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  • Guatemala
    2600s BC

    Maya occupation at Cuello

    Guatemala
    2600s BC

    The Maya developed their first civilization in the Preclassic period. Scholars continue to discuss when this era of Maya civilization began. Maya occupation at Cuello has been carbon-dated to around 2600 BC.




  • Guatemala
    3rd Millenium BC

    Early Maya architecture

    Guatemala
    3rd Millenium BC

    Early Maya architecture is based on the general Mesoamerican architectural traditions. The stepped pyramids were constructed from the Terminal Pre-classic period onwards.




  • Guatemala
    3rd Millenium BC

    Early Preclassic 2000–1000 BC (They began to use ceramics)

    Guatemala
    3rd Millenium BC

    The Early Preclassic started from 2000 to 1000 BC. During the construction of Aguada Fénix, it is shown that they began to use ceramics and became sedentary.




  • Guatemala
    3rd Millenium BC

    Weapons used in the Maya civilization

    Guatemala
    3rd Millenium BC

    Evidence in the form of stone blade points recovered from Aguateca indicates that darts and spears were the primary weapons of the Classic Maya warrior. The atlatl (spear-thrower) was introduced to the Maya region by Teotihuacan in the Early Classic.




  • Cayo District, Belize
    3rd Millenium BC

    Maya political administration

    Cayo District, Belize
    3rd Millenium BC

    The government was hierarchical, and official posts were sponsored by higher-ranking members of the aristocracy; officials tended to be promoted to higher levels of office during the course of their lives.




  • Guatemala
    1800s BC

    The Maya were already cultivating the staple crops

    Guatemala
    1800s BC

    Settlements were established around 1800 BC in the Soconusco region of the Pacific coast, and the Maya were already cultivating the staple crops of maize, beans, squash, and chili pepper. This period was characterized by sedentary communities and the introduction of pottery and fired clay figurines.




  • Guatemala
    1500s BC

    Kaminaljuyu is a Pre-Columbian site of the Maya civilization

    Guatemala
    1500s BC

    Kaminaljuyu is a Pre-Columbian site of the Maya civilization that was primarily occupied from 1500 BC to AD 1200. Kaminaljuyu has been described as one of the greatest of all archaeological sites in the New World.


  • Petén Department, Guatemala
    1000s BC

    Early Middle Preclassic era

    Petén Department, Guatemala
    1000s BC

    Early Middle Preclassic from 1000 to 600 BC.


  • Petén, Guatemala
    750 BC

    Small villages began to grow to form cities

    Petén, Guatemala
    750 BC

    During the Middle Preclassic Period, small villages began to grow to form cities. Nakbe in the Petén department of Guatemala is the earliest well-documented city in the Maya lowlands, here large structures have been dated to around 750 BC.


  • Guatemala
    600 BC

    Late Middle Preclassic era

    Guatemala
    600 BC

    Late Middle Preclassic from 600 to 50 BC.


  • Kaminal Juyu, Guatemala
    5th Century BC

    Late Preclassic (400 BC–100 AD)

    Kaminal Juyu, Guatemala
    5th Century BC

    The Late Preclassic saw the rise of two powerful states that rival later Classic Maya city-states for scale and monumental architecture, Kaminaljuyu in the highlands and El Mirador in the lowlands.


  • Tabasco, Mexico
    1st Millenium BC

    Middle Preclassic (1000 BC–400 BC)

    Tabasco, Mexico
    1st Millenium BC

    By around the year 1000 BC, the Mayan city of Aguada Fénix was built in Tabasco, this archaeological site corresponds to a time of great change for Mayan society.


  • Teotihuacán, México
    250 BC

    Cities throughout the Maya region were influenced

    Teotihuacán, México
    250 BC

    During the Early Classic, cities throughout the Maya region were influenced by the great metropolis of Teotihuacan in the distant Valley of Mexico.


  • Chiapas, ‎Mexico
    220s BC

    The ancient Maya site (Palenque)

    Chiapas, ‎Mexico
    220s BC

    Palenque was a Maya city-state in southern Mexico that perished in the 7th century. The Palenque ruins date from ca. 226 BC to ca. 799 AD.


  • Flores, Petén Department, Guatemala
    3rd Century BC

    King of Maya civilization

    Flores, Petén Department, Guatemala
    3rd Century BC

    The king was the supreme ruler and held a semi-divine status that made him the mediator between the mortal realm and that of the gods. From very early times, kings were specifically identified with the young maize god.


  • Quintana Roo, Mexico
    2027 BC

    Late Preclassic

    Quintana Roo, Mexico
    2027 BC

    Late Preclassic from 1 BC to AD 159. The Late Preclassic saw the rise of two powerful states that rival later Classic Maya city-states for scale and monumental architecture.


  • Copán Ruinas, Copán Department, Honduras
    159

    Terminal Preclassic era

    Copán Ruinas, Copán Department, Honduras
    159

    Terminal Preclassic from AD 159 to 250. The late or terminal Preclassic murals found in San Bartolo provide important information regarding mythology and royal inauguration ritual around 100 BC.


