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  • China
    1912

    Founding The Republic of China

    China
    1912

    The Republic of China was founded in 1912, following the Xinhai Revolution which overthrew the last imperial dynasty of China, the Qing dynasty (1644–1911).




  • Manchuria, China
    Friday Sep 18, 1931

    Japan invaded Manchuria

    Manchuria, China
    Friday Sep 18, 1931

    The internecine warfare in China provided excellent opportunities for Japan, which saw Manchuria as a limitless supply of raw materials, a market for its manufactured goods (now excluded from the markets of many Western countries as a result of Depression-era tariffs), and a protective buffer state against the Soviet Union in Siberia. Japan invaded Manchuria outright after the Mukden Incident in September 1931.




  • Shanghai, China
    Thursday Jan 28, 1932

    The January 28 Incident Battle

    Shanghai, China
    Thursday Jan 28, 1932

    Incessant fighting followed the Mukden Incident. In 1932, Chinese and Japanese troops fought the January 28 Incident battle. This resulted in the demilitarisation of Shanghai, which forbade the Chinese from deploying troops in their own city. In Manchukuo there was an ongoing campaign to defeat the Anti-Japanese Volunteer Armies that arose from widespread outrage over the policy of non-resistance to Japan.




  • China
    Thursday Feb 18, 1932

    Japan established the puppet state of Manchukuo

    China
    Thursday Feb 18, 1932

    After five months of fighting, Japan established the puppet state of Manchukuo in 1932, and installed the last Emperor of China, Puyi, as its puppet ruler. Militarily too weak to challenge Japan directly, China appealed to the League of Nations for help. The League's investigation led to the publication of the Lytton Report, condemning Japan for its incursion into Manchuria, causing Japan to withdraw from the League of Nations. No country took action against Japan beyond tepid censure.




  • Eastern end of the Great Wall of China
    1933

    The Japanese attacked the Great Wall region

    Eastern end of the Great Wall of China
    1933

    In 1933, the Japanese attacked the Great Wall region. The Tanggu Truce established in its aftermath, gave Japan control of Jehol province as well as a demilitarized zone between the Great Wall and Beiping-Tianjin region. Japan aimed to create another buffer zone between Manchukuo and the Chinese Nationalist government in Nanjing.




  • China
    Monday Jun 10, 1935

    The He–Umezu Agreement

    China
    Monday Jun 10, 1935

    In 1935, under Japanese pressure, China signed the He–Umezu Agreement, which forbade the KMT from conducting party operations in Hebei.




  • China
    Monday Nov 25, 1935

    East Hebei Autonomous Council

    China
    Monday Nov 25, 1935

    By the end of 1935 the Chinese government had essentially abandoned northern China. In its place, the Japanese-backed East Hebei Autonomous Council and the Hebei–Chahar Political Council were established.


  • Chahar, China
    Tuesday May 12, 1936

    Forming The Mongol Military Government

    Chahar, China
    Tuesday May 12, 1936

    There in the empty space of Chahar the Mongol Military Government was formed on May 12, 1936. Japan provided all the necessary military and economic aid.


  • Xi'an, China
    Saturday Dec 12, 1936

    Xi'an Incident

    Xi'an, China
    Saturday Dec 12, 1936

    On December 12, 1936, a deeply disgruntled Zhang Xueliang kidnapped Chiang Kai-shek in Xi'an, hoping to force an end to the conflict between KMT and CPC. To secure the release of Chiang, the KMT agreed to a temporary end to the Chinese Civil War .


  • China
    Thursday Dec 24, 1936

    Creating of a United Front

    China
    Thursday Dec 24, 1936

    On December 24, the creation of a United Front between the CPC and KMT against Japan. The alliance having salutary effects for the beleaguered CPC, they agreed to form the New Fourth Army and the 8th Route Army and place them under the nominal control of the NRA.


  • Kaifeng, Henan, China
    Sunday Jun 06, 1937

    The Japanese captured Kaifeng

    Kaifeng, Henan, China
    Sunday Jun 06, 1937

    In 1937, the Japanese Imperial Army quickly marched into the heart of Chinese territory. On June 6, they captured Kaifeng, the capital of Henan, and threatened to take Zhengzhou, the junction of the Pinghan and Longhai railways.


