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  • Crimean Peninsula, Central Eurasia
    8th Century BC

    The Scythians first appearance

    Crimean Peninsula, Central Eurasia
    8th Century BC

    The Scythians first appeared in the historical record in the 8th century BC.




  • Crimean Peninsula, Central Eurasia
    8th Century BC

    Early Scythian

    Crimean Peninsula, Central Eurasia
    8th Century BC

    Early Scythian – from the mid-8th or the late 7th century BC to about 500 BC.




  • Crimean Peninsula, Central Eurasia
    8th Century BC

    Herodotus description for Scythians

    Crimean Peninsula, Central Eurasia
    8th Century BC

    Herodotus provides the first detailed description of the Scythians. He classifies the Cimmerians as a distinct autochthonous tribe, expelled by the Scythians from the northern Black Sea coast. Herodotus also states that they consisted of the Auchatae, Catiaroi, Traspians, and Paralatae or "Royal Scythians".




  • Crimean Peninsula, Central Eurasia
    7th Century BC

    The Classical Scythian period

    Crimean Peninsula, Central Eurasia
    7th Century BC

    The Classical Scythian period saw major changes in Scythian material culture, both with regards to weapons and art style. This was largely through Greek influence. Other elements had probably been brought from the east.




  • Crimean Peninsula, Central Eurasia
    650s BC

    Madius was a Scythian king

    Crimean Peninsula, Central Eurasia
    650s BC

    Madius was a Scythian king after his father Bartatua.




  • Crimean Peninsula, Central Eurasia
    645 BC

    Bartatua was a Scythian king

    Crimean Peninsula, Central Eurasia
    645 BC

    Bartatua was a Scythian king. Bartatua died in ca. 645 BCE.




  • Crimean Peninsula, Central Eurasia
    640s BC

    The Scythians raided and exacted tribute from "the whole of Asia"

    Crimean Peninsula, Central Eurasia
    640s BC

    Bartatua was succeeded by his son Madius ca. 645 BC, after which they launched a great raid on Palestine and Egypt. Madius subsequently subjugated the Median Empire. During this time, Herodotus notes that the Scythians raided and exacted tribute from "the whole of Asia".


  • Crimean Peninsula, Central Eurasia
    620s BC

    Cyaxares killed a large number of Scythian

    Crimean Peninsula, Central Eurasia
    620s BC

    In the 620s, Cyaxares, leader of the Medes, treacherously killed a large number of Scythian chieftains at a feast. The Scythians were subsequently driven back to the steppe.


  • Mosul, Iraq
    612 BC

    The Battle of Nineveh

    Mosul, Iraq
    612 BC

    The Battle of Nineveh is conventionally dated between 613 and 611 BC, with 612 BC being the most supported date. Rebelling against the Assyrians, an allied army which combined the forces of Medes and the Babylonians, besieged Nineveh and sacked 750 hectares of what was, at that time, one of the greatest cities in the world.


  • Crimean Peninsula, Central Eurasia
    7th Century BC

    Scythians participated in the destruction of the Assyrian Empire

    Crimean Peninsula, Central Eurasia
    7th Century BC

    In 612 BC, the Medes and Scythians participated in the destruction of the Assyrian Empire at the Battle of Nineveh.


  • Crimean Peninsula, Central Eurasia
    7th Century BC

    The Scythian clothes

    Crimean Peninsula, Central Eurasia
    7th Century BC

    From the 7th to 3rd Century BC, the Scythian people of the Pontic Steppes produced and adopted a wide arrangement of clothing.


  • Crimean Peninsula, North Asia
    7th Century BC

    A society form of Scythians

    Crimean Peninsula, North Asia
    7th Century BC

    Scythians lived in confederated tribes, a political form of voluntary association that regulated pastures and organized a common defense against encroaching neighbors for the pastoral tribes of mostly equestrian herdsmen.


  • Greece
    6th Century BC

    The Greeks had begun establishing settlements along the coasts and rivers of the Pontic steppe

    Greece
    6th Century BC

    In the 6th century BC, the Greeks had begun establishing settlements along the coasts and rivers of the Pontic steppe, coming in contact with the Scythians.


