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  • Liguria, Italy
    16th Century

    Ancestors

    Liguria, Italy
    16th Century

    The ancestors of Napoleon descended from minor Italian nobility of Tuscan origin who had come to Corsica from Liguria in the 16th century. Napoleon boasted of his Italian heritage saying "I am of the race that founds empires", and he referred to himself as "more Italian or Tuscan than Corsican".




  • Corsica, Kingdom of France
    1769

    Republic of Genoa transferred Corsica to France

    Corsica, Kingdom of France
    1769

    Napoleon was born the same year the Republic of Genoa, a former commune of Italy, transferred Corsica to France.




  • Ajaccio, Corsica, Kingdom of France
    Tuesday Aug 15, 1769

    Birth

    Ajaccio, Corsica, Kingdom of France
    Tuesday Aug 15, 1769

    Napoleon was born on 15 August 1769. His parents Carlo Maria di Buonaparte and Maria Letizia Ramolino maintained an ancestral home called "Casa Buonaparte" in Ajaccio. Napoleon was their fourth child and third son. A boy and girl were born first but died in infancy.




  • France
    1777

    The father was an attorney who went on to be named Corsica's representative to the court of Louis XVI

    France
    1777

    Napoleon's parents fought against the French to maintain independence even when Maria was pregnant with him. His father was an attorney who went on to be named Corsica's representative to the court of Louis XVI in 1777.




  • France
    1778

    Napoleon moved to the French mainland

    France
    1778

    When Napoleon turned 9 years old, he moved to the French mainland.




  • Autun, France
    Jan, 1779

    Napoleon enrolled at a religious school

    Autun, France
    Jan, 1779

    Napoleon enrolled at a religious school in Autun in January 1779.




  • Brienne-le-Château, France
    May, 1779

    Military academy at Brienne-le-Château

    Brienne-le-Château, France
    May, 1779

    In May, Napoleon transferred with a scholarship to a military academy at Brienne-le-Château.


  • France
    1779

    Napoleon began learning French

    France
    1779

    In his youth he was an outspoken Corsican nationalist and supported the state's independence from France. Like many Corsicans, Napoleon spoke and read Corsican (as his mother tongue) and Italian (as the official language of Corsica). Napoleon began learning French in school at around age 10.


  • France
    1780

    Napoleon was routinely bullied by his peers for his accent

    France
    1780

    Napoleon was routinely bullied by his peers for his accent, birthplace, short stature, mannerisms and inability to speak French quickly. Bonaparte became reserved and melancholy applying himself to reading.


  • École Militaire, Paris, France
    1784

    Napoleon was admitted to the École Militaire

    École Militaire, Paris, France
    1784

    On completion of his studies at Brienne in 1784, Napoleon was admitted to the École Militaire in Paris.


  • École Militaire, Paris, France
    1785

    Graduated

    École Militaire, Paris, France
    1785

    Upon graduating in September 1785, Bonaparte was commissioned a second lieutenant in La Fère artillery regiment.


  • France
    1789

    Napoleon wrote to Corsican leader Pasquale Paoli

    France
    1789

    At this time, Napoleon was a fervent Corsican nationalist, and wrote to Corsican leader Pasquale Paoli in May 1789, "As the nation was perishing I was born. Thirty thousand Frenchmen were vomited on to our shores, drowning the throne of liberty in waves of blood. Such was the odious sight which was the first to strike me".


  • France
    1789

    Napoleon served in Valence and Auxonne

    France
    1789

    Napoleon served in Valence and Auxonne until after the outbreak of the Revolution in 1789, and took nearly two years' leave in Corsica and Paris during this period.


  • Corsica, France
    Jul, 1792

    Napoleon was promoted to captain

    Corsica, France
    Jul, 1792

    He spent the early years of the Revolution in Corsica, fighting in a complex three-way struggle among royalists, revolutionaries, and Corsican nationalists. He was a supporter of the republican Jacobin movement, organizing clubs in Corsica, and was given command over a battalion of volunteers. Napoleon was promoted to captain in the regular army in July 1792, despite exceeding his leave of absence and leading a riot against French troops.


  • France
    Jun, 1793

    Bonaparte and his family fled to the French mainland

    France
    Jun, 1793

    Napoleon came into conflict with Paoli, who had decided to split with France and sabotage the Corsican contribution to the Expédition de Sardaigne, by preventing a French assault on the Sardinian island of La Maddalena. Bonaparte and his family fled to the French mainland in June 1793 because of the split with Paoli.


  • Beaucaire, France
    Jul, 1793

    Le souper de Beaucaire

    Beaucaire, France
    Jul, 1793

    In July 1793, Bonaparte published a pro-republican pamphlet entitled Le souper de Beaucaire (Supper at Beaucaire) which gained him the support of Augustin Robespierre, younger brother of the Revolutionary leader Maximilien Robespierre.


