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  • Oxford, England, United Kingdom
    Monday Nov 30, 1874

    Birth

    Oxford, England, United Kingdom
    Monday Nov 30, 1874

    Churchill was born on 30 November 1874 at his family's ancestral home, Blenheim Palace in Oxfordshire. As direct descendants of the Dukes of Marlborough, his family were among the highest levels of the British aristocracy. His father, Lord Randolph Churchill, had been elected Conservative MP for Woodstock in 1873. His mother, Jennie, was daughter of Leonard Jerome, a wealthy American businessman.




  • Dublin, Ireland
    1876

    John Spencer-Churchill was appointed Viceroy of Ireland

    Dublin, Ireland
    1876

    In 1876, Churchill's paternal grandfather, John Spencer-Churchill, was appointed Viceroy of Ireland, then part of the United Kingdom. Randolph became his private secretary and the family relocated to Dublin.




  • Dublin, Ireland (then in United Kingdom)
    1880

    Winston's brother was born

    Dublin, Ireland (then in United Kingdom)
    1880

    Winston's brother, Jack, was born there in 1880.




  • United Kingdom
    1880s

    Randolph and Jennie were effectively estranged

    United Kingdom
    1880s

    Throughout much of the 1880s, Randolph and Jennie were effectively estranged, and the brothers were mostly cared for by their nanny, Elizabeth Everest. Churchill later wrote that "she had been my dearest and most intimate friend during the whole of the twenty years I had lived".




  • England, United Kingdom
    1884

    Churchill transferred to Brunswick School

    England, United Kingdom
    1884

    Churchill began boarding at St. George's School in Ascot, Berkshire, at age seven but was not academic and his behavior was poor. In 1884 Churchill transferred to Brunswick School in Hove, where his academic performance improved.




  • London, England, United Kingdom
    Apr, 1888

    Churchill narrowly passed the entrance exam for Harrow School

    London, England, United Kingdom
    Apr, 1888

    In April 1888, aged 13, Churchill narrowly passed the entrance exam for Harrow School. His father wanted him to prepare for a military career and so his last three years at Harrow were in the army form. After two unsuccessful attempts to gain admittance to the Royal Military Academy, Sandhurst, he succeeded on his third.




  • England, United Kingdom
    Sep, 1893

    Churchill was accepted as a cadet in the cavalry

    England, United Kingdom
    Sep, 1893

    His father wanted him to prepare for a military career and so his last three years at Harrow were in the army form. After two unsuccessful attempts to gain admittance to the Royal Military Academy, Sandhurst, he succeeded on his third. Churchill was accepted as a cadet in the cavalry, starting in September 1893.


  • London, England, United Kingdom
    Thursday Jan 24, 1895

    Lord Randolph Churchill died

    London, England, United Kingdom
    Thursday Jan 24, 1895

    His father died in January 1895, soon after Churchill finished at Sandhurst.


  • England, United Kingdom
    Feb, 1895

    Churchill was commissioned as a second lieutenant

    England, United Kingdom
    Feb, 1895

    In February 1895, Churchill was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the 4th Queen's Own Hussars regiment of the British Army, based at Aldershot. Eager to witness military action, he used his mother's influence to get himself posted to a war zone.


  • Cuba
    1895

    Churchill and his friend Reggie Barnes went to Cuba

    Cuba
    1895

    In the autumn of 1895, Churchill and his friend Reggie Barnes, then a subaltern, went to Cuba to observe the war of independence and became involved in skirmishes after joining Spanish troops attempting to suppress independence fighters.


  • Mumbai, India
    Oct, 1896

    Churchill went to Bombay

    Mumbai, India
    Oct, 1896

    Churchill proceeded to New York City and, in admiration of the United States, wrote to his mother about "what an extraordinary people the Americans are!" With the Hussars, he went to Bombay in October 1896. Based in Bangalore, he was in India for 19 months, visiting Calcutta three times and joining expeditions to Hyderabad and the Northwest Frontier.


  • Present-day Malakand, Pakistan
    Jul, 1897

    Churchill volunteered to join Bindon Blood's Malakand Field Force

    Present-day Malakand, Pakistan
    Jul, 1897

    Churchill volunteered to join Bindon Blood's Malakand Field Force in its campaign against Mohmand rebels in the Swat Valley of north-west India. Blood accepted him on condition that he was assigned as a journalist, the beginning of Churchill's writing career.


  • Present-day Bangalore, India
    Oct, 1897

    First Book "The Story of the Malakand Field Force"

    Present-day Bangalore, India
    Oct, 1897

    Churchill returned to Bangalore in October 1897 and there wrote his first book, The Story of the Malakand Field Force, which received positive reviews. He also wrote his only work of fiction, Savrola, a Ruritanian romance. To keep himself fully occupied, Churchill embraced writing as what Roy Jenkins calls his "whole habit", especially through his political career when he was out of office. It was his main safeguard against recurring depression, which he termed his "black dog".


  • Sudan
    1898

    Churchill got himself attached to General Kitchener's campaign

    Sudan
    1898

    Using his contacts in London, Churchill got himself attached to General Kitchener's campaign in Sudan as a 21st Lancers subaltern while, additionally, working as a journalist for The Morning Post.