  • Egypt, and India
    6th Century BC

    Persia the most powerful empire in the world

    Egypt, and India
    6th Century BC

    By the late 6th century BC, Achaemenid king Darius the Great had built Persia into becoming the most powerful empire in the world, stretching from Egypt to India.


  • Crimean Peninsula, Central Eurasia
    6th Century BC

    Classical Scythian

    Crimean Peninsula, Central Eurasia
    6th Century BC

    Classical Scythian or Mid-Scythian – from about 500 BC to about 300 BC.


  • Crimean Peninsula, Central Eurasia
    500 BC

    Oricos was a Scythian king

    Crimean Peninsula, Central Eurasia
    500 BC

    Oricos (c. 500 BC) was a Scythian king, the son of King Ariapeithes (or Ariapifa), the consanguinity brother of King Scylas.


  • Thrace (Bulgaria)
    496 BC

    The Scythians launched an great expedition into Thrace

    Thrace (Bulgaria)
    496 BC

    In 496 BC, the Scythians launched a great expedition into Thrace, reaching as far as Chersonesos.


  • Crimean Peninsula, Central Eurasia
    446 BC

    Octamasadas was a Scythian king

    Crimean Peninsula, Central Eurasia
    446 BC

    Octamasadas was a Scythian king, the son of King Ariapeithes, who lived around 446 BC. He came to power after he was deposed and replaced his half-brother Scylas.


  • Crimean Peninsula, Central Eurasia
    5th Century BC

    The greatest extent for Scythian

    Crimean Peninsula, Central Eurasia
    5th Century BC

    The Scythian state reached its greatest extent in the 4th century BC during the reign of Ateas. Isocrates believed that Scythians, and also Thracians and Persians, were "The ablest to power, and are the peoples with the greatest might".


  • Crimean Peninsula, Central Eurasia
    5th Century BC

    Scythian art

    Crimean Peninsula, Central Eurasia
    5th Century BC

    Since the 5th century BC, Scythian art has changed considerably. This was probably a result of Greek and Persian influence, and possibly also internal developments caused by the arrival of new nomadic people from the east.


  • Crimean Peninsula, Central Eurasia
    5th Century BC

    Scyles was a Scythian king

    Crimean Peninsula, Central Eurasia
    5th Century BC

    Scyles was a Scythian king who lived in the 5th century BC. He is mentioned in the history of Herodotus as having been an admirer of Greek culture and traditions, which led to his falling out of favor with his people and being executed by his brother.


  • Crimean Peninsula, Central Eurasia
    5th Century BC

    Ariapeithes was a king of the Scythians

    Crimean Peninsula, Central Eurasia
    5th Century BC

    Ariapeithes was a king of the Scythians in the early 5th century BCE and the father of Scyles.


  • Crimean Peninsula, Central Eurasia
    4th Century BC

    The Sarmatians begun expanding into Scythian territory

    Crimean Peninsula, Central Eurasia
    4th Century BC

    By the mid-4th century BC, the Sarmatians, a related Iranian people living to the east of the Scythians, began expanding into the Scythian territory.


  • Polgár, Hungary
    339 BC

    Scythian defense line

    Polgár, Hungary
    339 BC

    Scythian defense line 339 BC reconstruction in Polgár, Hungary.


  • Crimean Peninsula, Central Eurasia
    339 BC

    Ateas was king of Scythia

    Crimean Peninsula, Central Eurasia
    339 BC

    Ateas was described in Greek and Roman sources as the most powerful king of Scythia, who lost his life and empire in the conflict with Philip II of Macedon in 339 BC.


  • Parutyne, Mykolaiv Oblast, Ukraine
    331 BC

    Zopyrion invaded Scythian territory

    Parutyne, Mykolaiv Oblast, Ukraine
    331 BC

    In 331 BC, his general Zopyrion invaded Scythian territory with a force of 30,000 men but was routed and killed by the Scythians near Olbia.


  • Crimean Peninsula, Central Eurasia
    310s BC

    Battle of the River Thatis

    Crimean Peninsula, Central Eurasia
    310s BC

    In 310–309 BC, as noted by Diodorus Siculus, the Scythians, in alliance with the Bosporan Kingdom, defeated the Siraces in a great battle at the river Thatis.