  • France
    1793

    Napoleon was promoted to brigadier general

    France
    1793

    Napoleon adopted a plan to capture a hill where republican guns could dominate the city's harbour and force the British to evacuate. The assault on the position led to the capture of the city, but during it Bonaparte was wounded in the thigh. Napoleon was promoted to brigadier general at the age of 24. Catching the attention of the Committee of Public Safety, he was put in charge of the artillery of France's Army of Italy.


  • France
    1793

    Napoleon spent time as inspector of coastal fortifications on the Mediterranean coast

    France
    1793

    Napoleon spent time as inspector of coastal fortifications on the Mediterranean coast near Marseille while he was waiting for confirmation of the Army of Italy post. He devised plans for attacking the Kingdom of Sardinia as part of France's campaign against the First Coalition. Augustin Robespierre and Saliceti were ready to listen to the freshly promoted artillery general.


  • Saorge, Alpes-Maritimes, France
    Thursday Apr 24, 1794

    Battle of Saorgio

    Saorge, Alpes-Maritimes, France
    Thursday Apr 24, 1794

    The French army carried out Bonaparte's plan in the Battle of Saorgio in April 1794, and then advanced to seize Ormea in the mountains. From Ormea, they headed west to outflank the Austro-Sardinian positions around Saorge. After this campaign, Augustin Robespierre sent Bonaparte on a mission to the Republic of Genoa to determine that country's intentions towards France.


  • France
    1795

    Bonaparte had become engaged to Désirée Clary

    France
    1795

    By 1795, Bonaparte had become engaged to Désirée Clary, daughter of François Clary.


  • Vendée, France
    Apr, 1795

    Napoleon was assigned to the Army of the West

    Vendée, France
    Apr, 1795

    In April 1795, Napoleon was assigned to the Army of the West, which was engaged in the War in the Vendée (a civil war and royalist counter-revolution) in Vendée, a region in west central France on the Atlantic Ocean.


  • France
    1795

    Clisson et Eugénie

    France
    1795

    Napoleon wrote the romantic novella Clisson et Eugénie, about a soldier and his lover, in a clear parallel to Bonaparte's own relationship with Désirée.


  • France
    Tuesday Sep 15, 1795

    Bonaparte was removed from the list of generals in regular service

    France
    Tuesday Sep 15, 1795

    On 15 September, Bonaparte was removed from the list of generals in regular service for his refusal to serve in the Vendée campaign.


  • Paris, France
    Saturday Oct 03, 1795

    Royalists declared a rebellion against the National Convention

    Paris, France
    Saturday Oct 03, 1795

    On 3 October, royalists in Paris declared a rebellion against the National Convention.


  • Paris, France
    Monday Oct 05, 1795

    1,400 royalists died and the rest fled

    Paris, France
    Monday Oct 05, 1795

    Napoleon ordered a young cavalry officer named Joachim Murat to seize large cannons and used them to repel the attackers on 5 October 1795 (13 Vendémiaire An IV in the French Republican Calendar); 1,400 royalists died and the rest fled.


  • Paris, France
    Wednesday Mar 09, 1796

    Napoleon married Joséphine de Beauharnais

    Paris, France
    Wednesday Mar 09, 1796

    Napoleon was romantically involved with Joséphine de Beauharnais, the former mistress of Barras. The couple married on 9 March 1796 in a civil ceremony.


  • Italy
    Friday Mar 11, 1796

    Bonaparte left Paris to take command of the Army of Italy

    Italy
    Friday Mar 11, 1796

    Two days after the marriage, Bonaparte left Paris to take command of the Army of Italy.


  • Mantua, Italy
    Monday Jul 04, 1796

    Siege of Mantua

    Mantua, Italy
    Monday Jul 04, 1796

    The French then focused on the Austrians for the remainder of the war, the highlight of which became the protracted struggle for Mantua. The Austrians launched a series of offensives against the French to break the siege, but Napoleon defeated every relief effort, scoring victories at the battles of Castiglione, Bassano, Arcole, and Rivoli.


  • Southern Germany
    1796

    French forces had been defeated by the Archduke Charles

    Southern Germany
    1796

    The next phase of the campaign featured the French invasion of the Habsburg heartlands. French forces in Southern Germany had been defeated by the Archduke Charles in 1796, but the Archduke withdrew his forces to protect Vienna after learning about Napoleon's assault.


  • Rivoli, Italy
    Sunday Jan 15, 1797

    Decisive French triumph at Rivoli

    Rivoli, Italy
    Sunday Jan 15, 1797

    The decisive French triumph at Rivoli in January 1797 led to the collapse of the Austrian position in Italy. At Rivoli, the Austrians lost up to 14,000 men while the French lost about 5,000.