  • Beijing, China
    Wednesday Jul 07, 1937

    The Marco Polo Bridge Incident

    Beijing, China
    Wednesday Jul 07, 1937

    On the night of July 7, 1937, Chinese and Japanese troops exchanged fire in the vicinity of the Marco Polo (or Lugou) Bridge, a crucial access-route to Beijing. What began as confused, sporadic skirmishing soon escalated into a full-scale battle in which Beijing and its port city of Tianjin fell to Japanese forces (July–August 1937).


  • Tongzhou, Beijing, China
    Thursday Jul 29, 1937

    The Tungchow mutiny

    Tongzhou, Beijing, China
    Thursday Jul 29, 1937

    On July 29, some 5,000 troops of the 1st and 2nd Corps of the East Hopei Army mutinied, turning against the Japanese garrison. In addition to Japanese military personnel, some 260 civilians living in Tongzhou in accordance with the Boxer Protocol of 1901, were killed in the uprising (predominantly Japanese including the police force and also some ethnic Koreans). The Chinese then set fire to and destroyed much of the city. Only around 60 Japanese civilians survived, who provided both journalists and later historians with firsthand witness accounts. As a result of the violence of the mutiny against Japanese civilians, the Tungchow mutiny, as it came to be called, strongly shook public opinion within Japan.


  • Shanghai, China
    Thursday Aug 12, 1937

    The KMT laid a siege to the Japanese area of Shanghai

    Shanghai, China
    Thursday Aug 12, 1937

    The Imperial General Headquarters (GHQ) in Tokyo, content with the gains acquired in northern China following the Marco Polo Bridge Incident, initially showed reluctance to escalate the conflict into full-scale war. The KMT, however, determined that the "breaking point" of Japanese aggression had been reached. Chiang Kai-shek quickly mobilized the central government's army and air force, placed them under his direct command, and laid siege to the Japanese area of Shanghai International Settlement, where 30,000 Japanese civilians lived with 30,000 troops on August 12, 1937.


  • Shanghai, China
    Thursday Aug 12, 1937

    The Battle of Shanghai

    Shanghai, China
    Thursday Aug 12, 1937

    On August 13, 1937, Kuomintang soldiers and warplanes attacked Japanese Marine positions in Shanghai, leading to the Battle of Shanghai.


  • Shanghai, China
    Thursday Aug 12, 1937

    Accidentally bombed The Shanghai International Settlement

    Shanghai, China
    Thursday Aug 12, 1937

    On August 14, Kuomintang planes accidentally bombed the Shanghai International Settlement, which led to more than 3,000 civilian deaths. In the three days from August 14 through 16, 1937, the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) sent many sorties of the then-advanced long-ranged G3M medium-heavy land-based bombers and assorted carrier-based aircraft with the expectation of destroying the Chinese Air Force. However, the Imperial Japanese Navy encountered unexpected resistance from the defending Chinese Hawk III and P-26/281 Peashooter fighter squadrons.


  • Nanjing, Jiangsu, China
    Saturday Aug 21, 1937

    The Sino-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact

    Nanjing, Jiangsu, China
    Saturday Aug 21, 1937

    In September 1937, the Soviet Union and China signed the Sino-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact and approved Operation Zet, the formation of a secret Soviet volunteer air force, in which Soviet technicians upgraded and ran some of China's transportation systems.


  • northern Shanghai, Shanghai, China
    Monday Aug 23, 1937

    Japanese Army Reinforcements

    northern Shanghai, Shanghai, China
    Monday Aug 23, 1937

    On August 23, Japanese Army reinforcements succeeded in landing in northern Shanghai. The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) ultimately committed over 200,000 troops, along with numerous naval vessels and aircraft, to capture the city. After more than three months of intense fighting, their casualties far exceeded initial expectations.


  • Dachang, Shanghai, China
    Tuesday Oct 26, 1937

    Capturing Dachang

    Dachang, Shanghai, China
    Tuesday Oct 26, 1937

    On October 26, the Japanese Army captured Dachang, an important strong-point within Shanghai.


  • Shanghai, China
    Tuesday Nov 09, 1937

    The NRA began a general retreat

    Shanghai, China
    Tuesday Nov 09, 1937

    On November 5, additional reinforcements of Japan landed from Hangzhou Bay. Finally, on November 9, the NRA began a general retreat.


  • Nanjing, Jiangsu, China
    Wednesday Dec 01, 1937

    The Battle of Nanjing

    Nanjing, Jiangsu, China
    Wednesday Dec 01, 1937

    Building on the hard-won victory in Shanghai, the IJA captured the KMT capital city of Nanjing (December 1937) and Northern Shanxi (September–November 1937). These campaigns involved approximately 350,000 Japanese soldiers, and considerably more Chinese.


