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  • Warsaw, Congress Poland, Russian Empire (Now Poland)
    Thursday Nov 07, 1867

    Born

    Warsaw, Congress Poland, Russian Empire (Now Poland)
    Thursday Nov 07, 1867

    Maria Skłodowska was born in Warsaw, in Congress Poland in the Russian Empire, on 7 November 1867, the fifth and youngest child of well-known teachers Bronisława, née Boguska, and Władysław Skłodowski.




  • Warsaw, Congress Poland, Russian Empire (Now Poland)
    May, 1878

    Her Mother's Death

    Warsaw, Congress Poland, Russian Empire (Now Poland)
    May, 1878

    Maria's mother Bronisława operated a prestigious Warsaw boarding school for girls; she resigned from the position after Maria was born. She died of tuberculosis in May 1878, when Maria was ten years old.




  • Congress Poland, Russian Empire (Now Poland)
    Tuesday Jun 12, 1883

    Graduating From a Gymnasium For Girls

    Congress Poland, Russian Empire (Now Poland)
    Tuesday Jun 12, 1883

    When she was ten years old, Maria began attending the boarding school of J. Sikorska; next she attended a gymnasium for girls, from which she graduated on 12 June 1883 with a gold medal.




  • Warsaw, Congress Poland, Russian Empire (Now Poland)
    1889

    She Returned home to her Father in Warsaw

    Warsaw, Congress Poland, Russian Empire (Now Poland)
    1889

    In early 1889 she returned home to her father in Warsaw. She continued working as a governess, and remained there till late 1891.




  • Warsaw, Congress Poland, Russian Empire (Now Poland)
    1890

    She began Her Practical Scientific Training

    Warsaw, Congress Poland, Russian Empire (Now Poland)
    1890

    She tutored, studied at the Flying University, and began her practical scientific training (1890–91) in a chemical laboratory at the Museum of Industry and Agriculture at Krakowskie Przedmieście 66, near Warsaw's Old Town.




  • Paris, France
    1890

    Bronisława Invited Maria To Paris

    Paris, France
    1890

    At the beginning of 1890, Bronisława—who a few months earlier had married Kazimierz Dłuski, a Polish physician and social and political activist—invited Maria to join them in Paris.




  • Paris, France
    1891

    Travelling to Paris

    Paris, France
    1891

    In late 1891, she left Poland for France. In Paris, Maria (or Marie, as she would be known in France) briefly found shelter with her sister and brother-in-law.


  • Paris, France
    1891

    She Enrolled In The University of Paris

    Paris, France
    1891

    She rented a garret closer to the university, in the Latin Quarter, and proceeding with her studies of physics, chemistry, and mathematics at the University of Paris, where she enrolled in late 1891.


  • Paris, France
    1893

    Marie Was awarded a Degree In Physics

    Paris, France
    1893

    Skłodowska studied during the day and tutored evenings, barely earning her keep. In 1893, she was awarded a degree in physics and began work in an industrial laboratory of Professor Gabriel Lippmann.


  • Paris, France
    1894

    Marie Was able to Earn a Second Degree

    Paris, France
    1894

    Marie continued studying at the University of Paris, and with the aid of a fellowship she was able to earn a second degree in 1894.


  • Warsaw, Congress Poland, Russian Empire (Now Poland)
    1894

    Skłodowska Returned To Warsaw

    Warsaw, Congress Poland, Russian Empire (Now Poland)
    1894

    For the 1894 summer break, Skłodowska returned to Warsaw, where she visited her family.She was still laboring under the illusion that she would be able to work in her chosen field in Poland, but she was denied a place at Kraków University because she was a woman.


  • Germany
    1895

    Discovering The Existence of X-Rays

    Germany
    1895

    In 1895, Wilhelm Roentgen discovered the existence of X-rays, though the mechanism behind their production was not yet understood. In 1896, Henri Becquerel discovered that uranium salts emitted rays that resembled X-rays in their penetrating power. He demonstrated that this radiation, unlike phosphorescence, did not depend on an external source of energy but seemed to arise spontaneously from uranium itself. Influenced by these two important discoveries, Curie decided to look into uranium rays as a possible field of research for a thesis.