  • Tarvisio, Italy
    Tuesday Mar 21, 1797

    Battle of Tarvis

    Tarvisio, Italy
    Tuesday Mar 21, 1797

    In the first encounter between the two commanders, Napoleon pushed back his opponent and advanced deep into Austrian territory after winning at the Battle of Tarvis in March 1797.


  • Leoben, Austria
    Tuesday Apr 18, 1797

    Treaty of Leoben

    Leoben, Austria
    Tuesday Apr 18, 1797

    The Austrians were alarmed by the French thrust that reached all the way to Leoben, about 100 km from Vienna, and finally decided to sue for peace. The Treaty of Leoben, followed by the more comprehensive Treaty of Campo Formio, gave France control of most of northern Italy and the Low Countries, and a secret clause promised the Republic of Venice to Austria. Bonaparte marched on Venice and forced its surrender, ending 1,100 years of independence. He also authorized the French to loot treasures such as the Horses of Saint Mark.


  • Paris, France
    Monday Sep 04, 1797

    Coup of 18 Fructidor

    Paris, France
    Monday Sep 04, 1797

    Bonaparte sent General Pierre Augereau to Paris to lead a coup d'état and purge the royalists on 4 September (Coup of 18 Fructidor).


  • Campoformido, Republic of Venice (Present Day Campoformido, Italy)
    Tuesday Oct 17, 1797

    Treaty of Campo Formio

    Campoformido, Republic of Venice (Present Day Campoformido, Italy)
    Tuesday Oct 17, 1797

    These negotiations resulted in the Treaty of Campo Formio.


  • Paris, France
    Dec, 1797

    Bonaparte returned to Paris as a hero

    Paris, France
    Dec, 1797

    Bonaparte returned to Paris in December as a hero.


  • France
    1798

    Napoleon decided on a military expedition to seize Egypt

    France
    1798

    Bonaparte decided that France's naval power was not yet strong enough to confront the British Royal Navy. Napoleon decided on a military expedition to seize Egypt and thereby undermine Britain's access to its trade interests in India.


  • Paris, France
    May, 1798

    Bonaparte was elected a member of the French Academy of Sciences

    Paris, France
    May, 1798

    In May 1798, Bonaparte was elected a member of the French Academy of Sciences.


  • Malta
    Saturday Jun 09, 1798

    Bonaparte reached Malta

    Malta
    Saturday Jun 09, 1798

    Bonaparte reached Malta on 9 June 1798, then controlled by the Knights Hospitaller. Grand Master Ferdinand von Hompesch zu Bolheim surrendered after token resistance, and Bonaparte captured an important naval base with the loss of only three men.


  • Alexandria, Egypt
    Sunday Jul 01, 1798

    Napoleon landed at Alexandria

    Alexandria, Egypt
    Sunday Jul 01, 1798

    General Bonaparte and his expedition eluded pursuit by the Royal Navy and landed at Alexandria on 1 July.


  • Shubra Khit, Egypt
    Friday Jul 13, 1798

    Battle of Shubra Khit

    Shubra Khit, Egypt
    Friday Jul 13, 1798

    Napoleon fought the Battle of Shubra Khit against the Mamluks, Egypt's ruling military caste.


  • Giza, Egypt
    Saturday Jul 21, 1798

    Battle of the Pyramids

    Giza, Egypt
    Saturday Jul 21, 1798

    Napoleon fought on 21 July, the Battle of the Pyramids.


  • Aboukir, Egypt
    Wednesday Aug 01, 1798

    Battle of the Nile

    Aboukir, Egypt
    Wednesday Aug 01, 1798

    On 1 August 1798, the British fleet under Sir Horatio Nelson captured or destroyed all but two French vessels in the Battle of the Nile, defeating Bonaparte's goal to strengthen the French position in the Mediterranean.


  • Syria and Galilee
    1799

    Napoleon moved an army into the Ottoman province of Damascus

    Syria and Galilee
    1799

    In early 1799, Napoleon moved an army into the Ottoman province of Damascus (Syria and Galilee). Bonaparte led these 13,000 French soldiers in the conquest of the coastal towns of Arish, Gaza, Jaffa, and Haifa.


  • Jaffa, Sidon Eyalet, Ottoman Empire (Present Day Jaffa, Israel)
    Sunday Mar 03, 1799

    Siege of Jaffa

    Jaffa, Sidon Eyalet, Ottoman Empire (Present Day Jaffa, Israel)
    Sunday Mar 03, 1799

    The attack on Jaffa was particularly brutal. Bonaparte discovered that many of the defenders were former prisoners of war, ostensibly on parole, so he ordered the garrison and 1,400 prisoners to be executed by bayonet or drowning to save bullets.


  • Acre, Ottoman Empire (Present Day Acre, Israel)
    Wednesday Mar 20, 1799

    Siege of Acre

    Acre, Ottoman Empire (Present Day Acre, Israel)
    Wednesday Mar 20, 1799

    Napoleon failed to reduce the fortress of Acre, so he marched his army back to Egypt in May.