  • Omdurman, Sudan
    Friday Sep 2, 1898

    21st Lancers were stood down

    Omdurman, Sudan
    Friday Sep 2, 1898

    After fighting in the Battle of Omdurman on 2 September 1898, the 21st Lancers were stood down.


  • India
    Friday Dec 2, 1898

    Churchill embarked for India to settle his military business and complete his resignation

    India
    Friday Dec 2, 1898

    On 2 December 1898, Churchill embarked for India to settle his military business and complete his resignation from the 4th Hussars. He spent a lot of his time there playing polo, the only ball sport in which he was ever interested.


  • Present-day Mumbai, India
    1898

    Beliefs

    Present-day Mumbai, India
    1898

    In one 1898 letter to his mother, Churchill referred to his religious beliefs, saying: "I do not accept the Christian or any other form of religious belief". Churchill had been christened in the Church of England but, as he related later, he underwent a virulently anti-Christian phase in his youth, and as an adult was an agnostic. In another letter to one of his cousins, he referred to religion as "a delicious narcotic" and expressed a preference for Protestantism over Roman Catholicism because he felt it "a step nearer Reason".


  • Mumbai, India
    Monday Mar 20, 1899

    Churchill sailed from Bombay

    Mumbai, India
    Monday Mar 20, 1899

    Having left the Hussars, Churchill sailed from Bombay on 20 March 1899, determined to launch a career in politics.


  • Oldham, Lancashire, England, United Kingdom
    Jun, 1899

    Churchill spoke at Conservative meetings

    Oldham, Lancashire, England, United Kingdom
    Jun, 1899

    Seeking a parliamentary career, Churchill spoke at Conservative meetings and was selected as one of the party's two parliamentary candidates for the June 1899 by-election in Oldham, Lancashire.


  • United Kingdom
    Jul, 1899

    Churchill returned to Britain

    United Kingdom
    Jul, 1899

    In July, having resigned his lieutenancy, Churchill returned to Britain. His Morning Post despatches had been published as London to Ladysmith via Pretoria and had sold well.


  • South Africa
    1899

    Churchill sailed to South Africa

    South Africa
    1899

    Anticipating the outbreak of the Second Boer War between Britain and the Boer Republics, Churchill sailed to South Africa as a journalist for the Morning Post under the editorship of James Nicol Dunn.


  • Ladysmith, South Africa
    Oct, 1899

    Churchill traveled to the conflict zone

    Ladysmith, South Africa
    Oct, 1899

    In October, Churchill traveled to the conflict zone near Ladysmith, then besieged by Boer troops, before heading for Colenso.


  • England, United Kingdom
    Nov, 1899

    The River War

    England, United Kingdom
    Nov, 1899

    In October, Churchill returned to England and began writing The River War, an account of the campaign which was published in November 1899; it was at this time that he decided to leave the army. He was critical of Kitchener's actions during the war, particularly the latter's unmerciful treatment of the enemy wounded and his desecration of Muhammad Ahmad's tomb in Omdurman.


  • Pretoria, South Africa
    Dec, 1899

    Churchill escaped from the prison

    Pretoria, South Africa
    Dec, 1899

    After his train was derailed by Boer artillery shelling, he was captured as a prisoner of war (POW) and interned in a Boer POW camp in Pretoria. In December, Churchill escaped from the prison and evaded his captors by stowing away aboard freight trains and hiding in a mine. He eventually made it to safety in Portuguese East Africa. His escape attracted much publicity.


  • South Africa
    Jan, 1900

    Churchill briefly rejoined the army as a lieutenant in the South African Light Horse regiment

    South Africa
    Jan, 1900

    In January 1900, Churchill briefly rejoined the army as a lieutenant in the South African Light Horse regiment, joining Redvers Buller's fight to relieve the Siege of Ladysmith and take Pretoria. He was among the first British troops in both places. He and his cousin, the 9th Duke of Marlborough, demanded and received the surrender of 52 Boer prison camp guards. Throughout the war, he had publicly chastised anti-Boer prejudices, calling for them to be treated with "generosity and tolerance", and after the war, he urged the British to be magnanimous in victory.


  • London, England, United Kingdom
    1900

    Churchill rented a flat in London's Mayfair

    London, England, United Kingdom
    1900

    Churchill rented a flat in London's Mayfair, using it as his base for the next six years.


  • Oldham, England, United Kingdom
    Oct, 1900

    Churchill stood again as one of the Conservative candidates

    Oldham, England, United Kingdom
    Oct, 1900

    Churchill stood again as one of the Conservative candidates at Oldham in the October 1900 general election, securing a narrow victory to become a Member of Parliament (MP) at age 25.


  • England, United Kingdom
    Oct, 1900

    Churchill published Ian Hamilton's March

    England, United Kingdom
    Oct, 1900

    In the same month, Churchill published Ian Hamilton's March, a book about his South African experiences, which became the focus of a lecture tour in November through Britain, America, and Canada. MPs were unpaid and the tour was a financial necessity. In America, Churchill met Mark Twain, President McKinley, and Vice President Theodore Roosevelt; he did not get on well with Roosevelt. Later, in spring 1901, he gave more lectures in Paris, Madrid, and Gibraltar.


  • London, England, United Kingdm
    Feb, 1901

    Churchill took his seat in the House of Commons

    London, England, United Kingdm
    Feb, 1901

    In February 1901, Churchill took his seat in the House of Commons, where his maiden speech gained widespread press coverage.