  • Tikal, Guatemala
    250s

    Tikal played a crucial role in obsidian procurement

    Tikal, Guatemala
    250s

    Tikal played a crucial role in obsidian procurement, production, and distribution during the Classic. Tikal dominated the Great Western Trade Route that transported the widely used El Chayal obsidian during the Early Classic (250-550 AD).


  • Copán Ruinas, Copán Department, Honduras
    3rd Century

    The Preclassic period in Maya history

    Copán Ruinas, Copán Department, Honduras
    3rd Century

    The Preclassic period in Maya history stretches from the beginning of permanent village life c. 1000 BC until the advent of the Classic Period c. 250 AD.


  • Cayo District, Belize
    3rd Century

    Classic period (c. 250–900 AD)

    Cayo District, Belize
    3rd Century

    This period marked the peak of large-scale construction and urbanism, the recording of monumental inscriptions, and demonstrated significant intellectual and artistic development, particularly in the southern lowland regions.


  • Campeche, Mexico
    1st Millenium

    Jaina Island figurine representing a Classic period warrior

    Campeche, Mexico
    1st Millenium

    Jaina Island is a pre-Columbian Maya archaeological site in the present-day Mexican state of Campeche. Jaina Island figurine representing a Classic period warrior.


  • Cayo District, Belize
    250

    The highest Classic Period of Maya civilization

    Cayo District, Belize
    250

    The Maya reached the height of their civilization during the Classic Period of Maya civilization (A.D 250 to 900).


  • Cayo District, Belize
    3rd Century

    Classic Era Maya urban design

    Cayo District, Belize
    3rd Century

    Classic Era Maya urban design could easily be described as the division of space by great monuments and causeways. In this case, the open public plazas were the gathering places for the people and the focus of the urban design, while interior space was entirely secondary.


  • Cayo District, Belize
    3rd Century

    Maya cities in the Classic Era

    Cayo District, Belize
    3rd Century

    Maya cities develop into more fortress-like defensive structures that lacked, for the most part, the large and numerous plazas of the Classic.


  • Cayo District, Belize
    250

    Early Classic era

    Cayo District, Belize
    250

    Early Classic era from AD 250 to 550.


  • Teotihuacán, México
    378

    Teotihuacan decisively intervened

    Teotihuacán, México
    378

    In AD 378, Teotihuacan decisively intervened at Tikal and other nearby cities, deposed their rulers, and installed a new Teotihuacan-backed dynasty.


  • Copán Ruinas, Copán Department, Honduras
    420s

    Copán was the most important city

    Copán Ruinas, Copán Department, Honduras
    420s

    In the southeast, Copán was the most important city.


  • Copán Ruinas, Copán Department, Honduras
    426

    Kʼinich Yax Kʼukʼ Moʼ first ruler

    Copán Ruinas, Copán Department, Honduras
    426

    Its Classic-period dynasty was founded in 426 by Kʼinich Yax Kʼukʼ Moʼ. The new king had strong ties with central Petén and Teotihuacan.


  • Quintana Roo, Mexico
    7th Century

    Coba was the most important capital in north

    Quintana Roo, Mexico
    7th Century

    In the north of the Maya area, Coba was the most important capital.


  • Campeche, Mexico
    629

    Establishing a new city at Dos Pilas

    Campeche, Mexico
    629

    In 629, Bʼalaj Chan Kʼawiil, a son of the Tikal king Kʼinich Muwaan Jol II, was sent to found a new city at Dos Pilas, in the Petexbatún region, apparently as an outpost to extend Tikal's power beyond the reach of Calakmul.


  • Chiapas, Mexico
    680s

    The Temple of the Inscriptions

    Chiapas, Mexico
    680s

    It is the largest Mesoamerican stepped pyramid structure at the pre-Columbian Maya civilization site of Palenque, located in the modern-day state of Chiapas, Mexico.


  • Chiapas, Mexico
    7th Century

    The Temple of the Cross Complex

    Chiapas, Mexico
    7th Century

    The Temple of the Cross is the largest and most significant. It is located in the southeast corner of the site and consists of three main structures: the Temple of the Cross, the Temple of the Sun, and the Temple of the Foliated Cross.


  • Guatemala
    Sunday Jun 25, 750

    Lachan Kʼawiil Ajaw Bot was a Maya king

    Guatemala
    Sunday Jun 25, 750

    Lachan Kʼawiil Ajaw Bot was a Maya king of La Amelia, an ancient city near Itzan in the Petén Department of modern Guatemala.


  • Petén Department, Guatemala
    1st Millenium

    The population was estimated larger than London

    Petén Department, Guatemala
    1st Millenium

    The population was estimated at a peak of twenty-eight thousand, between 750 and 800 – larger than London at the time.


  • Petén, Guatemala
    1st Millenium

    Warfare was prevalent in the Maya world

    Petén, Guatemala
    1st Millenium

    Warfare was prevalent in the Maya world. In the 8th–9th centuries, intensive warfare resulted in the collapse of the kingdoms of the Petexbatún region of western Petén.