  • Abu Qir, Egypt
    Thursday Jul 25, 1799

    Battle of Abu Qir (1799)

    Abu Qir, Egypt
    Thursday Jul 25, 1799

    Back in Egypt on 25 July, Bonaparte defeated an Ottoman amphibious invasion at Abukir.


  • France
    Saturday Aug 24, 1799

    Napoleon sailed for France

    France
    Saturday Aug 24, 1799

    On 24 August 1799, Napoleon took advantage of the temporary departure of British ships from French coastal ports and set sail for France, despite the fact that he had received no explicit orders from Paris.


  • France
    Saturday Nov 09, 1799

    Coup d'état on 9 November 1799

    France
    Saturday Nov 09, 1799

    Despite the failures in Egypt, Napoleon returned to a hero's welcome. He drew together an alliance with director Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès, his brother Lucien, speaker of the Council of Five Hundred Roger Ducos, director Joseph Fouché, and Talleyrand, and they overthrew the Directory by a coup d'état on 9 November 1799 ("the 18th Brumaire" according to the revolutionary calendar), closing down the Council of Five Hundred.


  • Rosetta, Egypt
    1799

    Rosetta Stone discovered

    Rosetta, Egypt
    1799

    The Egyptian expedition's discoveries included the Rosetta Stone.


  • France
    Tuesday Dec 24, 1799

    Constitution of the Year VIII

    France
    Tuesday Dec 24, 1799

    Napoleon drafted the Constitution of the Year VIII and secured his own election as First Consul, taking up residence at the Tuileries.


  • Italy
    1800

    Napoleon and his troops crossed the Swiss Alps into Italy

    Italy
    1800

    In the spring of 1800, Napoleon and his troops crossed the Swiss Alps into Italy, aiming to surprise the Austrian armies that had reoccupied the peninsula when Napoleon was still in Egypt.


  • Genoa, Italy
    Sunday Apr 06, 1800

    Siege of Genoa

    Genoa, Italy
    Sunday Apr 06, 1800

    While one French army approached from the north, the Austrians were busy with another stationed in Genoa, which was besieged by a substantial force. The fierce resistance of this French army, under André Masséna, gave the northern force some time to carry out their operations with little interference.


  • Alessandria, Piedmont, Italy
    Saturday Jun 14, 1800

    Battle of Marengo

    Alessandria, Piedmont, Italy
    Saturday Jun 14, 1800

    After spending several days looking for each other, the two armies collided at the Battle of Marengo on 14 June. General Melas had a numerical advantage, fielding about 30,000 Austrian soldiers while Napoleon commanded 24,000 French troops. The Battle of Marengo was fought on 14 June 1800 between French forces under the First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte and Austrian forces near the city of Alessandria, in Piedmont, Italy. Late in the afternoon, a full division under Louis Desaix arrived on the field and reversed the tide of the battle. A series of artillery barrages and cavalry charges decimated the Austrian army, which fled over the Bormida River back to Alessandria, leaving behind 14,000 casualties.


  • Alessandria, Piedmont, Italy
    Sunday Jun 15, 1800

    Convention of Alessandria

    Alessandria, Piedmont, Italy
    Sunday Jun 15, 1800

    The Austrian army agreed to abandon Northern Italy once more with the Convention of Alessandria, which granted them safe passage to friendly soil in exchange for their fortresses throughout the region.


  • Paris, France
    Friday Oct 10, 1800

    Conspiration des poignards

    Paris, France
    Friday Oct 10, 1800

    The Conspiration des poignards (Daggers Conspiracy) or Complot de l'Opéra (Opera Plot) was an alleged assassination attempt against Napoleon Bonaparte. The members of the plot were not clearly established. Authorities at the time presented it as an assassination attempt on Napoleon at the exit of the Paris operahouse on 18 vendémiaire year IX (10 October 1800), which was prevented by the police force of Joseph Fouché. However, this version was questioned very early on.


  • Hohenlinden, east of Munich, (Present Day Germany)
    Wednesday Dec 03, 1800

    Battle of Hohenlinden

    Hohenlinden, east of Munich, (Present Day Germany)
    Wednesday Dec 03, 1800

    Bonaparte gave orders to his general Moreau to strike Austria once more. Moreau and the French swept through Bavaria and scored an overwhelming victory at Hohenlinden in December 1800.


  • Paris, France
    Wednesday Dec 24, 1800

    Plot of the rue Saint-Nicaise

    Paris, France
    Wednesday Dec 24, 1800

    The Plot of the rue Saint-Nicaise, also known as the Machine infernale plot, was an assassination attempt on the life of the First Consul of France, Napoleon Bonaparte, in Paris on 24 December 1800. It followed the conspiration des poignards of 10 October 1800, and was one of many Royalist and Catholic plots. Though Napoleon and his wife Josephine narrowly escaped the attempt, five people were killed and twenty-six others were injured.


