Historydraft LogoHistorydraft Logo HistorydraftbetaHistorydraft Logo Historydraftbeta

  • Puebla City, Mexico
    Monday May 05, 1862

    The Battle of Puebla

    Puebla City, Mexico
    Monday May 05, 1862

    In the 19th century, Díaz had been a national hero, opposing the French Intervention in the 1860s and distinguishing himself in the Battle of Puebla on 5 May 1862 ("Cinco de Mayo").




  • Mexico City, Mexico
    1867

    Entering Politics

    Mexico City, Mexico
    1867

    Díaz entered politics following the expulsion of the French in 1867.




  • Mexico City, Mexico
    Tuesday Nov 28, 1876

    Díaz Seized The Presidency

    Mexico City, Mexico
    Tuesday Nov 28, 1876

    As a military man himself, and one who had intervened directly in politics to seize the presidency in 1876, Díaz was acutely aware that the Federal Army could oppose him. He augmented the rurales, a police force created by Juárez, making them his personal armed force. The rurales were only 2,500 in number, as opposed to the 30,000 in the Federal Army and another 30,000 in the Federal Auxiliaries, Irregulars, and National Guard. Despite their small numbers, the rurales were highly effective in bringing control to the countryside, especially along the 12,000 miles of railway lines. They were a mobile force, often put on trains with their horses to put down rebellions in relatively remote areas of Mexico.




  • Mexico City, Mexico
    Monday Dec 01, 1884

    Díaz had ruled Continuously

    Mexico City, Mexico
    Monday Dec 01, 1884

    Díaz had ruled continuously since 1884. The question of presidential succession was an issue as early as 1900, when Díaz turned 70. It was his "undeclared intention to step down from the presidency in 1904."




  • Mexico City, Mexico
    1906

    The Office of vice President was Revived

    Mexico City, Mexico
    1906

    In 1906, the office of vice president was revived, with Díaz choosing his close ally Ramón Corral from among his Científico advisers to serve in the post.




  • Cananea, Sonora, Mexico
    Friday Jun 01, 1906

    The 1906 Cananea Strike

    Cananea, Sonora, Mexico
    Friday Jun 01, 1906

    Mexican copper miners in the northern state of Sonora took action in the 1906 Cananea strike.




  • Río Blanco, Veracruz, Mexico
    Monday Jan 07, 1907

    The Río Blanco Strike

    Río Blanco, Veracruz, Mexico
    Monday Jan 07, 1907

    In the state of Veracruz, textile workers rioted in January 1907 at the huge Río Blanco factory, the world's largest, protesting against unfair labor practices. They were paid in credit that could be used only at the company store, binding them to the company.


  • Mexico City, Mexico
    1910

    The Díaz Regime Had become Highly Authoritarian

    Mexico City, Mexico
    1910

    By the 1910 election, the Díaz regime had become highly authoritarian, and opposition to it had increased in many sectors of Mexican society.


  • Mexico City, Mexico
    1910

    The Revolutionary Movements broke out In Response To Madero's Plan

    Mexico City, Mexico
    1910

    In late 1910 revolutionary movements broke out in response to Madero's Plan de San Luis Potosí. Madero's vague promises of land reform in Mexico attracted many peasants throughout Mexico. Spontaneous rebellions arose in which ordinary farm laborers, miners, and other working-class Mexicans, along with much of the country's population of indigenous natives, fought Díaz's forces, with some success.


  • Mexico City, Mexico
    1910

    1910 Mexican Presidential Election

    Mexico City, Mexico
    1910

    Although similar overall to Díaz in his ideology, Madero hoped for other elites to rule alongside the president. Díaz thought he could control this election, as he had the previous seven; however, Madero campaigned vigorously and effectively. To ensure Madero did not win, Díaz had him jailed before the election. Madero escaped and fled for a short period to San Antonio, Texas. Díaz was announced the winner of the election by a "landslide".


  • Mexico City, Mexico
    1910

    Madero announced His Intent To Challenge Díaz For The Presidency

    Mexico City, Mexico
    1910

    In 1910, Francisco I. Madero, a young man from a wealthy land-owning family in the northern state of Coahuila, announced his intent to challenge Díaz for the presidency in the next election, under the banner of the Anti-Reelectionist Party. Madero chose as his running mate Francisco Vázquez Gómez, a physician who had opposed Díaz.