  • Nanjing, Jiangsu, China
    Monday Dec 13, 1937

    Nanjing Massacre

    Nanjing, Jiangsu, China
    Monday Dec 13, 1937

    Historians estimate that between December 13, 1937, and late January 1938, Japanese forces killed an estimated 200,000 to 300,000 Chinese (mostly civilians) in the "Nanjing Massacre" (also known as the "Rape of Nanjing"), after its fall but the numbers are uncertain and possibly inflated coupled with the fact that the government of the People's Republic of China has never undertaken a full accounting of the Massacre.


  • Chongqing, China
    Friday Feb 18, 1938

    Japanese raiders hit Chongqing

    Chongqing, China
    Friday Feb 18, 1938

    With Japanese casualties and costs mounting, the Imperial General Headquarters attempted to break Chinese resistance by ordering the air branches of their navy and army to launch the war's first massive air raids on civilian targets. Japanese raiders hit the Kuomintang's newly established provisional capital of Chongqing and most other major cities in unoccupied China, leaving millions dead, injured, and homeless.


  • Jiangsu, China
    Thursday Mar 24, 1938

    The Battle of Tai'erzhuang

    Jiangsu, China
    Thursday Mar 24, 1938

    With many victories achieved, Japanese field generals escalated the war in Jiangsu in an attempt to wipe out Chinese resistance, but were defeated at the Battle of Taierzhuang (March–April 1938).


  • Wuhan, Hubei, China
    Thursday Oct 27, 1938

    The Japanese captured Wuhan

    Wuhan, Hubei, China
    Thursday Oct 27, 1938

    The Japanese captured Wuhan on October 27, 1938, forcing the KMT to retreat to Chongqing (Chungking), but Chiang Kai-shek still refused to negotiate, saying he would only consider talks if Japan agreed to withdraw to the pre-1937 borders.


  • Zaoyang, Xiangyang, Hubei, China
    Thursday Apr 20, 1939

    The Battle of Suixian–Zaoyang

    Zaoyang, Xiangyang, Hubei, China
    Thursday Apr 20, 1939

    From the beginning of 1939, the war entered a new phase with the unprecedented defeat of the Japanese at Battle of Suixian–Zaoyang, then 1st Battle of Changsha, Battle of South Guangxi and Battle of Zaoyi.


  • China
    1940

    China's first Large-Scale Counter-offensive

    China
    1940

    These outcomes encouraged the Chinese to launch their first large-scale counter-offensive against the IJA in early 1940; however, due to its low military-industrial capacity and limited experience in modern warfare, this offensive was defeated.


  • China
    Jan, 1941

    the New Fourth Army Incident

    China
    Jan, 1941

    The uneasy alliance began to break down by late 1938. Starting in 1940, open conflict between Nationalists and Communists became more frequent in the occupied areas outside of Japanese control, culminating in the New Fourth Army Incident in January 1941.


  • China
    Feb, 1941

    The Sino-British agreement

    China
    Feb, 1941

    In February 1941 a Sino-British agreement was forged whereby British troops would assist the Chinese "Surprise Troops" units of guerrillas already operating in China, and China would assist Britain in Burma.


  • Moscow, Russia
    Sunday Apr 13, 1941

    The Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact

    Moscow, Russia
    Sunday Apr 13, 1941

    In April 1941, Soviet aid ended with the Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact and the beginning of the Great Patriotic War. This pact enabled the Soviet Union to avoid fighting against Germany and Japan at the same time.And in August 1945, the Soviet Union annulled the neutrality pact with Japan.


  • Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, U.S.
    Sunday Dec 07, 1941

    The Consequences of The attack on Pearl Harbor

    Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, U.S.
    Sunday Dec 07, 1941

    Following the attack on Pearl Harbor, the United States declared war against Japan, and within days China joined the Allies in formal declaration of war against Japan, Germany and Italy.


  • Changsha, Hunan, China
    Wednesday Dec 24, 1941

    Battle of Changsha

    Changsha, Hunan, China
    Wednesday Dec 24, 1941

    As the Western Allies entered the war against Japan, the Sino-Japanese War would become part of a greater conflict, the Pacific theatre of World War II. Almost immediately, Chinese troops achieved another decisive victory in the Battle of Changsha, which earned the Chinese government much prestige from the Western Allies.