  • Lunéville, France
    Monday Feb 09, 1801

    Treaty of Lunéville

    Lunéville, France
    Monday Feb 09, 1801

    As a result, the Austrians capitulated and signed the Treaty of Lunéville in February 1801. The treaty reaffirmed and expanded earlier French gains at Campo Formio.


  • Saint-Domingue (Present Day Haiti)
    1801

    Toussaint Louverture installing himself as de facto dictator

    Saint-Domingue (Present Day Haiti)
    1801

    The brief peace in Europe allowed Napoleon to focus on the French colonies abroad. Saint-Domingue had managed to acquire a high level of political autonomy during the Revolutionary Wars, with Toussaint Louverture installing himself as de facto dictator by 1801.


  • Amiens, France
    Thursday Mar 25, 1802

    Treaty of Amiens

    Amiens, France
    Thursday Mar 25, 1802

    France and Britain signed the Treaty of Amiens in March 1802, bringing the Revolutionary Wars to an end. Amiens called for the withdrawal of British troops from recently conquered colonial territories as well as for assurances to curtail the expansionary goals of the French Republic.


  • France
    Monday May 10, 1802

    The 1802 French constitutional referendum

    France
    Monday May 10, 1802

    In a new plebiscite during the spring of 1802, the French public came out in huge numbers to approve a constitution that made the Consulate permanent, essentially elevating Napoleon to dictator for life.


  • United Kingdom
    May, 1803

    Britain declared the war

    United Kingdom
    May, 1803

    The peace with Britain proved to be uneasy and controversial. Britain did not evacuate Malta as promised and protested against Bonaparte's annexation of Piedmont and his Act of Mediation, which established a new Swiss Confederation. Neither of these territories were covered by Amiens, but they inflamed tensions significantly. The dispute culminated in a declaration of war by Britain in May 1803; Napoleon responded by reassembling the invasion camp at Boulogne.


  • U.S.
    1803

    Napoleon decided to sell the Louisiana Territory to the United States

    U.S.
    1803

    Seeing the failure of his colonial efforts, Napoleon decided in 1803 to sell the Louisiana Territory to the United States, instantly doubling the size of the U.S. The selling price in the Louisiana Purchase was less than three cents per acre, a total of $15 million.


  • Haiti
    1804

    Haiti

    Haiti
    1804

    Napoleon sent an expedition under his brother-in-law General Leclerc to reassert control over Saint-Domingue. Although the French managed to capture Toussaint Louverture, the expedition failed when high rates of disease crippled the French army, and Jean-Jacques Dessalines won a string of victories, first against Leclerc, and when he died from yellow fever, then against Donatien-Marie-Joseph de Vimeur, vicomte de Rochambeau, whom Napoleon sent to relieve Leclerc with another 20,000 men. In May 1803, Napoleon acknowledged defeat, and the last 8,000 French troops left the island and the slaves proclaimed an independent republic that they called Haïti in 1804.


  • France
    Nov, 1804

    The 1804 French referendum

    France
    Nov, 1804

    Launching yet another referendum, Napoleon was elected as Emperor of the French by a tally exceeding 99%.


  • Notre Dame de Paris, France
    Sunday Dec 02, 1804

    Napoleon's coronation

    Notre Dame de Paris, France
    Sunday Dec 02, 1804

    Napoleon's coronation, officiated by Pope Pius VII, took place at Notre Dame de Paris, on 2 December 1804.


  • United Kingdom
    Dec, 1804

    Anglo-Swedish agreement became the first step towards the creation of the Third Coalition

    United Kingdom
    Dec, 1804

    In December 1804, an Anglo-Swedish agreement became the first step towards the creation of the Third Coalition.


  • France
    1805

    Napoleon's planned invasion of the United Kingdom

    France
    1805

    The main strategic idea involved the French Navy escaping from the British blockades of Toulon and Brest and threatening to attack the West Indies. In the face of this attack, it was hoped, the British would weaken their defense of the Western Approaches by sending ships to the Caribbean, allowing a combined Franco-Spanish fleet to take control of the channel long enough for French armies to cross and invade.


  • United Kingdom
    Apr, 1805

    Britain had also signed an alliance with Russia

    United Kingdom
    Apr, 1805

    By April 1805, Britain had also signed an alliance with Russia.


  • Cathedral of Milan, Italy
    Sunday May 26, 1805

    Napoleon was also crowned King of Italy

    Cathedral of Milan, Italy
    Sunday May 26, 1805

    Napoleon was also crowned King of Italy, with the Iron Crown of Lombardy, at the Cathedral of Milan on 26 May 1805.


