Historydraft LogoHistorydraft Logo HistorydraftbetaHistorydraft Logo Historydraftbeta

  • Berlin, Germany
    Saturday Nov 15, 1884

    Berlin Conference

    Berlin, Germany
    Saturday Nov 15, 1884

    Rwanda and neighbouring Burundi were assigned to Germany by the Berlin Conference of 1884, and Germany established a presence in the country in 1897 with the formation of an alliance with the king.




  • Rwanda
    Sunday Mar 24, 1957

    Bahutu Manifesto

    Rwanda
    Sunday Mar 24, 1957

    In 1957, a group of Hutu scholars wrote the "Bahutu Manifesto". This was the first document to label the Tutsi and Hutu as separate races, and called for the transfer of power from Tutsi to Hutu based on what it termed "statistical law".




  • Byimana, Rwanda
    Sunday Nov 01, 1959

    A Hutu sub-chief, was attacked close to his home

    Byimana, Rwanda
    Sunday Nov 01, 1959

    On 1 November 1959 Dominique Mbonyumutwa, a Hutu sub-chief, was attacked close to his home in Byimana, Gitarama prefecture, by supporters of the pro-Tutsi party. Mbonyumutwa survived, but rumours began spreading that he had been killed.




  • Rwanda
    Nov, 1959

    The Rwandan Revolution

    Rwanda
    Nov, 1959

    Hutu activists responded by killing Tutsi, both the elite and ordinary civilians, marking the beginning of the Rwandan Revolution.




  • Rwanda
    1990

    Large numbers of grenades and munitions

    Rwanda
    1990

    Rwanda also purchased large numbers of grenades and munitions from late 1990; in one deal, future UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali, in his role as Egyptian foreign minister, facilitated a large sale of arms from Egypt.




  • Rwanda
    1990

    The RPF invaded

    Rwanda
    1990

    In the early years of Habyarimana's regime, there was greater economic prosperity and reduced violence against Tutsi. Many hardline anti-Tutsi figures remained, however, including the family of the first lady Agathe Habyarimana, who were known as the akazu or clan de Madame, and the president relied on them to maintain his regime. When the RPF invaded in 1990, Habyarimana and the hardliners exploited the fear of the population to advance an anti-Tutsi agenda which became known as Hutu Power.




  • Rwanda
    1990

    Civil Defense

    Rwanda
    1990

    In 1990, the army began arming civilians with weapons such as machetes, and it began training the Hutu youth in combat, officially as a programme of "civil defense" against the RPF (Rwandan Patriotic Front) threat, but these weapons were later used to carry out the genocide.


  • Rwanda
    Oct, 1990

    Rwigyema led a force of over 4,000 rebels from Uganda, advancing 60 km into Rwanda

    Rwanda
    Oct, 1990

    In the 1980s, a group of 500 Rwandan refugees in Uganda, led by Fred Rwigyema, fought with the rebel National Resistance Army (NRA) in the Ugandan Bush War, which saw Yoweri Museveni overthrow Milton Obote. These soldiers remained in the Ugandan army following Museveni's inauguration as Ugandan president, but simultaneously began planning an invasion of Rwanda through a covert network within the army's ranks. In October 1990, Rwigyema led a force of over 4,000 rebels from Uganda, advancing 60 km (37 mi) into Rwanda under the banner of the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF). Rwigyema was killed on the third day of the attack, and France and Zaire deployed forces in support of the Rwandan army, allowing them to repel the invasion.


  • Rwanda
    Jan, 1991

    Kagame restarted the war

    Rwanda
    Jan, 1991

    Rwigyema's deputy, Paul Kagame, took command of the RPF forces, organizing a tactical retreat through Uganda to the Virunga Mountains, a rugged area of northern Rwanda. From there, he rearmed and reorganised the army, and carried out fundraising and recruitment from the Tutsi diaspora. Kagame restarted the war in January 1991, with a surprise attack on the northern town of Ruhengeri.


  • Rwanda
    1992

    The Coalition for the Defence of the Republic (CDR)

    Rwanda
    1992

    In 1992, the hardliners created the Coalition for the Defense of the Republic (CDR) party, which was linked to the ruling party but more right wing, and promoted an agenda critical of the president's alleged "softness" with the RPF.


  • Arusha, Tanzania
    Jun, 1992

    The RPF announced a ceasefire and began negotiations with the Rwandan government

    Arusha, Tanzania
    Jun, 1992

    In June 1992, following the formation of a multiparty coalition government in Kigali, the RPF announced a ceasefire and began negotiations with the Rwandan government in Arusha, Tanzania.


  • Rwanda
    1993

    Several extremist Hutu groups formed

    Rwanda
    1993

    In early 1993, several extremist Hutu groups formed and began campaigns of large scale violence against the Tutsi.