  • China
    Feb, 1942

    Mission 204

    China
    Feb, 1942

    A British-Australian commando operation, Mission 204, was initialized in February 1942 to provide training to Chinese guerilla troops. The mission conducted two operations, mostly in the provinces of Yunnan and Jiangxi. The first phase achieved very little but a second more successful phase was conducted before the withdrawal.


  • Yenangyaung, Burma
    Wednesday Apr 15, 1942

    The Battle of Yenangyaung

    Yenangyaung, Burma
    Wednesday Apr 15, 1942

    In Burma, on April 16, 1942, 7,000 British soldiers were encircled by the Japanese 33rd Division during the Battle of Yenangyaung and rescued by the Chinese 38th Division.


  • Zhejiang, China - Jiangxi, China
    Friday May 15, 1942

    The Zhejiang-Jiangxi campaign

    Zhejiang, China - Jiangxi, China
    Friday May 15, 1942

    After the Doolittle Raid, the Imperial Japanese Army conducted a massive sweep through Zhejiang and Jiangxi of China, now known as the Zhejiang-Jiangxi Campaign, with the goal of finding the surviving American airmen, applying retribution on the Chinese who aided them and destroying air bases. The operation started May 15, 1942, with 40 infantry battalions and 15–16 artillery battalions but was repelled by Chinese forces in September.


  • Burma
    Sep, 1943

    Chinese forces invaded northern Burma

    Burma
    Sep, 1943

    Chinese forces invaded northern Burma in late 1943 besieged Japanese troops in Myitkyina and captured Mount Song.


  • Henan, China - Hunan, China - Guangxi, China
    Wednesday Apr 19, 1944

    Operation Ichi-Go

    Henan, China - Hunan, China - Guangxi, China
    Wednesday Apr 19, 1944

    In 1944, with the Japanese position in the Pacific deteriorating rapidly, the IJA mobilized over 500,000 men and launched Operation Ichi-Go, their largest offensive of World War II, to attack the American airbases in China and link up the railway between Manchuria and Vietnam. This brought major cities in Hunan, Henan and Guangxi under Japanese occupation.


  • Zhijiang, Huaihua, Hunan, China
    Friday Apr 06, 1945

    Battle of West Hunan

    Zhijiang, Huaihua, Hunan, China
    Friday Apr 06, 1945

    In Spring 1945 the Chinese launched offensives that retook Hunan and Guangxi.


  • Hiroshima, Japan
    Monday Aug 06, 1945

    Atomic bombings of Hiroshima

    Hiroshima, Japan
    Monday Aug 06, 1945

    The United States and the Soviet Union put an end to the war by attacking the Japanese with a new weapon (on the United States' part) On August 6, 1945, an American B-29 bomber, the Enola Gay, dropped the first atomic bomb used in combat on Hiroshima, killing tens of thousands and leveling the city.


  • Nagasaki, Japan
    Wednesday Aug 08, 1945

    Atomic bombings of Nagasaki

    Nagasaki, Japan
    Wednesday Aug 08, 1945

    A Second equally destructive atomic bomb was dropped by the United States on Nagasaki.


  • Manchuria, China
    Thursday Aug 09, 1945

    The Soviet Union renounced its non-aggression Pact With Japan

    Manchuria, China
    Thursday Aug 09, 1945

    On August 9, 1945, the Soviet Union renounced its non-aggression pact with Japan and attacked the Japanese in Manchuria.


  • Japan
    Wednesday Aug 15, 1945

    Japanese Emperor Hirohito capitulated to the Allies

    Japan
    Wednesday Aug 15, 1945

    In less than two weeks the Kwantung Army, which was the primary Japanese fighting force,consisting of over a million men but lacking in adequate armor, artillery, or air support, had been destroyed by the Soviets. Japanese Emperor Hirohito officially capitulated to the Allies on August 15, 1945.


  • USS Missouri, Japan
    Sunday Sep 02, 1945

    Signing The official Surrender

    USS Missouri, Japan
    Sunday Sep 02, 1945

    The official surrender was signed aboard the battleship USS Missouri on September 2, 1945, in a ceremony where several Allied commanders including Chinese general Hsu Yung-chang were present.


  • China
    Sunday Sep 09, 1945

    General Douglas MacArthur ordered all Japanese forces within China to surrender to Chiang Kai-shek

    China
    Sunday Sep 09, 1945

    After the Allied victory in the Pacific, General Douglas MacArthur ordered all Japanese forces within China (excluding Manchuria), Formosa and French Indochina north of 16° north latitude to surrender to Chiang Kai-shek, and the Japanese troops in China formally surrendered on September 9, 1945, at 9:00.


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