  • France
    1805

    Grande Armée had grown to a force of 350,000 men

    France
    1805

    By 1805, the Grande Armée had grown to a force of 350,000 men, who were well equipped, well trained, and led by competent officers.


  • Off Cape Finisterre, Atlantic Ocean
    Monday Jul 22, 1805

    Battle of Cape Finisterre (1805)

    Off Cape Finisterre, Atlantic Ocean
    Monday Jul 22, 1805

    However, the plan unraveled after the British victory at the Battle of Cape Finisterre in July 1805. French Admiral Villeneuve then retreated to Cádiz instead of linking up with French naval forces at Brest for an attack on the English Channel.


  • Central Europe
    Wednesday Sep 25, 1805

    200,000 French troops began to cross the Rhine

    Central Europe
    Wednesday Sep 25, 1805

    On 25 September, after great secrecy and feverish marching, 200,000 French troops began to cross the Rhine on a front of 260 km (160 mi).


  • Ulm, Electorate of Bavaria (Present Day Ulm, Germany)
    Wednesday Oct 16, 1805

    Battle of Ulm

    Ulm, Electorate of Bavaria (Present Day Ulm, Germany)
    Wednesday Oct 16, 1805

    Austrian commander Karl Mack had gathered the greater part of the Austrian army at the fortress of Ulm in Swabia. Napoleon swung his forces to the southeast and the Grande Armée performed an elaborate wheeling movement that outflanked the Austrian positions. The Ulm Maneuver completely surprised General Mack, who belatedly understood that his army had been cut off. After some minor engagements that culminated in the Battle of Ulm, Mack finally surrendered after realizing that there was no way to break out of the French encirclement. For just 2,000 French casualties, Napoleon had managed to capture a total of 60,000 Austrian soldiers through his army's rapid marching.


  • Central Europe
    Sunday Oct 20, 1805

    Ulm Campaign ended

    Central Europe
    Sunday Oct 20, 1805

    The Ulm Campaign is generally regarded as a strategic masterpiece and was influential in the development of the Schlieffen Plan in the late 19th century.


  • Austerlitz, Moravia, Austrian Empire (Present Day Slavkov u Brna, Czech Republic)
    Monday Dec 02, 1805

    Battle of Austerlitz

    Austerlitz, Moravia, Austrian Empire (Present Day Slavkov u Brna, Czech Republic)
    Monday Dec 02, 1805

    At this critical juncture, both Tsar Alexander I and Holy Roman Emperor Francis II decided to engage Napoleon in battle, despite reservations from some of their subordinates. Napoleon sent his army north in pursuit of the Allies, but then ordered his forces to retreat so that he could feign a grave weakness. At the Battle of Austerlitz, in Moravia on 2 December, he deployed the French army below the Pratzen Heights and deliberately weakened his right flank, enticing the Allies to launch a major assault there in the hopes of rolling up the whole French line.


  • Pressburg (Present Day Bratislava, Hungary)
    Thursday Dec 26, 1805

    Peace of Pressburg (1805)

    Pressburg (Present Day Bratislava, Hungary)
    Thursday Dec 26, 1805

    The Allied disaster at Austerlitz significantly shook the faith of Emperor Francis in the British-led war effort. France and Austria agreed to an armistice immediately and the Treaty of Pressburg followed shortly after on 26 December.


  • Ottoman Empire (Present Day Turkey)
    Feb, 1806

    Ottoman Emperor Selim III recognized Napoleon as Emperor

    Ottoman Empire (Present Day Turkey)
    Feb, 1806

    In February 1806, Ottoman Emperor Selim III recognized Napoleon as Emperor. He also opted for an alliance with France, calling France "our sincere and natural ally". That decision brought the Ottoman Empire into a losing war against Russia and Britain.


  • Central Europe (Germany, Austria, France, Switzerland and Poland)
    Saturday Jul 12, 1806

    Confederation of the Rhine

    Central Europe (Germany, Austria, France, Switzerland and Poland)
    Saturday Jul 12, 1806

    After Austerlitz, Napoleon established the Confederation of the Rhine in 1806.


  • Jena and Auerstedt, Germany
    Tuesday Oct 14, 1806

    Battle of Jena–Auerstedt

    Jena and Auerstedt, Germany
    Tuesday Oct 14, 1806

    Napoleon invaded Prussia with 180,000 troops, rapidly marching on the right bank of the River Saale. As in previous campaigns, his fundamental objective was to destroy one opponent before reinforcements from another could tip the balance of the war. Upon learning the whereabouts of the Prussian army, the French swung westwards and crossed the Saale with overwhelming force. At the twin battles of Jena and Auerstedt, fought on 14 October, the French convincingly defeated the Prussians and inflicted heavy casualties. With several major commanders dead or incapacitated, the Prussian king proved incapable of effectively commanding the army, which began to quickly disintegrate.