  • Mexico
    Wednesday Oct 05, 1910

    The Plan de San Luis Potosí

    Mexico
    Wednesday Oct 05, 1910

    On 5 October 1910, Madero issued a "letter from jail," known as the Plan de San Luis Potosí, with its main slogan Sufragio Efectivo, No Re-elección ("free suffrage and no re-election"). It declared the Díaz presidency illegal and called for revolt against Díaz, starting on 20 November 1910. Madero's political plan did not outline major socioeconomic revolution, but it offered the hope of change for many disadvantaged Mexicans.


  • Chihuahua, México
    Thursday Nov 10, 1910

    Madero Supporter Toribio Ortega Took up arms With a Group of Followers

    Chihuahua, México
    Thursday Nov 10, 1910

    When it became obvious that the election had been fixed, Madero supporter Toribio Ortega took up arms with a group of followers at Cuchillo Parado, Chihuahua on 10 November 1910.


  • Mexico City, Mexico
    Sunday May 21, 1911

    The Treaty of Ciudad Juárez

    Mexico City, Mexico
    Sunday May 21, 1911

    With the Federal Army defeated in a string of battles, Diaz's government began negotiations with the revolutionaries. One of Madero's representatives in the negotiations was his running mate in the 1910 elections, Francisco Vázquez Gómez. The talks culminated in the 21 May 1911 Treaty of Ciudad Juárez. The signed treaty stated that Díaz would abdicate the presidency along with his vice president Ramón Corral by the end of May 1911, to be replaced by an interim president, Francisco León de la Barra, until elections were held.


  • Mexico City, Mexico
    Monday Nov 06, 1911

    Madero Won The Election decisively and Was Inaugurated as President

    Mexico City, Mexico
    Monday Nov 06, 1911

    Some supporters criticized Madero for displaying weakness in not simply seizing the presidency from Diaz, and for failing to pass immediate reforms; however, by following the electoral process, Madero established a liberal democracy and received support from the United States and popular leaders such as Orozco, Villa, and Zapata. Francisco León de la Barra became interim president of Mexico, pending an election to be held in October 1911. Madero won the election decisively and was inaugurated as president in November 1911.


  • Ayala, Morelos, Mexico
    Tuesday Nov 28, 1911

    Plan of Ayala

    Ayala, Morelos, Mexico
    Tuesday Nov 28, 1911

    In response to this lack of action, Zapata promulgated the Plan de Ayala in November 1911, declaring himself in rebellion against Madero. He renewed guerrilla warfare in the state of Morelos. Madero sent the Federal Army to deal with Zapata, unsuccessfully.


  • Mexico City, Mexico
    Sunday Sep 22, 1912

    Founding The anarcho-Syndicalist Casa del Obrero Mundial Founded

    Mexico City, Mexico
    Sunday Sep 22, 1912

    The anarcho-syndicalist Casa del Obrero Mundial (House of the World Worker) was founded in September 1912 by Antonio Díaz Soto y Gama, Manuel Sarabia, and Lázaro Gutiérrez de Lara and served as a center of agitation and propaganda, but it was not a formal labor union.


  • Mexico City, Mexico
    1913

    Mexican conservatives Who Had Supported Huerta Sought a Constitutionally Elected Civilian Alternative To Huerta

    Mexico City, Mexico
    1913

    In the summer of 1913, Mexican conservatives who had supported Huerta sought a constitutionally elected civilian alternative to Huerta, brought together in body called National Unifying Junta. Political parties proliferated in this period, so that by the time of the October congressional elections there were 26.


  • Mexico City, Mexico
    Wednesday Feb 19, 1913

    Huerta's presidency

    Mexico City, Mexico
    Wednesday Feb 19, 1913

    Huerta's presidency is usually characterized as a dictatorship. From the point of view of revolutionaries at the time and the construction of historical memory of the Revolution, it is without any positive aspects. "Despite recent attempts to portray Victoriano Huerta as a reformer, there is little question that he was a self-serving dictator." There are few biographies of Huerta, but one strongly asserts that Huerta should not be labeled simply as a counter-revolutionary, arguing that his regime consisted of two distinct periods: from the coup in February 1913 up to October 1913, during which time he attempted to legitimize his regime and demonstrate its legality by pursuing reformist policies.