  • Paris, France
    Mar, 1895

    Pierre Curie Received His Own Doctorate

    Paris, France
    Mar, 1895

    A letter from Pierre Curie convinced her to return to Paris to pursue a Ph.D. At Skłodowska's insistence, Curie had written up his research on magnetism and received his own doctorate in March 1895; he was also promoted to professor at the School.


  • Sceaux, France
    Friday Jul 26, 1895

    Marriage

    Sceaux, France
    Friday Jul 26, 1895

    On 26 July 1895 Pierre Curie married Marie in Sceaux (Seine).


  • Paris, France
    1898

    The Curious had Acquired Traces of Radium

    Paris, France
    1898

    By 1898 the Curious had acquired traces of radium, but appreciable quantities, uncontaminated with barium, were still beyond reach.


  • Paris, France
    1898

    Pierre Curie Decided To Join Her

    Paris, France
    1898

    Pierre Curie was increasingly intrigued by her work. By mid-1898 he was so invested in it that he decided to drop his work on crystals and to join her.


  • Paris, France
    1898

    Marie Discovered that the Element Thorium was Radioactive

    Paris, France
    1898

    She began a systematic search for additional substances that emit radiation, and by 1898 she discovered that the element thorium was also radioactive.


  • Paris, France
    Thursday Apr 14, 1898

    Verifing From Her Hypothesis

    Paris, France
    Thursday Apr 14, 1898

    On 14 April 1898, the Curies optimistically weighed out a 100-gram sample of pitchblende and ground it with a pestle and mortar. They did not realize at the time that what they were searching for was present in such minute quantities that they would eventually have to process tons of the ore.


  • Paris, France
    Jul, 1898

    Announcing The Existence of an Element Which They Named "polonium"

    Paris, France
    Jul, 1898

    In July 1898, Curie and her husband published a joint paper announcing the existence of an element which they named "polonium", in honour of her native Poland.


  • Paris, France
    Monday Dec 26, 1898

    The Curies Announced The Existence of a Second Element, Which They Named "radium"

    Paris, France
    Monday Dec 26, 1898

    On 26 December 1898, the Curies announced the existence of a second element, which they named "radium", from the Latin word for "ray". In the course of their research, they also coined the word "radioactivity".


  • Paris, France
    1900

    Curie became The First Woman Faculty Member at The École Normale Supérieure

    Paris, France
    1900

    In 1900, Curie became the first woman faculty member at the École Normale Supérieure, and her husband joined the faculty of the University of Paris.


  • Paris, France
    1902

    Separating One-Tenth of a Gram of Radium Chloride

    Paris, France
    1902

    The Curries undertook the arduous task of separating out radium salt by differential crystallization. From a ton of pitchblende, one-tenth of a gram of radium chloride was separated in 1902.


  • Paris, France
    1902

    The Curials Published 32 Scientific Papers

    Paris, France
    1902

    Between 1898 and 1902, the Curials published, jointly or separately, a total of 32 scientific papers, including one that stated that, when exposed to radium, diseased, tumor-forming cells were destroyed faster than healthy cells.


  • Paris, France
    1902

    She visited Poland

    Paris, France
    1902

    In 1902 she visited Poland on the occasion of her father's death.


  • Paris, France
    Jun, 1903

    Marie Curie was awarded Her Doctorate

    Paris, France
    Jun, 1903

    In June 1903, supervised by Gabriel Lippmann, Curie was awarded her doctorate from the University of Paris.


  • London, England
    Jun, 1903

    Giving a Speech on Radioactivity at The Royal Institution In London

    London, England
    Jun, 1903

    In June 1903, the couple were invited to the Royal Institution in London to give a speech on radioactivity; being a woman, she was prevented from speaking, and Pierre Curie alone was allowed to.


  • Stockholm, Sweden
    Thursday Dec 10, 1903

    The First Woman to be awarded a Nobel Prize

    Stockholm, Sweden
    Thursday Dec 10, 1903

    In December 1903, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awarded Pierre Curie, Marie Curie, and Henri Becquerel the Nobel Prize in Physics, "in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel." At first the committee had intended to honor only Pierre Curie and Henri Becquerel, but a committee member and advocate for women scientists, Swedish mathematician Magnus Goesta Mittag-Leffler, alerted Pierre to the situation, and after his complaint, Marie's name was added to the nomination. Marie Curie was the first woman to be awarded a Nobel Prize.