  • Berlin, Germany
    Friday Nov 21, 1806

    Berlin Decree

    Berlin, Germany
    Friday Nov 21, 1806

    Following his triumph, Napoleon imposed the first elements of the Continental System through the Berlin Decree issued in November 1806. The Continental System, which prohibited European nations from trading with Britain, was widely violated throughout his reign.


  • Persian Empire (Present Day Iran)
    1807

    Collapsed alliance

    Persian Empire (Present Day Iran)
    1807

    A Franco-Persian alliance was also formed between Napoleon and the Persian Empire of Fat′h-Ali Shah Qajar. It collapsed in 1807, when France and Russia themselves formed an unexpected alliance.


  • Preussisch Eylau, East Prussia (Present Day Bagrationovsk, Russia)
    Saturday Feb 07, 1807

    Battle of Eylau

    Preussisch Eylau, East Prussia (Present Day Bagrationovsk, Russia)
    Saturday Feb 07, 1807

    Napoleon marched against the advancing Russian armies through Poland and was involved in the bloody stalemate at the Battle of Eylau in February 1807.


  • Heilsberg, East Prussia (Lidzbark Warmiński, Poland)
    Wednesday Jun 10, 1807

    Battle of Heilsberg

    Heilsberg, East Prussia (Lidzbark Warmiński, Poland)
    Wednesday Jun 10, 1807

    After a period of rest and consolidation on both sides (French forces and Russian forces), the war restarted in June with an initial struggle at Heilsberg that proved indecisive.


  • Friedland, Prussia (Present Day Pravdinsk, Russia)
    Sunday Jun 14, 1807

    Battle of Friedland

    Friedland, Prussia (Present Day Pravdinsk, Russia)
    Sunday Jun 14, 1807

    On 14 June Napoleon obtained an overwhelming victory over the Russians at the Battle of Friedland, wiping out the majority of the Russian army in a very bloody struggle. The scale of their defeat convinced the Russians to make peace with the French.


  • Tilsit (Present Day Sovetsk, Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia)
    Friday Jun 19, 1807

    Tsar Alexander sent an envoy to seek an armistice with Napoleon

    Tilsit (Present Day Sovetsk, Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia)
    Friday Jun 19, 1807

    On 19 June, Tsar Alexander sent an envoy to seek an armistice with Napoleon. The latter assured the envoy that the Vistula River represented the natural borders between French and Russian influence in Europe. On that basis, the two emperors began peace negotiations at the town of Tilsit after meeting on an iconic raft on the River Niemen. The very first thing Alexander said to Napoleon was probably well-calibrated: "I hate the English as much as you do".


  • Tilsit (Present Day Sovetsk, Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia)
    Tuesday Jul 07, 1807

    Treaties of Tilsit

    Tilsit (Present Day Sovetsk, Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia)
    Tuesday Jul 07, 1807

    Moreover, Alexander's pretensions at friendship with Napoleon led the latter to seriously misjudge the true intentions of his Russian counterpart, who would violate numerous provisions of the treaty in the next few years. Despite these problems, the Treaties of Tilsit at last gave Napoleon a respite from war and allowed him to return to France, which he had not seen in over 300 days.


  • Pyrenees mountains ( Spain, France and Andorra)
    Saturday Oct 17, 1807

    French troops crossed the Pyrenees

    Pyrenees mountains ( Spain, France and Andorra)
    Saturday Oct 17, 1807

    On 17 October 1807, 24,000 French troops under General Junot crossed the Pyrenees with Spanish cooperation and headed towards Portugal to enforce Napoleon's orders.


  • Fontainebleau, France
    Tuesday Oct 27, 1807

    Treaty of Fontainebleau (October 1807)

    Fontainebleau, France
    Tuesday Oct 27, 1807

    Unhappy with this change of policy by the Portuguese government, Napoleon negotiated a secret treaty with Charles IV of Spain and sent an army to invade Portugal.


  • (Present Day in Germany)
    Dec, 1807

    Westphalia

    (Present Day in Germany)
    Dec, 1807

    Napoleon dictated very harsh peace terms for Prussia, despite the ceaseless exhortations of Queen Louise. Wiping out half of Prussian territories from the map, Napoleon created a new kingdom of 2,800 square kilometres (1,100 sq mi) called Westphalia and appointed his young brother Jérôme as its monarch. Prussia's humiliating treatment at Tilsit caused a deep and bitter antagonism which festered as the Napoleonic era progressed.


  • Spain
    Tuesday Feb 16, 1808

    Napoleon announced that he would intervene to mediate between the rival political factions in the country

    Spain
    Tuesday Feb 16, 1808

    Throughout the winter of 1808, French agents became increasingly involved in Spanish internal affairs, attempting to incite discord between members of the Spanish royal family. On 16 February 1808, secret French machinations finally materialized when Napoleon announced that he would intervene to mediate between the rival political factions in the country.