  • London, England, United Kingdom
    1903

    Real division between Churchill and the Conservatives

    London, England, United Kingdom
    1903

    By 1903, there was a real division between Churchill and the Conservatives, largely because he opposed their promotion of economic protectionism, but also because he sensed that the animosity of many party members would prevent him from gaining a Cabinet position under a Conservative government.


  • London, England, United Kingdom
    Oct, 1903

    Balfour's government announced protectionist legislation

    London, England, United Kingdom
    Oct, 1903

    Balfour's government announced protectionist legislation in October 1903.


  • England, United Kingdom
    Dec, 1903

    Oldham Conservative Association informed him that it would not support his candidature at the next general election

    England, United Kingdom
    Dec, 1903

    Two months later, incensed by Churchill's criticism of the government, the Oldham Conservative Association informed him that it would not support his candidature at the next general election.


  • England, United Kingdom
    1904

    Churchill defected from the Conservatives

    England, United Kingdom
    1904

    Churchill defected from the Conservatives, while The Liberal Party was then attracting growing support.


  • England, United Kingdom
    May, 1904

    Churchill opposed the government's proposed Aliens Bill

    England, United Kingdom
    May, 1904

    In May 1904, Churchill opposed the government's proposed Aliens Bill, designed to curb Jewish migration into Britain. He stated that the bill would "appeal to insular prejudice against foreigners, to racial prejudice against Jews, and to labor prejudice against competition" and expressed himself in favor of "the old tolerant and generous practice of free entry and asylum to which this country has so long adhered and from which it has so greatly gained".


  • London, England, United Kingdom
    Tuesday May 31, 1904

    Churchill crossed the floor

    London, England, United Kingdom
    Tuesday May 31, 1904

    On 31 May 1904, Churchill crossed the floor, defecting from the Conservatives to sit as a member of the Liberal Party in the House of Commons.


  • London, England, United Kingdom
    Monday Dec 4, 1905

    Balfour resigned as Prime Minister and King Edward VII

    London, England, United Kingdom
    Monday Dec 4, 1905

    In December 1905, Balfour resigned as Prime Minister and King Edward VII invited the Liberal leader Henry Campbell-Bannerman to take his place.


  • United Kingdom
    Jan, 1906

    Liberals won general election in January 1906

    United Kingdom
    Jan, 1906

    Hoping to secure a working majority in the House of Commons, Campbell-Bannerman called a general election in January 1906, which the Liberals won. Churchill won the Manchester North West seat.


  • England, United Kingdom
    1900s

    Churchill became Under-Secretary of State for the Colonial Office

    England, United Kingdom
    1900s

    In the new government, Churchill became Under-Secretary of State for the Colonial Office, a junior ministerial position that he had requested. He worked beneath the Secretary of State for the Colonies, Victor Bruce, 9th Earl of Elgin, and took Edward Marsh as his secretary; Marsh remained Churchill's secretary for 25 years.


  • London, England, United Kingdom
    Wednesday Apr 8, 1908

    Churchill was appointed President of the Board of Trade

    London, England, United Kingdom
    Wednesday Apr 8, 1908

    Asquith succeeded Campbell-Bannerman on 8 April 1908 and, four days later, Churchill was appointed President of the Board of Trade. Aged 33, he was the youngest Cabinet member since 1866.


  • England, United Kingdom
    Friday Apr 24, 1908

    Churchill lost the Manchester North West

    England, United Kingdom
    Friday Apr 24, 1908

    Newly appointed Cabinet ministers were legally obliged to seek re-election at a by-election and on 24 April, Churchill lost the Manchester North West by-election to the Conservative candidate by 429 votes.


  • London, England, United Kingdom
    Sep, 1908

    Churchill and Clementine Hozier married

    London, England, United Kingdom
    Sep, 1908

    In private life, Churchill proposed marriage to Clementine Hozier; they were married in September at St Margaret's, Westminster and honeymooned in Baveno, Venice, and Veverí Castle in Moravia. They lived at 33 Eccleston Square, London, and their first daughter, Diana, was born in July 1909.


  • England, United Kingdom
    1900s

    Churchill's first tasks as a minister

    England, United Kingdom
    1900s

    One of Churchill's first tasks as a minister was to arbitrate in an industrial dispute among ship-workers and employers on the River Tyne. He afterward established a Standing Court of Arbitration to deal with future industrial disputes, establishing a reputation as a conciliator. In Cabinet, he worked with David Lloyd George to champion social reform. He promoted what he called a "network of State intervention and regulation" akin to that in Germany.


  • England, United kingdom
    Thursday Apr 29, 1909

    People's Budget

    England, United kingdom
    Thursday Apr 29, 1909

    To ensure funding for their reforms, Lloyd George and Churchill denounced Reginald McKenna's policy of naval expansion, refusing to believe that war with Germany was inevitable. As Chancellor of the Exchequer, Lloyd George presented his "People's Budget" on 29 April 1909, calling it a war budget to eliminate poverty. He proposed unprecedented taxes on the rich to fund the Liberal welfare programs. The budget was vetoed by the Conservative peers who dominated the House of Lords. His social reforms under threat, Churchill warned that upper-class obstruction could anger working-class Britons and lead to class war.