  • Russia
    309 BC

    Siege of Siracena

    Russia
    309 BC

    The Siege of Siracena was a Bosporan siege led by Satyrus II and Meniscus on the fortified capital city of the Siraces, Siracena.


  • Crimean Peninsula
    4th Century BC

    Scythian culture was flowered

    Crimean Peninsula
    4th Century BC

    The 4th century BC was flowered by Scythian culture.


  • Crimean Peninsula
    3rd Century BC

    Original Scythian art was disappeared

    Crimean Peninsula
    3rd Century BC

    By the late 3rd century BC, original Scythian art disappears through ongoing Hellenization. The creation of anthropomorphic gravestones continued.


  • Crimean Peninsula, Central Eurasia
    3rd Century BC

    "Armor of the Golden Man"

    Crimean Peninsula, Central Eurasia
    3rd Century BC

    The "Armor of the Golden Man", is a reconstructed suit of Scythian armor dating to the 3rd-4th Century BC.


  • Crimean Peninsula, Central Eurasia
    3rd Century BC

    The political center of the Scythians

    Crimean Peninsula, Central Eurasia
    3rd Century BC

    Recent excavations at Ak-Kaya/Vishennoe imply that this site was the political center of the Scythians in the 3rd century BC and the early part of the 2nd century BC. It was a well-protected fortress constructed in accordance with Greek principles.


  • Crimean Peninsula, Central Eurasia
    3rd Century BC

    The last period in the Scythian archaeological culture

    Crimean Peninsula, Central Eurasia
    3rd Century BC

    The last period in the Scythian archaeological culture is the Late Scythian culture, which existed in the Crimea and the Lower Dnieper from the 3rd century BC.


  • Crimean Peninsula, Central Eurasia
    3rd Century BC

    Late Scythian

    Crimean Peninsula, Central Eurasia
    3rd Century BC

    Late Scythian – from about 200 BC to the mid-3rd century CE, in the Crimea and the Lower Dnieper, by which time the population was settled.


  • Crimean Peninsula, Central Eurasia
    2nd Century BC

    Scythian Neapolis

    Crimean Peninsula, Central Eurasia
    2nd Century BC

    Scythian Neapolis was largely constructed in accordance with Greek principles. Its royal palace was destroyed by Diophantus, a general of the Pontic king Mithridates VI, at the end of the 2nd century BC, and was not rebuilt. The city nevertheless continued to exist as a major urban center.


  • Crimean Peninsula, Central Eurasia
    2nd Century BC

    Scythian kings sought to extend their control over the Greek cities

    Crimean Peninsula, Central Eurasia
    2nd Century BC

    In the 2nd century BC, the Scythian kings Skilurus and Palakus sought to extend their control over the Greek cities north of the Black Sea.


  • Crimean Peninsula, Central Eurasia
    2nd Century BC

    The capital of the Late Scythian kingdom

    Crimean Peninsula, Central Eurasia
    2nd Century BC

    The most important site of the Late Crimean culture is Scythian Neaoplis, which was located in Crimea and served as the capital of the Late Scythian kingdom from the early 2nd century BC to the beginning of the 3rd century AD.


  • Crimean Peninsula, Central Eurasia
    2nd Century BC

    Skilurus was king of Scythian

    Crimean Peninsula, Central Eurasia
    2nd Century BC

    Skilurus was a renowned Scythian king reigning during the 2nd century BC.


  • Crimean Peninsula, Central Eurasia
    2nd Century

    Archaeological evidence

    Crimean Peninsula, Central Eurasia
    2nd Century

    By the 2nd century AD, archaeological evidence shows that the Scythians had been largely assimilated by the Sarmatians and Alans.


  • Crimean Peninsula, Central Eurasia
    2nd Century

    The Greek physician Galen wrote about Scythians

    Crimean Peninsula, Central Eurasia
    2nd Century

    In the late 2nd or early 3rd century AD, the Greek physician Galen writes that Scythians, Sarmatians, Illyrians, Germanic peoples, and other northern peoples have reddish hair.


  • Crimean Peninsula
    4th Century

    Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus wrote about relation between Scythians and Alans

    Crimean Peninsula
    4th Century

    The fourth-century Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus wrote that the Alans, a people closely related to the Scythians, were tall, blond, and light-eyed.


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