  • Paris, France
    Tuesday Dec 06, 1904

    Curie gave birth to their Second Daughter

    Paris, France
    Tuesday Dec 06, 1904

    In December 1904, Curie gave birth to their second daughter, Ève. She hired Polish governesses to teach her daughters her native language, and sent or took them on visits to Poland.


  • Stockholm, Sweden
    1905

    The Curies Finally undertook the trip to deliver the Nobel Lecture

    Stockholm, Sweden
    1905

    Curie and her husband declined to go to Stockholm to receive the prize in person; they were too busy with their work, and Pierre Curie, who disliked public ceremonies, was feeling increasingly ill. As Nobel laureates were required to deliver a lecture, the Curies finally undertook the trip in 1905.


  • Paris, France
    Thursday Apr 19, 1906

    Pierre Curie's Death

    Paris, France
    Thursday Apr 19, 1906

    On 19 April 1906, Pierre Curie was killed in a road accident. Walking across the Rue Dauphine in heavy rain, he was struck by a horse-drawn vehicle and fell under its wheels, causing his skull to fracture. Curie was devastated by her husband's death.


  • Paris, France
    Sunday May 13, 1906

    The First Woman To become a Professor at The University of Paris

    Paris, France
    Sunday May 13, 1906

    On 13 May 1906 the physics department of the University of Paris decided to retain the chair that had been created for her late husband and to offer it to Marie. She accepted it, hoping to create a world-class laboratory as a tribute to her husband Pierre. She was the first woman to become a professor at the University of Paris.


  • Paris, France
    1909

    The Initiative For Creating The Radium Institute

    Paris, France
    1909

    She headed the Radium Institute (Institut du radium, now Curie Institute, Institut Curie), a radioactivity laboratory created for her by the Pasteur Institute and the University of Paris. The initiative for creating the Radium Institute had come in 1909 from Pierre Paul Émile Roux, director of the Pasteur Institute, who had been disappointed that the University of Paris was not giving Curie a proper laboratory and had suggested that she move to the Pasteur Institute.


  • Paris, France
    1910

    She isolated Pure Radius Metal

    Paris, France
    1910

    In 1910, she isolated pure radius metal. She never succeeded in isolating polonium, which has a half-life of only 138 days.


  • Paris, France
    1910

    Curie succeeded in isolating Radium

    Paris, France
    1910

    In 1910 Curie succeeded in isolating radium; she also defined an international standard for radioactive emissions that was eventually named for her and Pierre: the curie.


  • Paris, France
    1911

    Curie's Press Scandal

    Paris, France
    1911

    In 1911, it was revealed that Curie was involved in a year long affair with physicist Paul Langevin, a former student of Pierre Curie's, a married man who was estranged from his wife. This resulted in a press scandal that was exploited by her academic opponents.


  • Paris, France
    1911

    The French Academy of Sciences Failed, To Elect Her To Membership In The Academy

    Paris, France
    1911

    In 1911 the French Academy of Sciences failed, by one or two votes, to elect her to membership in the Academy. Elected instead was Édouard Branly, an inventor who had helped Guglielmo Marconi develop the wireless telegraph.


  • Stockholm, Sweden
    Sunday Dec 10, 1911

    Winning her Second Nobel Prize

    Stockholm, Sweden
    Sunday Dec 10, 1911

    International recognition for her work had been growing to new heights, and the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, overcoming opposition prompted by the Langevin scandal, honored her a second time, with the 1911 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. This award was "in recognition of her services to the advancement of chemistry by the discovery of the elements radium and polonium, by the isolation of radium and the study of the nature and compounds of this remarkable element."


  • Warsaw, Poland
    1912

    Declining The Warsaw Scientific Society offer

    Warsaw, Poland
    1912

    In 1912, the Warsaw Scientific Society offered her the directorship of a new laboratory in Warsaw but she declined, focusing on the developing Radium Institute to be completed in August 1914, and on a new street named Rue Pierre-Curie.


  • Paris, France
    Jan, 1912

    She Was Hospitalised With Depression and a Kidney Ailment

    Paris, France
    Jan, 1912

    A month after accepting her 1911 Nobel Prize, she was hospitalised with depression and a kidney ailment.