  • Dundee, United Kingdom
    Wednesday Jun 9, 1909

    Liberals stood him in the safe seat of Dundee

    Dundee, United Kingdom
    Wednesday Jun 9, 1909

    On 9 May, the Liberals stood him in the safe seat of Dundee, where he won comfortably.


  • London, England, United Kingdom
    Sunday Jul 11, 1909

    First child

    London, England, United Kingdom
    Sunday Jul 11, 1909

    The first daughter, Diana, was born in July 1909.


  • United Kingdom
    Jan, 1910

    The government called the January 1910 general election

    United Kingdom
    Jan, 1910

    The government called the January 1910 general election, which resulted in a narrow Liberal victory; Churchill retained his seat at Dundee. After the election, he proposed the abolition of the House of Lords in a cabinet memorandum, suggesting that it be replaced either by a unicameral system or by a new, smaller second chamber that lacked an in-built advantage for the Conservatives.


  • London, England, United Kingdom
    Feb, 1910

    Churchill was promoted to Home Secretary

    London, England, United Kingdom
    Feb, 1910

    In February 1910, Churchill was promoted to Home Secretary, giving him control over the police and prison services, and he implemented a prison reform program. Measures included a distinction between criminal and political prisoners, with prison rules for the latter being relaxed.


  • United Kingdom
    Apr, 1910

    Lords relented and the People's Budget passed into law

    United Kingdom
    Apr, 1910

    In April, the Lords relented and the People's Budget passed into law.


  • Rhondda, Wales, United Kingdom
    Aug, 1910

    Churchill had to deal with the Tonypandy Riot

    Rhondda, Wales, United Kingdom
    Aug, 1910

    In the summer of 1910, Churchill had to deal with the Tonypandy Riot, in which coal miners in the Rhondda Valley violently protested against their working conditions. The Chief Constable of Glamorgan requested troops to help police quell the rioting. Churchill, learning that the troops were already traveling, allowed them to go as far as Swindon and Cardiff, but blocked their deployment; he was concerned that the use of troops could lead to bloodshed. Instead, he sent 270 London police, who were not equipped with firearms, to assist their Welsh counterparts.


  • England, United Kingdom
    Nov, 1910

    Hugh Franklin attacked Churchill with a whip

    England, United Kingdom
    Nov, 1910

    In November 1910, the suffragist Hugh Franklin attacked Churchill with a whip; Franklin was arrested and imprisoned for six weeks.


  • Dundee, Scotland, United Kingdom
    Dec, 1910

    Liberals were re-elected with Churchill secure in Dundee

    Dundee, Scotland, United Kingdom
    Dec, 1910

    Asquith called a general election in December 1910 and the Liberals were re-elected with Churchill secure in Dundee.


  • London, England, United Kingdom
    Jan, 1911

    Siege of Sidney Street

    London, England, United Kingdom
    Jan, 1911

    In January 1911, Churchill became involved in the Siege of Sidney Street; three Latvian burglars had killed several police officers and hidden in a house in London's East End, which was surrounded by police.


  • London, England, United Kingdom
    Mar, 1911

    Churchill introduced the second reading of the Coal Mines Bill in parliament

    London, England, United Kingdom
    Mar, 1911

    In March 1911, Churchill introduced the second reading of the Coal Mines Bill in parliament. When implemented, it imposed stricter safety standards at coal mines.


  • England, United Kingdom
    Apr, 1911

    Lloyd George introduced the National Insurance Act 1911

    England, United Kingdom
    Apr, 1911

    In April, Lloyd George introduced the first health and unemployment insurance legislation, the National Insurance Act 1911; Churchill had been instrumental in drafting it.


  • Morocco
    Apr, 1911

    Churchill suggested an alliance with France and Russia

    Morocco
    Apr, 1911

    During the Agadir Crisis of April 1911, when there was a threat of war between France and Germany, Churchill suggested an alliance with France and Russia to safeguard the independence of Belgium, Denmark, and the Netherlands to counter possible German expansionism.


  • London, England, United Kingdom
    Sunday May 28, 1911

    Second child

    London, England, United Kingdom
    Sunday May 28, 1911

    In May, Clementine gave birth to their second child, Randolph, named after Churchill's father.


  • Liverpool, England, United Kingdom
    1911

    Churchill sent troops into Liverpool to quell protesting dockers

    Liverpool, England, United Kingdom
    1911

    In response to escalating civil strife in 1911, Churchill sent troops into Liverpool to quell protesting dockers and rallying against a national railway strike.


  • London, England, United Kingdom
    Oct, 1911

    Asquith appointed Churchill First Lord of the Admiralty

    London, England, United Kingdom
    Oct, 1911

    In October 1911, Asquith appointed Churchill First Lord of the Admiralty, and he took up official residence at Admiralty House.


  • England, United Kingdom
    1912

    Asquith's government introduced the Home Rule Bill

    England, United Kingdom
    1912

    The central issue in Britain at the time was Irish Home Rule and, in 1912, Asquith's government introduced the Home Rule Bill.


