18, 1927

    The Attorney General, John Sargent, received a petition with 70,000 signatures urging for Garvey's release. Sargeant warned President Calvin Coolidge that African-Americans were regarding Garvey's imprisonment not as a form of justice against a man who had swindled them but as "an act of oppression of the race in their efforts in the direction of race progress". Eventually, Coolidge agreed to commute the sentence so that it would expire immediately, on 18 November 1927. He stipulated, however, that Garvey should be deported straight after release.


  • New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.
    Saturday Dec 03, 1927

    Garvey was taken by train to New Orleans, where around a thousand supporters saw him onto the SS Saramaca

    New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.
    Saturday Dec 03, 1927

    On being released, Garvey was taken by train to New Orleans, where around a thousand supporters saw him onto the SS Saramaca on 3 December. The ship then stopped at Cristóbal in Panama, where supporters again greeted him, but where the authorities refused his request to disembark. He then transferred to the SS Santa Maria, which took him to Kingston.


  • Kingston, Jamaica
    1928

    Back to Kingston

    Kingston, Jamaica
    1928

    In Kingston, Garvey was greeted by supporters. UNIA members had raised $10,000 to help him settle in Jamaica, with which he bought a large house in an elite neighbourhood, which he called the "Somali Court". His wife shipped over his belongings—which included 18,000 books and hundreds of antiques—before joining him.


  • England, United Kingdom
    Apr, 1928

    Traveled to England

    England, United Kingdom
    Apr, 1928

    Garvey attempted to travel across Central America but found his hopes blocked by the region's various administrations, who regarded him as disruptive. Instead, he traveled to England in April, where he rented a house in London's West Kensington area for four months.


  • Royal Albert Hall, London, England, United Kingdom
    May, 1928

    Marcus spoke at the Royal Albert Hall

    Royal Albert Hall, London, England, United Kingdom
    May, 1928

    In May, Marcus spoke at the Royal Albert Hall.


  • Kingston, Jamaica
    Sep, 1929

    People's Political Party

    Kingston, Jamaica
    Sep, 1929

    In Kingston, Garvey was elected a city councillor and established the country's first political party, the People's Political Party (PPP), through which he intended to contest the forthcoming legislative council election. In September 1929 he addressed a crowd of 1,500 supporters, launching the PPP's manifesto, which included land reform to benefit tenant farmers, the addition of a minimum wage to the constitution, pledges to build Jamaica's first university and opera house, and a proposed law to impeach and imprison corrupt judges.


  • Kingston, Jamaica
    Sep, 1930

    Marcus Garvey Junior

    Kingston, Jamaica
    Sep, 1930

    In September 1930, his first son, Marcus Garvey Junior, was born; three years later a second son, Julius, followed.


  • London, England, United Kingdom
    Mar, 1935

    Moving to London

    London, England, United Kingdom
    Mar, 1935

    Dissatisfied with life in Jamaica, Garvey decided to move to London, sailing aboard the SS Tilapa in March 1935. Once in London, he told his friend Amy Bailey that he had "left Jamaica a broken man, broken in spirit, broken in health and broken in pocket... and I will never, never, never go back."


  • London, England, United Kingdom
    1935

    Black Man

    London, England, United Kingdom
    1935

    In London, Garvey sought to rebuild UNIA, although found there was much competition in the city from other black activist groups. He established a new UNIA headquarters in Beaumont Gardens, West Kensington and launched a new monthly journal, Black Man.


  • London, England, United Kingdom
    Jun, 1937

    Garvey's wife and children arrived in England

    London, England, United Kingdom
    Jun, 1937

    In June 1937, Garvey's wife and children arrived in England, where the latter were sent to a school in Kensington Gardens.


  • London, England, United Kingdom
    Jan, 1940

    Garvey suffered a stroke which left him largely paralyzed

    London, England, United Kingdom
    Jan, 1940

    In January 1940, Garvey suffered a stroke which left him largely paralyzed.


  • London, England, United Kingdom
    Monday Jun 10, 1940

    Death

    London, England, United Kingdom
    Monday Jun 10, 1940

    Garvey then suffered a second stroke and died at the age of 52 on 10 June 1940.


<