  • Tinum, Yucatán, Mexico
    8th Century

    Temple of Kukulcán

    Tinum, Yucatán, Mexico
    8th Century

    Built by the pre-Columbian Maya civilization sometime between the 8th and 12th centuries AD, the pyramid served as a temple to the deity Kukulcán.


  • Guatemala
    950s

    Postclassic period (c. 950–1539 AD)

    Guatemala
    950s

    The Postclassic period starts from C. 950 - to 1539 AD. The great cities that dominated Petén had fallen into ruin by the beginning of the 10th century AD with the onset of the Classic Maya collapse.


  • Guatemala
    950

    Early Postclassic era

    Guatemala
    950

    Early Postclassic from AD 950 to 1200. Analysis of bones from early Maya grave sites indicates that, although maize had already become a major component of the diet (under 30% at Ceullo, Belize) by this time, fish, meat from game animals, and other hunted or gathered foods still made up a major component of the diet.


  • Petén Department, Guatemala
    1000s

    All Mesoamerican cultures used Stone Age technology

    Petén Department, Guatemala
    1000s

    All Mesoamerican cultures used Stone Age technology; after c. 1000 AD copper, silver, and gold were worked. Mesoamerica lacked draft animals, did not use the wheel, and possessed few domesticated animals; the principal means of transport was on foot or by canoe.


  • Yucatán, Mexico
    12th Century

    The final episode of Classic Period collapse

    Yucatán, Mexico
    12th Century

    Chichen Itza and its Puuc neighbors declined dramatically in the 11th century, and this may represent the final episode of the Classic Period collapse.


  • Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, El Salvador
    1150s

    The Spanish conquest began of the Maya

    Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, El Salvador
    1150s

    The Maya occupied a territory that is now incorporated into the modern countries of Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, and El Salvador; the conquest began in the early 16th century and is generally considered to have ended in 1697.


  • Guatemala
    1200s

    Late Postclassic era

    Guatemala
    1200s

    Late Postclassic from AD 1200 to 1539.


  • Guatemala
    1439

    Kaminaljuyu in the Valley of Guatemala was abandoned

    Guatemala
    1439

    The once-great city of Kaminaljuyu in the Valley of Guatemala was abandoned after the continuous occupation of almost 2,000 years.


  • Tecoh Municipality, Yucatán
    1448

    Mayapan was abandoned after a period of political turbulence

    Tecoh Municipality, Yucatán
    1448

    Mayapan was abandoned around 1448, after a period of political, social, and environmental turbulence that in many ways echoed the Classic period collapse in the southern Maya region.


  • Yucatán, Mexico
    2nd Millenium

    One of the largest groups of Maya live in the Yucatan Peninsula

    Yucatán, Mexico
    2nd Millenium

    One of the largest groups of Maya lives in the Yucatan Peninsula, which includes the Mexican states of Yucatán State, Campeche, and Quintana Roo as well as the nation of Belize.


  • Yucatán, Mexico
    2nd Millenium

    Contact period and Spanish conquest (1511–1697 AD)

    Yucatán, Mexico
    2nd Millenium

    In 1511, a Spanish caravel was wrecked in the Caribbean, and about a dozen survivors made landfall on the coast of Yucatán.


  • Yucatán, Mexico
    1510s

    Three separate Spanish expeditions explored the Yucatán coast

    Yucatán, Mexico
    1510s

    From 1517 to 1519, three separate Spanish expeditions explored the Yucatán coast and engaged in a number of battles with the Maya inhabitants.


  • Soconusco, Veracruz, Mexico
    1521

    Soconusco fell to the Spanish

    Soconusco, Veracruz, Mexico
    1521

    After the Aztec capital Tenochtitlan fell to the Spanish in 1521, Hernán Cortés despatched Pedro de Alvarado to Guatemala with 180 cavalry, 300 infantry, 4 cannons, and thousands of allied warriors from central Mexico.


  • Guatemala
    1539

    Kʼicheʼ states are associated with the ancient Maya civilization

    Guatemala
    1539

    The highland Kʼicheʼ states in the pre-Columbian era are associated with the ancient Maya civilization and reached the peak of their power and influence during the Mayan Postclassic period (c. 950–1539 AD).


  • Guatemala
    16th Century

    Qʼumarkaj was one of the most powerful Maya cities

    Guatemala
    16th Century

    Qʼumarkaj was one of the most powerful Maya cities when the Spanish arrived in the region in the early 16th century. It was the capital of the Kʼicheʼ Maya in the Late Postclassic Period.


  • Petén, Guatemala
    1697

    The last independent Maya city fell to the Spanish

    Petén, Guatemala
    1697

    In 1697, Martín de Ursúa launched an assault on the Itza capital Nojpetén and the last independent Maya city fell to the Spanish.


  • Guatemala
    1697

    The last Maya city fall

    Guatemala
    1697

    In the 16th century, the Spanish Empire colonized the Mesoamerican region, and a lengthy series of campaigns saw the fall of Nojpetén, the last Maya city, in 1697.


  • Guatemala
    1839

    Investigation of Maya civilization

    Guatemala
    1839

    In 1839, American traveler and writer John Lloyd Stephens set out to visit a number of Maya sites with English architect and draftsman Frederick Catherwood.


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