  • Rwanda
    Mar, 1993

    Hutu Power began compiling lists of "traitors" whom they planned to kill

    Rwanda
    Mar, 1993

    In March 1993, Hutu Power began compiling lists of "traitors" whom they planned to kill, and it is possible that Habyarimana's name was on these lists; the CDR (the Coalition for the Defence of the Republic) were publicly accusing the president of treason.


  • Burundi
    Oct, 1993

    The assassination of Melchior Ndadaye

    Burundi
    Oct, 1993

    In October 1993, the President of Burundi, Melchior Ndadaye, who had been elected in June as the country's first ever Hutu president, was assassinated by extremist Tutsi army officers.


  • Rwanda
    Tuesday Jan 11, 1994

    Genocide Fax

    Rwanda
    Tuesday Jan 11, 1994

    On 11 January 1994, General Roméo Dallaire, commander of UNAMIR (United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda), sent his "Genocide Fax" to UN Headquarters. The fax stated that Dallaire was in contact with "a top level trainer in the cadre of Interhamwe-armed militia of MRND." The informant—now known to be Mathieu Ngirumpatse's chauffeur, Kassim Turatsinze, a.k.a. "Jean-Pierre" – claimed to have been ordered to register all Tutsi in Kigali. According to the memo, Turatsinze suspected that a genocide against the Tutsis was being planned, and he said that "in 20 minutes his personnel could kill up to 1000 Tutsis". Dallaire's request to protect the informant and his family and to raid the weapons caches he revealed was denied.


  • Rwanda
    Wednesday Apr 06, 1994

    A Crisis Committee

    Rwanda
    Wednesday Apr 06, 1994

    Following Habyarimana's death, on the evening of 6 April, a crisis committee was formed; it consisted of Major General Augustin Ndindiliyimana, Colonel Théoneste Bagosora, and a number of other senior army staff officers. The committee was headed by Bagosora, despite the presence of the more senior Ndindiliyimana. Prime Minister Agathe Uwilingiyimana was legally next in the line of political succession, but the committee refused to recognise her authority. Roméo Dallaire met with the committee that night and insisted that Uwilingiyimana be placed in charge, but Bagosora refused, saying Uwilingiyimana did not "enjoy the confidence of the Rwandan people" and was "incapable of governing the nation". The committee also justified its existence as being essential to avoid uncertainty following the president's death. Bagosora sought to convince UNAMIR and the RPF that the committee was acting to contain the Presidential Guard, which he described as "out of control", and that it would abide by the Arusha agreement.


  • Kigali, Rwanda
    Wednesday Apr 06, 1994

    The assassination of Rwandan President Juvénal Habyarimana

    Kigali, Rwanda
    Wednesday Apr 06, 1994

    The genocide was organised by members of the core Hutu political elite, many of whom occupied positions at top levels of the national government. Most historians agree that a genocide against the Tutsi had been planned for at least a year. However the assassination of Rwandan president Juvénal Habyarimana on 6 April 1994 created a power vacuum and ended peace accords. Genocidal killings began the following day when soldiers, police, and militia executed key Tutsi and moderate Hutu military and political leaders.


  • Rwanda
    Thursday Apr 07, 1994

    Paul Kagame warned the crisis committee and UNAMIR that he would resume the civil war if the killing did not stop

    Rwanda
    Thursday Apr 07, 1994

    On 7 April, as the genocide started, RPF (the Rwandan Patriotic Front) commander Paul Kagame warned the crisis committee and UNAMIR that he would resume the civil war if the killing did not stop.


  • Rwanda
    Thursday Apr 07, 1994

    The ICTR prosecution was unable to prove that a conspiracy to commit genocide

    Rwanda
    Thursday Apr 07, 1994

    The ICTR (International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda) prosecution was unable to prove that a conspiracy to commit genocide existed prior to 7 April 1994.


  • Gikondo, Rwanda
    Saturday Apr 09, 1994

    The massacre of children

    Gikondo, Rwanda
    Saturday Apr 09, 1994

    On 9 April, UN observers witnessed the massacre of children at a Polish church in Gikondo.


  • Kigali, Rwanda
    Monday Apr 11, 1994

    The Official Technical School

    Kigali, Rwanda
    Monday Apr 11, 1994

    Thousands sought refuge in the Official Technical School (École Technique Officielle) in Kigali where Belgian UNAMIR soldiers were stationed. On 11 April, the Belgian soldiers withdrew, and Rwandan armed forces and militia killed all the Tutsi.


