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  • Paris, France
    1888

    Death obituart

    Paris, France
    1888

    In 1888, Nobel was astonished to read his own obituary, titled The merchant of death is dead, in a French newspaper. It was Alfred's brother Ludvig who had died; the obituary was eight years premature. The article disconcerted Nobel and made him apprehensive about how he would be remembered. This inspired him to change his will.




  • Paris, France
    Wednesday Nov 27, 1895

    Nobel's well

    Paris, France
    Wednesday Nov 27, 1895

    Signing his well at the Swedish–Norwegian Club in Paris on 27 November 1895. To widespread astonishment, Nobel's last will specified that his fortune be used to create a series of prizes for those who confer the "greatest benefit on mankind" in physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature, and peace. Nobel bequeathed 94% of his total assets, 31 million SEK (US$186 million in 2008), to establish the five Nobel Prizes.




  • Sanremo, Italy
    Thursday Dec 10, 1896

    Alfred Nobel's death

    Sanremo, Italy
    Thursday Dec 10, 1896

    On 10 December 1896, Alfred Nobel died in his villa in San Remo, Italy, from a cerebral haemorrhage. He was 63 years old.




  • Oslo, Norway
    Monday Apr 26, 1897

    Approving the well

    Oslo, Norway
    Monday Apr 26, 1897

    Owing to skepticism surrounding the will, it was not approved by the Storting in Norway until 26 April 1897.




  • Norway and Sweden
    Monday Jun 07, 1897

    Awarding members

    Norway and Sweden
    Monday Jun 07, 1897

    Nobel's instructions named a Norwegian Nobel Committee to award the Peace Prize, the members of whom were appointed shortly after the will was approved in April 1897. Soon thereafter, the other prize-awarding organizations were designated. These were Karolinska Institute on 7 June, the Swedish Academy on 9 June, and the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on 11 June.




  • Stockholm, Sweden
    Friday Jun 29, 1900

    Forming the Nobel Foundation

    Stockholm, Sweden
    Friday Jun 29, 1900

    The executors of the will, Ragnar Sohlman and Rudolf Lilljequist, formed the Nobel Foundation to take care of the fortune and to organise the awarding of prizes.the Nobel Foundation's newly created statutes were promulgated by King Oscar II.




  • Stockholm, Sweden
    1910s

    Family with most laureates

    Stockholm, Sweden
    1910s

    The Curie family has received the most prizes, with four prizes awarded to five individual laureates. Marie Curie received the prizes in Physics (in 1903) and Chemistry (in 1911). Her husband, Pierre Curie, shared the 1903 Physics prize with her. Their daughter, Irène Joliot-Curie, received the Chemistry Prize in 1935 together with her husband Frédéric Joliot-Curie. In addition, the husband of Marie Curie's second daughter, Henry Labouisse, was the director of UNICEF when he accepted the Nobel Peace Prize in 1965 on that organisation's behalf.


  • Germany
    1938

    Forbidden laureates

    Germany
    1938

    In 1938 and 1939, Adolf Hitler's Third Reich forbade three laureates from Germany (Richard Kuhn, Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt, and Gerhard Domagk) from accepting their prizes. Each man was later able to receive the diploma and medal. Even though Sweden was officially neutral during the Second World War, the prizes were awarded irregularly.


  • Norway
    1940

    Second world war

    Norway
    1940

    No prize was awarded in any category from 1940 to 1942, due to the occupation of Norway by Germany. In the subsequent year, all prizes were awarded except those for literature and peace.


  • Sweden and U.S.
    1946

    Exempted from taxes

    Sweden and U.S.
    1946

    The Nobel Foundation is exempt from all taxes in Sweden (since 1946) and from investment taxes in the United States (since 1953).


  • Stockholm, Sweden
    1970s

    First to Refuse the Prize

    Stockholm, Sweden
    1970s

    Two laureates have voluntarily declined the Nobel Prize. In 1964, Jean-Paul Sartre was awarded the Literature Prize but refused, stating, "A writer must refuse to allow himself to be transformed into an institution, even if it takes place in the most honourable form.


  • Brunkebergstorg, Stockholm, Sweden
    1968

    Sveriges Riksbank Donation

    Brunkebergstorg, Stockholm, Sweden
    1968

    In 1968, Sweden's central bank Sveriges Riksbank celebrated its 300th anniversary by donating a large sum of money to the Nobel Foundation to be used to set up a prize in honour of Alfred Nobel.


  • Stockholm, Sweden
    Wednesday Dec 10, 1969

    Economic Science's Prize

    Stockholm, Sweden
    Wednesday Dec 10, 1969

    The following year, the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel was awarded for the first time. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences became responsible for selecting laureates. The first laureates for the Economics Prize were Jan Tinbergen and Ragnar Frisch,The Board of the Nobel Foundation decided that after this addition, it would allow no further new prizes.


  • Oslo, Norway
    Dec, 1973

    Second to refuse the prize

    Oslo, Norway
    Dec, 1973

    Lê Đức Thọ, chosen for the 1973 Peace Prize for his role in the Paris Peace Accords, declined, stating that there was no actual peace in Vietnam.


  • Stockholm, Sweden
    2007

    2007 Foundation's value

    Stockholm, Sweden
    2007

    Since the 1980s, the Foundation's investments have become more profitable and as of 31 December 2007, the assets controlled by the Nobel Foundation amounted to 3.628 billion Swedish kronor (c. US$560 million).


  • Oslo, Norway
    Thursday Dec 11, 2014

    Youngest Laureat

    Oslo, Norway
    Thursday Dec 11, 2014

    Youngest person ever to receive a Nobel Prize was Malala Yousafzai; at the age of 17, received Nobel Peace Prize (2014).


  • Stockholm, Sweden
    2019

    Oldest Laurate

    Stockholm, Sweden
    2019

    Oldest person ever to receive a Nobel Prize was John B. Goodenough; at the age of 97, received Nobel Prize in Chemistry (2019).


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