  • London, England, United Kingdom
    Dec, 1913

    Churchill threatened to resign as First Lord of the Admiralty

    London, England, United Kingdom
    Dec, 1913

    Churchill pushed for higher pay and greater recreational facilities for naval staff, an increase in the building of submarines, and a renewed focus on the Royal Naval Air Service, encouraging them to experiment with how aircraft could be used for military purposes. He coined the term "seaplane" and ordered 100 to be constructed. Some Liberals objected to his levels of naval expenditure; in December 1913 he threatened to resign if his proposal for four new battleships in 1914–15 was rejected.


  • London, England, United Kingdom
    Jun, 1914

    Churchill convinced the House of Commons to authorize the government purchase of a 51 percent share in the profits of oil produced by the Anglo-Persian Oil Company

    London, England, United Kingdom
    Jun, 1914

    In June 1914, he convinced the House of Commons to authorize the government purchase of a 51 percent share in the profits of oil produced by the Anglo-Persian Oil Company, to secure continued oil access for the Royal Navy.


  • London, England, United Kingdom
    Aug, 1914

    Churchill was tasked with overseeing Britain's naval effort when the First World War began

    London, England, United Kingdom
    Aug, 1914

    As First Lord, Churchill was tasked with overseeing Britain's naval effort when the First World War began in August 1914.


  • London, England, United Kingdom
    Sep, 1914

    Churchill assumed full responsibility for Britain's aerial defense

    London, England, United Kingdom
    Sep, 1914

    In September, Churchill assumed full responsibility for Britain's aerial defense.


  • Antwerp, Belgium
    Oct, 1914

    Churchill visited Antwerp to observe Belgian defenses against the besieging Germans

    Antwerp, Belgium
    Oct, 1914

    In October, Churchill visited Antwerp to observe Belgian defenses against the besieging Germans and promised British reinforcements for the city. Soon afterwards, however, Antwerp fell to the Germans and Churchill was criticized in the press. He maintained that his actions had prolonged resistance and enabled the Allies to secure Calais and Dunkirk.


  • London, England, United Kingdom
    Wednesday Oct 7, 1914

    Third child

    London, England, United Kingdom
    Wednesday Oct 7, 1914

    On 7 October, Clementine gave birth to their third child, Sarah.


  • London, England, United Kingdom
    Nov, 1914

    Asquith called a War Council

    London, England, United Kingdom
    Nov, 1914

    In November, Asquith called a War Council, consisting of himself, Lloyd George, Edward Grey, Kitchener, and Churchill. Churchill put forward some proposals including the development of the tank and offered to finance its creation with Admiralty funds.


  • Dardanelles, Turkey
    Mar, 1915

    Anglo-French task force attempted a naval bombardment of Turkish defenses in the Dardanelles

    Dardanelles, Turkey
    Mar, 1915

    Churchill was interested in the Middle Eastern theatre and wanted to relieve Turkish pressure on the Russians in the Caucasus by staging attacks against Turkey in the Dardanelles. He hoped that, if successful, the British could even seize Constantinople. Approval was given and, in March 1915, an Anglo-French task force attempted a naval bombardment of Turkish defenses in the Dardanelles.


  • Gallipoli, Ottoman Empire (Present-day in Turkey)
    Apr, 1915

    Mediterranean Expeditionary Force began its assault at Gallipoli

    Gallipoli, Ottoman Empire (Present-day in Turkey)
    Apr, 1915

    In April, the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force, including the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC), began its assault at Gallipoli. Both of these campaigns failed and Churchill was held by many MPs, particularly Conservatives, to be personally responsible.


  • London, England, United Kingdom
    May, 1915

    Asquith agreed under parliamentary pressure to form an all-party coalition government

    London, England, United Kingdom
    May, 1915

    In May, Asquith agreed under parliamentary pressure to form an all-party coalition government, but the Conservatives' one condition of entry was that Churchill must be removed from the Admiralty. Churchill pleaded his case with both Asquith and Conservative leader Bonar Law, but had to accept a demotion and became Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster.


  • British East Africa
    Thursday Nov 25, 1915

    Asquith rejected Churchill's request to be appointed Governor-General of British East Africa

    British East Africa
    Thursday Nov 25, 1915

    On 25 November 1915, Churchill resigned from the government, although he remained an MP. Asquith rejected his request to be appointed Governor-General of British East Africa.


  • England, United Kingdom
    Jan, 1916

    Churchill was promoted to lieutenant-colonel

    England, United Kingdom
    Jan, 1916

    Churchill decided to join the Army and was attached to the 2nd Grenadier Guards, on the Western Front. In January 1916, he was promoted to lieutenant-colonel and given command of the 6th Royal Scots Fusiliers. After a period of training, the battalion was moved to a sector of the Belgian Front near Ploegsteert. For over three months, they faced continual shelling although no German offensive. Churchill narrowly escaped death when, during a visit by his staff officer cousin the 9th Duke of Marlborough, a large piece of shrapnel fell between them.


  • London, England, United Kingdom
    Wednesday Dec 6, 1916

    Asquith resigned as Prime Minister and was succeeded by Lloyd George

    London, England, United Kingdom
    Wednesday Dec 6, 1916

    In December 1916, Asquith resigned as Prime Minister and was succeeded by Lloyd George who, in May 1917, sent Churchill to inspect the French war effort.


  • England, United Kingdom
    Jul, 1917

    Churchill was appointed Minister of Munitions

    England, United Kingdom
    Jul, 1917

    In July, Churchill was appointed Minister of Munitions. He quickly negotiated an end to a strike in munitions factories along the Clyde and increased munitions production.