  • Mexico City, Mexico
    Jun, 1913

    Molina Enríquez Disavowed The Regime

    Mexico City, Mexico
    Jun, 1913

    When Huerta refused to move faster on land reform, Molina Enríquez disavowed the regime in June 1913, later going on to advise the 1917 constitutional convention on land reform.


  • Mexico City, Mexico
    Oct, 1913

    Huerta began Murdering Political Opponents

    Mexico City, Mexico
    Oct, 1913

    After October 1913, Huerta dropped all attempts to rule within a legal framework and began murdering political opponents while battling revolutionary forces that had united in opposition to his regime.


  • Mexico City, Mexico
    Oct, 1913

    The October 1913 Elections

    Mexico City, Mexico
    Oct, 1913

    The October 1913 elections were the end of any pretension to constitutional rule in Mexico, with civilian political activity banned. Prominent Catholics were arrested and Catholic newspapers were suppressed.


  • Veracruz, Mexico
    Apr, 1914

    The Seizure and Occupation of The port of Veracruz

    Veracruz, Mexico
    Apr, 1914

    In April 1914, U.S. opposition to Huerta culminated in the seizure and occupation of the port of Veracruz by U.S. marines and sailors.


  • Coatzacoalcos, Veracruz, Mexico
    Jul, 1914

    Huerta Stepped Down and Fled To Puerto México

    Coatzacoalcos, Veracruz, Mexico
    Jul, 1914

    Huerta's position continued to deteriorate. In mid-July 1914, after his army suffered several defeats, he stepped down and fled to Puerto México. Seeking to get himself and his family out of Mexico, he turned to the German government, which had generally supported his presidency. The Germans were not eager to allow him to be transported into exile on one of their ships, but relented. Huerta carried "roughly half a million marks in gold with him" as well as paper currency and checks.


  • Celaya, Guanajuato, Mexico
    Tuesday Apr 06, 1915

    The Battle of Celaya

    Celaya, Guanajuato, Mexico
    Tuesday Apr 06, 1915

    The rival armies of Villa and Obregón met on 6–15 April 1915 in the Battle of Celaya.


  • Washington D.C., U.S.
    Oct, 1915

    The U.S. Granted Carranza's Government Diplomatic Recognition

    Washington D.C., U.S.
    Oct, 1915

    The U.S. granted Carranza's government diplomatic recognition in October 1915.


  • Columbus, New Mexico, U.S.
    1916

    Villa Attacked Columbus

    Columbus, New Mexico, U.S.
    1916

    In 1916, Villa attacked Columbus, New Mexico.


  • El Paso, Texas, U.S.
    Thursday Jan 13, 1916

    Huerta's Death

    El Paso, Texas, U.S.
    Thursday Jan 13, 1916

    In exile, Huerta sought to return to Mexico via the United States; U.S. authorities arrested him and he was imprisoned in Fort Bliss, Texas. He died in January 1916, six months after going into exile


  • Mexico City, Mexico
    Monday Feb 05, 1917

    Approving a New Constitution

    Mexico City, Mexico
    Monday Feb 05, 1917

    Carranza had consolidated enough power to go forward with the drafting of a new constitution in 1917.


  • Mexico City, Mexico
    1920

    The Interim Government Negotiated Pancho Villa's Surrender

    Mexico City, Mexico
    1920

    The interim government of Adolfo de la Huerta negotiated Pancho Villa's surrender in 1920, rewarding him with an hacienda where he lived in peace until he floated political interest in 1924 election.


  • Mexico City, Mexico
    Tuesday Oct 26, 1920

    Alvaro Obregón was elected President

    Mexico City, Mexico
    Tuesday Oct 26, 1920

    Alvaro Obregón was elected president in October 1920, the first of a string of revolutionary generals.


  • Parral, Chihuahua, Mexico
    Friday Jul 20, 1923

    Villa's Assassination

    Parral, Chihuahua, Mexico
    Friday Jul 20, 1923

    Villa was assassinated in July 1923.


<