  • England
    1912

    Curie Avoided Public Life

    England
    1912

    For most of 1912 she avoided public life but did spend time in England with her friend and fellow physicist, Hertha Ayrton.


  • Paris, France
    Dec, 1912

    Returning To Her Laboratory

    Paris, France
    Dec, 1912

    Curie returned to her laboratory in December, after a break of about 14 months.


  • Warsaw, Poland
    1913

    She visited Poland

    Warsaw, Poland
    1913

    She visited Poland in 1913 and was welcomed in Warsaw but the visit was mostly ignored by the Russian authorities.


  • Paris, France
    1914

    The Radium Institute

    Paris, France
    1914

    Curie's second Nobel Prize enabled her to persuade the French government into supporting the Radium Institute, built in 1914, where research was conducted in chemistry, physics, and medicine.


  • Paris, France
    1914

    France's First Military Radiology Centre

    Paris, France
    1914

    During World War I, She became the director of the Red Cross Radiology Service and set up France's first military radiology centre, operational by late 1914.


  • Paris, France
    1915

    Curie Produced Hollow Needles Containing "Radium Emanation"

    Paris, France
    1915

    In 1915, Curie produced hollow needles containing "radium emanation", a colorless, radioactive gas given off by radium, later identified as radon, to be used for sterilizing infected tissue. She provided the radium from her own one-gram supply. It is estimated that over a million wounded soldiers were treated with her X-ray units.


  • Paris, France
    1920

    The 25th anniversary of The Discovery of Radium

    Paris, France
    1920

    In 1920, for the 25th anniversary of the discovery of radium, the French government established a stipend for her.


  • U.S.
    1921

    She Toured the United States To Raise Funds For Research on Radium

    U.S.
    1921

    In 1921, she was welcomed triumphantly when she toured the United States to raise funds for research on radium. Mrs. William Brown Meloney, after interviewing Curie, created a Marie Curie Radium Fund and raised money to buy radium, publicizing her trip.


  • Washington D.C., U.S.
    1921

    U.S. President Warren G. Harding Received Her at The White House

    Washington D.C., U.S.
    1921

    In 1921, U.S. President Warren G. Harding received her at the White House to present her with the 1 gram of radium collected in the United States, and the First Lady praised her as an example of a professional achiever who was also a supportive wife.


  • Paris, France
    1922

    She became a Fellow of The French Academy of Medicine

    Paris, France
    1922

    In 1922 she became a fellow of the French Academy of Medicine. She also travelled to other countries, appearing publicly and giving lectures in Belgium, Brazil, Spain, and Czechoslovakia.


  • Geneva, Switzerland
    Aug, 1922

    The International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation

    Geneva, Switzerland
    Aug, 1922

    In August 1922 Marie Curie became a member of the League of Nations' newly created International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation.


  • Paris, France
    1923

    She Wrote a Biography of Her Late Husband

    Paris, France
    1923

    In 1923 she wrote a biography of her late husband, titled Pierre Curie.


  • Warsaw, Poland
    1925

    Laying The Foundations For Warsaw's Radium Institute

    Warsaw, Poland
    1925

    In 1925 she visited Poland to participate in a ceremony laying the foundations for Warsaw's Radium Institute.


  • U.S.
    1929

    Her Second American Tour

    U.S.
    1929

    Her second American tour, in 1929, succeeded in equipping the Warsaw Radium Institute with radium; the Institute opened in 1932, with her sister Bronisława its director.


  • Paris, France
    1930

    The International Atomic Weights Committee

    Paris, France
    1930

    In 1930 she was elected to the International Atomic Weights Committee, on which she served until her death.


  • Poland
    1934

    Visiting Poland For The Last Time

    Poland
    1934

    Curie visited Poland for the last time in early 1934.


  • Passy, France
    Wednesday Jul 04, 1934

    Death

    Passy, France
    Wednesday Jul 04, 1934

    on 4 July 1934, she died at the Sancellemoz sanatorium in Passy, Haute-Savoie, from aplastic anemia believed to have been contracted from her long-term exposure to radiation.


  • Paris, France
    1935

    Her Last Book

    Paris, France
    1935

    In her last year, she worked on a book, Radioactivity, which was published posthumously in 1935.


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