  • Madrid, Spain
    Thursday Mar 24, 1808

    The French arrived in Madrid

    Madrid, Spain
    Thursday Mar 24, 1808

    Marshal Murat led 120,000 troops into Spain. The French arrived in Madrid on 24 March, where wild riots against the occupation erupted just a few weeks later.


  • Spain
    Monday Jun 06, 1808

    Napoleon appointed his brother as the new King of Spain

    Spain
    Monday Jun 06, 1808

    Napoleon appointed his brother, Joseph Bonaparte, as the new King of Spain in the summer of 1808.


  • Bailén, Spain
    Saturday Jul 16, 1808

    Battle of Bailén

    Bailén, Spain
    Saturday Jul 16, 1808

    The shocking French defeat at the Battle of Bailén in July gave hope to Napoleon's enemies and partly persuaded the French emperor to intervene in person.


  • Erfurt, Germany
    Saturday Aug 27, 1808

    Congress of Erfurt

    Erfurt, Germany
    Saturday Aug 27, 1808

    Before going to Iberia, Napoleon decided to address several lingering issues with the Russians. At the Congress of Erfurt in October 1808, Napoleon hoped to keep Russia on his side during the upcoming struggle in Spain and during any potential conflict against Austria. The two sides reached an agreement, the Erfurt Convention, that called upon Britain to cease its war against France, that recognized the Russian conquest of Finland from Sweden, and that affirmed Russian support for France in a possible war against Austria "to the best of its ability".


  • Ebro River, Spain
    Nov, 1808

    Napoleon crossed the Ebro River

    Ebro River, Spain
    Nov, 1808

    Napoleon then returned to France and prepared for war. The Grande Armée, under the Emperor's personal command, rapidly crossed the Ebro River in November 1808 and inflicted a series of crushing defeats against the Spanish forces.


  • Madrid, Spain
    Sunday Dec 04, 1808

    Napoleon entered Madrid

    Madrid, Spain
    Sunday Dec 04, 1808

    After clearing the last Spanish force guarding the capital at Somosierra, Napoleon entered Madrid on 4 December with 80,000 troops.


  • Corunna, Galicia, Spain
    Monday Jan 16, 1809

    Battle of Corunna

    Corunna, Galicia, Spain
    Monday Jan 16, 1809

    Napoleon then unleashed his soldiers against Moore and the British forces. The British were swiftly driven to the coast, and they withdrew from Spain entirely after a last stand at the Battle of Corunna in January 1809.


  • Austria
    Wednesday Feb 08, 1809

    Imperial Government secretly decided on another confrontation against the French

    Austria
    Wednesday Feb 08, 1809

    After four years on the sidelines, Austria sought another war with France to avenge its recent defeats. Austria could not count on Russian support because the latter was at war with Britain, Sweden, and the Ottoman Empire in 1809. Although Archduke Charles warned that the Austrians were not ready for another showdown with Napoleon, a stance that landed him in the so-called "peace party", he did not want to see the army demobilized either. On 8 February 1809, the advocates for war finally succeeded when the Imperial Government secretly decided on another confrontation against the French.


  • Spain
    1809

    Napoleon never returned to Spain after the 1808 campaign

    Spain
    1809

    Napoleon would end up leaving Iberia in order to deal with the Austrians in Central Europe, but the Peninsular War continued on long after his absence. He never returned to Spain after the 1808 campaign. Several months after Corunna, the British sent another army to the peninsula under the future Duke of Wellington. The war then settled into a complex and asymmetric strategic deadlock where all sides struggled to gain the upper hand. The highlight of the conflict became the brutal guerrilla warfare that engulfed much of the Spanish countryside. Both sides committed the worst atrocities of the Napoleonic Wars during this phase of the conflict.


  • Germany
    Monday Apr 10, 1809

    Austrian army crossed the Inn River and invaded Bavaria

    Germany
    Monday Apr 10, 1809

    In the early morning of 10 April, leading elements of the Austrian army crossed the Inn River and invaded Bavaria.


  • Donauwörth, Germany
    Monday Apr 17, 1809

    Napoleonarrived at Donauwörth

    Donauwörth, Germany
    Monday Apr 17, 1809

    Napoleon arrived at Donauwörth on 17 April to find the Grande Armée in a dangerous position, with its two wings separated by 120 km (75 mi) and joined together by a thin cordon of Bavarian troops. Charles pressed the left wing of the French army and hurled his men towards the III Corps of Marshal Davout. In response, Napoleon came up with a plan to cut off the Austrians in the celebrated Landshut Maneuver.


  • Eckmühl, Germany
    Friday Apr 21, 1809

    Battle of Eckmühl

    Eckmühl, Germany