  • England, United Kingdom
    1918

    Churchill voted in support of the Representation of the People Act 1918

    England, United Kingdom
    1918

    In the House of Commons, Churchill voted in support of the Representation of the People Act 1918, which gave some British women the right to vote.


  • England, United Kingdom
    Nov, 1918

    Fourth child

    England, United Kingdom
    Nov, 1918

    In November 1918, four days after the Armistice of 11 November 1918, Churchill's fourth child, Marigold, was born.


  • London, England, United Kingdom
    Saturday Dec 14, 1918

    Lloyd George called a general election with voting

    London, England, United Kingdom
    Saturday Dec 14, 1918

    With the war over, Lloyd George called a general election with voting on Saturday, 14 December 1918.


  • England, United Kingdom
    Jan, 1919

    Lloyd George moved Churchill to the War Office

    England, United Kingdom
    Jan, 1919

    In January 1919, Lloyd George moved Churchill to the War Office as both Secretary of State for War and Secretary of State for Air.


  • England, United Kingdom
    Feb, 1921

    Churchill became Secretary of State for the Colonies

    England, United Kingdom
    Feb, 1921

    Churchill became Secretary of State for the Colonies in February 1921. The following month, the first exhibit of his paintings was held; it took place in Paris, with Churchill exhibiting under a pseudonym.


  • London, England, United Kingdom
    Wednesday Jun 29, 1921

    Churchill's mother died

    London, England, United Kingdom
    Wednesday Jun 29, 1921

    In June, Churchill's mother died, followed in August by his daughter Marigold.


  • London, England, United Kingdom
    Dec, 1921

    Churchill was involved in negotiations with Sinn Féin leaders

    London, England, United Kingdom
    Dec, 1921

    Churchill was involved in negotiations with Sinn Féin leaders and helped draft the Anglo-Irish Treaty.


  • England, United Kingdom
    Oct, 1922

    Churchill underwent an operation for appendicitis

    England, United Kingdom
    Oct, 1922

    In October 1922, he underwent an operation for appendicitis.


  • United kingdom
    Nov, 1922

    Churchill lost his Dundee seat

    United kingdom
    Nov, 1922

    While Churchill was in the hospital, the Conservatives withdrew from Lloyd George's coalition government, precipitating the November 1922 general election, in which Churchill lost his Dundee seat.


  • Westerham, Kent, England, United Kingdom
    Friday Dec 15, 1922

    Fifth child

    Westerham, Kent, England, United Kingdom
    Friday Dec 15, 1922

    In September 1922, Churchill's fifth and last child, Mary, was born, and in the same month, he purchased Chartwell, in Kent, which became his family home for the rest of his lifetime.


  • Cannes, France
    1923

    Churchill spent much of the next six months at the Villa Rêve d'Or

    Cannes, France
    1923

    Churchill spent much of the next six months at the Villa Rêve d'Or near Cannes, where he devoted himself to painting and writing his memoirs. He wrote an autobiographical history of the war, The World Crisis. The first volume was published in April 1923 and the rest over the next ten years.


  • United kingdom
    Thursday Dec 6, 1923

    1923 United Kingdom general election

    United kingdom
    Thursday Dec 6, 1923

    After the 1923 general election was called, seven Liberal associations asked Churchill to stand as their candidate, and he selected Leicester West, but he did not win the seat. A Labour government led by Ramsay MacDonald took power. Churchill had hoped they would be defeated by a Conservative-Liberal coalition. He strongly opposed the MacDonald government's decision to loan money to Soviet Russia and feared the signing of an Anglo-Soviet Treaty.


  • England, United Kingdom
    Wednesday Mar 19, 1924

    Churchill stood as an independent anti-socialist candidate in the Westminster Abbey by-election

    England, United Kingdom
    Wednesday Mar 19, 1924

    On 19 March 1924, alienated by Liberal support for Labour, Churchill stood as an independent anti-socialist candidate in the Westminster Abbey by-election but was defeated.


  • Liverpool, England, United Kingdom
    May, 1924

    No longer a place for the Liberal Party in British politics

    Liverpool, England, United Kingdom
    May, 1924

    In May, Churchill addressed a Conservative meeting in Liverpool and declared that there was no longer a place for the Liberal Party in British politics. He said that Liberals must back the Conservatives to stop Labour and ensure "the successful defeat of socialism".


  • England, United Kingdom
    Jul, 1924

    Churchill agreed with Conservative leader Stanley Baldwin that he would be selected as a Conservative candidate in the next general election

    England, United Kingdom
    Jul, 1924

    In July, Churchill agreed with Conservative leader Stanley Baldwin that he would be selected as a Conservative candidate in the next general election, which was held on 29 October. Churchill stood at Epping, but he described himself as a "Constitutionalist".


  • London, England, United Kingdom
    Thursday Nov 6, 1924

    Baldwin appointed him as Chancellor of the Exchequer

    London, England, United Kingdom
    Thursday Nov 6, 1924

    The Conservatives were victorious and Baldwin formed the new government. Although Churchill had no background in finance or economics, Baldwin appointed him as Chancellor of the Exchequer.