  • Nyange, Rwanda
    Tuesday Apr 12, 1994

    Nyarubuye massacre

    Nyange, Rwanda
    Tuesday Apr 12, 1994

    One such massacre occurred at Nyarubuye. On 12 April, more than 1,500 Tutsis sought refuge in a Catholic church in Nyange, then in Kivumu commune.


  • Rwanda
    Tuesday Apr 12, 1994

    The Belgian government announced that it was withdrawing

    Rwanda
    Tuesday Apr 12, 1994

    On 12 April, the Belgian government, which was one of the largest troop contributors to UNAMIR, and had lost ten soldiers protecting Prime Minister Uwilingiliyimana, announced that it was withdrawing, reducing the force's effectiveness even further.


  • Rusumo, Rwanda
    Thursday Apr 28, 1994

    The first rumours of RPF killings

    Rusumo, Rwanda
    Thursday Apr 28, 1994

    The first rumors of RPF killings emerged after 250,000 mostly Hutu refugees streamed into Tanzania at the border crossing of Rusumo on 28 April 1994.


  • Rusumo, Rwanda
    Saturday Apr 30, 1994

    The RPF took control of the border crossing at Rusumo

    Rusumo, Rwanda
    Saturday Apr 30, 1994

    After the RPF took control of the border crossing at Rusumo on 30 April, refugees continued to cross the Kagera River, ending up in remote areas of Tanzania.


  • Rwanda
    May, 1994

    The Presidential Guard, gendarmerie and the youth militia, aided by local populations, continued killing at a very high rate

    Rwanda
    May, 1994

    During the remainder of April and early May, the Presidential Guard, gendarmerie and the youth militia, aided by local populations, continued killing at a very high rate. Gerard Prunier estimates that during the first six weeks, up to 800,000 Rwandans may have been murdered, representing a rate five times higher than during the Holocaust of Nazi Germany. The goal was to kill every Tutsi living in Rwanda and, with the exception of the advancing RPF army, there was no opposition force to prevent or slow the killings.


  • Rwanda
    Monday May 16, 1994

    RPF had cut the road between Kigali and Gitarama

    Rwanda
    Monday May 16, 1994

    By 16 May, RPF (the Rwandan Patriotic Front) had cut the road between Kigali and Gitarama, the temporary home of the interim government.


  • Rwanda
    Tuesday May 17, 1994

    UNHCR began hearing concrete accounts of atrocities and made this information public

    Rwanda
    Tuesday May 17, 1994

    The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) began hearing concrete accounts of atrocities and made this information public on 17 May.


  • Rwanda
    Tuesday May 17, 1994

    Resolution 918

    Rwanda
    Tuesday May 17, 1994

    On 17 May 1994, the UN passed Resolution 918, which imposed an arms embargo and reinforced UNAMIR, which would be known as UNAMIR II. The new soldiers did not start arriving until June, and following the end of the genocide in July, the role of UNAMIR II was largely confined to maintaining security and stability, until its termination in 1996.


  • Gitarama, Rwanda
    Monday Jun 13, 1994

    RPF had taken Gitarama itself

    Gitarama, Rwanda
    Monday Jun 13, 1994

    By 13 June, RPF (the Rwandan Patriotic Front) had taken Gitarama itself, following an unsuccessful attempt by the Rwandan government forces to reopen the road; the interim government was forced to relocate to Gisenyi in the far north west.


  • Rwanda
    Thursday Jun 23, 1994

    Opération Turquoise

    Rwanda
    Thursday Jun 23, 1994

    On 23 June, around 2,500 soldiers entered southwestern Rwanda as part of the French-led United Nations Opération Turquoise.


  • Rwanda
    Jul, 1994

    Kagame's forces held the whole of Rwanda except for the zone in the south-west

    Rwanda
    Jul, 1994

    At the end of July 1994, Kagame's forces held the whole of Rwanda except for the zone in the south-west which had been occupied by a French-led United Nations force as part of Opération Turquoise.


  • Rwanda
    Monday Jul 04, 1994

    The Liberation Day for Rwanda

    Rwanda
    Monday Jul 04, 1994

    The Liberation Day for Rwanda would come to be marked as 4 July and is commemorated as a public holiday.


  • Rwanda
    Thursday Dec 31, 2015

    The ICTR officially closed

    Rwanda
    Thursday Dec 31, 2015

    The ICTR (International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda) officially closed on 31 December 2015, and its remaining functions were handed over to the Mechanism for International Criminal Tribunals.


  • Vatican City, Italy
    Monday Mar 20, 2017

    Pope Francis

    Vatican City, Italy
    Monday Mar 20, 2017

    On 20 March 2017, Pope Francis acknowledged that while some Catholic nuns and priests in the country were killed during the genocide, others were complicit in it and took part in preparing and executing the genocide.


<