  • England, United Kingdom
    Apr, 1925

    Churchill controversially albeit reluctantly restored the gold standard in his first budget at its 1914 parity

    England, United Kingdom
    Apr, 1925

    In April 1925, Churchill controversially albeit reluctantly restored the gold standard in his first budget at its 1914 parity against the advice of some leading economists including John Maynard Keynes. The return to gold is held to have caused deflation and resultant unemployment with a devastating impact on the coal industry.


  • United Kingdom
    May, 1926

    General Strike of 1926

    United Kingdom
    May, 1926

    During the General Strike of 1926, Churchill edited the British Gazette, the government's anti-strike propaganda newspaper. After the strike ended, he acted as an intermediary between striking miners and their employers. He later called for the introduction of a legally binding minimum wage.


  • Rome, Italy
    1927

    Churchill met Mussolini

    Rome, Italy
    1927

    In early 1927, Churchill visited Rome where he met Mussolini, whom he praised for his stand against Leninism.


  • England, United Kingdom
    Thursday May 30, 1929

    Churchill retained his Epping seat

    England, United Kingdom
    Thursday May 30, 1929

    In the 1929 general election, Churchill retained his Epping seat but the Conservatives were defeated and MacDonald formed his second Labour government.


  • London, England, United Kingdom
    Oct, 1930

    My Early Life

    London, England, United Kingdom
    Oct, 1930

    In October 1930, after his return from a trip to North America, Churchill published his autobiography, My Early Life, which sold well and was translated into multiple languages.


  • England, United Kingdom
    Jan, 1931

    Churchill resigned from the Conservative Shadow Cabinet

    England, United Kingdom
    Jan, 1931

    In January 1931, Churchill resigned from the Conservative Shadow Cabinet because Baldwin supported the decision of the Labour government to grant Dominion status to India.


  • Epping, England, United Kingdom
    Tuesday Oct 27, 1931

    October 1931 general election was a landslide victory for the Conservatives Churchill nearly doubled his majority in Epping

    Epping, England, United Kingdom
    Tuesday Oct 27, 1931

    The October 1931 general election was a landslide victory for the Conservatives Churchill nearly doubled his majority in Epping, but he was not given a ministerial position.


  • London, England, United Kingdom
    Thursday Dec 3, 1931

    Commons debated Dominion Status for India

    London, England, United Kingdom
    Thursday Dec 3, 1931

    The Commons debated Dominion Status for India on 3 December and Churchill insisted on dividing the House, but this backfired as only 43 MPs supported him. He embarked on a lecture tour of North America, hoping to recoup financial losses sustained in the Wall Street Crash.


  • New York City, New York, U.S.
    Sunday Dec 13, 1931

    Churchill was crossing Fifth Avenue in New York City

    New York City, New York, U.S.
    Sunday Dec 13, 1931

    On 13 December, Churchill was crossing Fifth Avenue in New York City when he was knocked down by a car, suffering a head wound from which he developed neuritis.


  • Munich, Germany
    1932

    Churchill met Ernst Hanfstaengl

    Munich, Germany
    1932

    In Munich, Churchill met Ernst Hanfstaengl, a friend of Hitler, who was then rising in prominence. Talking to Hanfstaengl, Churchill raised concerns about Hitler's anti-Semitism and, probably because of that, missed the opportunity to meet his future enemy. Soon after visiting Blenheim, he was afflicted with paratyphoid fever and spent two weeks at a sanatorium in Salzburg.


  • England, United Kingdom
    Sunday Sep 25, 1932

    Churchill returned to Chartwell

    England, United Kingdom
    Sunday Sep 25, 1932

    Churchill returned to Chartwell on 25 September, still working on Marlborough. Two days later, he collapsed while walking on the grounds after a recurrence of paratyphoid which caused an ulcer to hemorrhage. He was taken to a London nursing home and remained there until late October.


  • London, England, United Kingdom
    Monday Jan 30, 1933

    Obsession

    London, England, United Kingdom
    Monday Jan 30, 1933

    After Hitler came to power on 30 January 1933, Churchill was quick to recognize the menace to the civilization of such a regime and expressed alarm that the British government had reduced air force spending and warned that Germany would soon overtake Britain in air force production.


  • London, England, United kingdom
    Nov, 1934

    Churchill told the people of his concerns

    London, England, United kingdom
    Nov, 1934

    Churchill told the people of his concerns in a radio broadcast in November 1934.


  • London, England, United Kingdom
    Dec, 1934

    India Bill entered Parliament

    London, England, United Kingdom
    Dec, 1934

    In December 1934, the India Bill entered Parliament and was passed in February 1935. Churchill and 83 other Conservative MPs voted against it.


  • London, England, United Kingdom
    Friday Jun 7, 1935

    MacDonald resigned and was replaced as Prime Minister by Baldwin

    London, England, United Kingdom
    Friday Jun 7, 1935

    In June 1935, MacDonald resigned and was replaced as Prime Minister by Baldwin.


  • London, England, United Kingdom
    Monday Jan 20, 1936

    Edward VIII succeeded his father

    London, England, United Kingdom
    Monday Jan 20, 1936

    In January 1936, Edward VIII succeeded his father, George V, as monarch. His desire to marry an American divorcee, Wallis Simpson, caused the abdication crisis. Churchill supported Edward and clashed with Baldwin on the issue.


  • London, England, United Kingdom
    Friday Dec 11, 1936

    Churchill immediately pledged loyalty to George VI

    London, England, United Kingdom
    Friday Dec 11, 1936

    Afterward, although Churchill immediately pledged loyalty to George VI, he wrote that the abdication was "premature and probably quite unnecessary".


  • London, England, United Kingdom
    Friday May 28, 1937

    Baldwin resigned and was succeeded as Prime Minister by Neville Chamberlain

    London, England, United Kingdom
    Friday May 28, 1937

    In May 1937, Baldwin resigned and was succeeded as Prime Minister by Neville Chamberlain.


  • London, England, United Kingdom
    Feb, 1938

    Matters came to a head

    London, England, United Kingdom
    Feb, 1938

    At first, Churchill welcomed Chamberlain's appointment but, in February 1938, matters came to a head after Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden resigned over Chamberlain's appeasement of Mussolini, a policy which Chamberlain was extending towards Hitler.


  • London, England, United Kingdom
    1938

    Churchill warned the government against appeasement and called for collective action to deter German aggression

    London, England, United Kingdom
    1938

    In 1938, Churchill warned the government against appeasement and called for collective action to deter German aggression. In March, the Evening Standard ceased publication of his fortnightly articles, but the Daily Telegraph published them instead.


  • England, United Kingdom
    Sep, 1938

    Four volumes of Marlborough: His Life and Times were published

    England, United Kingdom
    Sep, 1938

    Between October 1933 and September 1938, the four volumes of Marlborough: His Life and Times were published.


  • Munich, Germany
    Friday Sep 30, 1938

    Chamberlain signed up to the Munich Agreement

    Munich, Germany
    Friday Sep 30, 1938

    On 30 September, Chamberlain signed up to the Munich Agreement, agreeing to allow German annexation of the Sudetenland.


  • London, England, United Kingdom
    Wednesday Oct 5, 1938

    Churchill called the Munich Agreement "a total and unmitigated defeat"

    London, England, United Kingdom
    Wednesday Oct 5, 1938

    Speaking in the House of Commons on 5 October, Churchill called the agreement "a total and unmitigated defeat".


  • London, England, United Kingdom
    Sunday Sep 3, 1939

    Winston is back

    London, England, United Kingdom
    Sunday Sep 3, 1939

    On 3 September 1939, the day Britain declared war on Germany, Chamberlain reappointed Churchill as First Lord of the Admiralty and he joined Chamberlain's war cabinet. Churchill later claimed that the Board of the Admiralty sent a signal to the Fleet: "Winston is back".


  • Norwegian waters
    Friday Feb 16, 1940

    Churchill personally ordered Captain Philip Vian of the destroyer HMS Cossack to board the German supply ship Altmark in Norwegian waters

    Norwegian waters
    Friday Feb 16, 1940

    On 16 February 1940, Churchill personally ordered Captain Philip Vian of the destroyer HMS Cossack to board the German supply ship Altmark in Norwegian waters and liberate some 300 British prisoners who had been captured by the Admiral Graf Spee. These actions, supplemented by his speeches, considerably enhanced Churchill's reputation.


  • Norway
    Saturday Apr 6, 1940

    Operation Wilfred

    Norway
    Saturday Apr 6, 1940

    Churchill was concerned about German naval activity in the Baltic Sea and initially wanted to send a naval force there but this was soon changed to a plan, codenamed Operation Wilfred, to mine Norwegian waters and stop iron ore shipments from Narvik to Germany. There were disagreements about mining, both in the war cabinet and with the French government. As a result, Wilfred was delayed until 8 April 1940, the day before the German invasion of Norway was launched.


  • London, England, United Kingdom
    Tuesday May 7, 1940

    Norway Debate

    London, England, United Kingdom
    Tuesday May 7, 1940

    After the Allies failed to prevent the German occupation of Norway, the Commons held an open debate from 7 to 9 May on the government's conduct of the war. This has come to be known as the Norway Debate and is renowned as one of the most significant events in parliamentary history.


  • London, England, United Kingdom
    Thursday May 9, 1940

    Churchill had won the doubters over and his successor as party leader was a formality

    London, England, United Kingdom
    Thursday May 9, 1940

    In May, Churchill was still generally unpopular with many Conservatives and probably most of the Labour Party. Chamberlain remained Conservative Party leader until October when ill health forced his resignation. By that time, Churchill had won the doubters over and his successor as party leader was a formality.


  • London, England, United Kingdom
    Monday May 13, 1940

    "blood, toil, tears and sweat" speech

    London, England, United Kingdom
    Monday May 13, 1940

    His first speech as Prime Minister delivered to the Commons on 13 May was the "blood, toil, tears and sweat" speech. It was little more than a short statement but, Jenkins says, "it included phrases which have reverberated down the decades". Churchill made it plain to the nation that a long, hard road lay ahead and that victory was the final goal: I would say to the House... that I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears, and sweat. We have before us an ordeal of the most grievous kind. You ask, what is our policy? I will say: it is to wage war, by sea, land, and air, with all our might and with all the strength that God can give us; to wage war against a monstrous tyranny, never surpassed in the dark, lamentable catalog of human crime. That is our policy. You ask, what is our aim? I can answer in one word: it is victory, victory at all costs, victory in spite of all terror, victory, however long and hard the road may be; for without victory, there is no survival.


  • Dunkirk, France