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  • Manatuto, Timor-Leste
    Thursday Jun 20, 1946

    Birth

    Manatuto, Timor-Leste
    Thursday Jun 20, 1946

    Gusmão was born in Manatuto, in what was then Portuguese Timor, to parents of mixed Portuguese-Timorese ancestry, both of whom were school teachers.




  • Timor-Leste
    1965

    1st Marriage

    Timor-Leste
    1965

    During this time, he married Emilia Batista, with whom he had a son Eugenio, and a daughter Zenilda.




  • Timor-Leste
    1966

    Gusmão obtained a position with the public service

    Timor-Leste
    1966

    He attended a Jesuit high school just outside Dili. After leaving high-school for financial reasons at the age of fifteen, he held a variety of unskilled jobs, while continuing his education at night school.In 1966, Gusmão obtained a position with the public service, which allowed him to continue his education.




  • Timor-Leste
    1968

    National Service

    Timor-Leste
    1968

    In 1968 Gusmão was recruited by the Portuguese Army for national service.He served for three years, rising to the rank of corporal.




  • Timor-Leste
    1971

    Gusmão Completed His National Service

    Timor-Leste
    1971

    In 1971, Gusmão completed his national service, his son was born, and he became involved with a nationalist organisation headed by José Ramos-Horta. For the next three years he was actively involved in peaceful protests directed at the colonial system.




  • Portugal
    Thursday Apr 25, 1974

    The Coup In Portugal

    Portugal
    Thursday Apr 25, 1974

    It was in 1974 that a coup in Portugal resulted in the beginning of decolonisation for Portuguese Timor, and shortly afterwards the Governor Mário Lemos Pires announced plans to grant the colony independence.




  • Timor-Leste
    1975

    The Fretilin Faction Had Gained Control of Portuguese Timor

    Timor-Leste
    1975

    Taking advantage of the internal disorder, and with an eye to absorbing the colony, Indonesia immediately began a campaign of destabilisation, and frequent raids into Portuguese Timor were staged from Indonesian West Timor. By late 1975 the Fretilin faction had gained control of Portuguese Timor and Gusmão was released from prison. He was given the position of Press Secretary within the Fretilin organisation.


  • Timor-Leste
    1975

    Gusmão Was arrested and Imprisoned by The UDT

    Timor-Leste
    1975

    During most of 1975 a bitter internal struggle occurred between two rival factions in Portuguese Timor. Gusmão became deeply involved with the Fretilin faction, and as a result he was arrested and imprisoned by the rival faction the Timorese Democratic Union (UDT) in mid-1975.


  • Timor-Leste
    Friday Nov 28, 1975

    Fretilin declared The Independence of Portuguese Timor

    Timor-Leste
    Friday Nov 28, 1975

    On 28 November 1975, Fretilin declared the independence of Portuguese Timor as "The Democratic Republic of East Timor", and Gusmão was responsible for filming the ceremony.


  • Timor-Leste
    Sunday Dec 07, 1975

    Indonesian occupation of East Timor

    Timor-Leste
    Sunday Dec 07, 1975

    Nine days later, Indonesia invaded East Timor. At the time Gusmão was visiting friends outside of Dili and he witnessed the invasion from the hills. For the next few days he searched for his family.


  • Timor-Leste
    1984

    Failed Coup attempt against Gusmão

    Timor-Leste
    1984

    After Fretilin suffered some major setbacks in the early 1980s, including a failed 1984 coup attempt against Gusmão led by four senior Falintil officers, including Mauk Moruk. Gusmão left Fretilin and supported various centrist coalitions, eventually becoming a leading opponent of Fretilin.


  • Santa Cruz Cemetery, Rua De Santa Cruz, Dili, Timor-Leste
    Tuesday Nov 12, 1991

    Santa Cruz massacre

    Santa Cruz Cemetery, Rua De Santa Cruz, Dili, Timor-Leste
    Tuesday Nov 12, 1991

    By the mid-1980s, he was a major leader. During the early 1990s, Gusmão became deeply involved in diplomacy and media management, and was instrumental in alerting the world to the massacre in Dili that occurred in Santa Cruz on 12 November 1991.


  • Timor-Leste
    Nov, 1992

    Capturing Gusmão

    Timor-Leste
    Nov, 1992

    As a result of his high profile, Gusmão became a prime target of the Indonesian government. A campaign for his capture was finally successful in November 1992.


  • Timor-Leste
    May, 1993

    Gusmão's Trial

    Timor-Leste
    May, 1993

    In May 1993, Gusmão was tried, convicted and sentenced to life imprisonment by the Indonesian government. He was found guilty under Article 108 of the Indonesian Penal Code (rebellion), Law no. 12 of 1951 (illegal possession of firearms) and Article 106 (attempting to separate part of the territory of Indonesia).


  • Timor-Leste
    Aug, 1993

    The Sentence Was Commuted

    Timor-Leste
    Aug, 1993

    Gusmão spoke in his own defence and he was appointed with defence lawyers before the commencement of his trial. The sentence was commuted to 20 years by Indonesian President Suharto in August 1993.


  • Timor-Leste
    1999

    1st Divorce

    Timor-Leste
    1999

    In 1999, Gusmão divorced Emilia Batista.


  • Timor-Leste
    Monday Aug 30, 1999

    The Independence Referendum

    Timor-Leste
    Monday Aug 30, 1999

    On 30 August 1999, a referendum was held in East Timor and an overwhelming majority voted for independence. The Indonesian military commenced a campaign of terror as a result, with terrible consequences. Although the Indonesian government denied ordering this offensive, they were widely condemned for failing to prevent it.


  • Timor-Leste
    Monday Sep 20, 1999

    International Peace-Keeping Force (INTERFET) Entered East Timor

    Timor-Leste
    Monday Sep 20, 1999

    As a result of overwhelming diplomatic pressure from the United Nations, promoted by Portugal since the late 1970s and also by the United States and Australia in the 1990s, a UN-sanctioned, Australian-led international peace-keeping force (INTERFET) entered East Timor, and Gusmão was finally released. Upon his return to his native East Timor, he began a campaign of reconciliation and rebuilding.


  • Dili, Timor-Leste
    Sunday Jul 02, 2000

    2nd Marriage

    Dili, Timor-Leste
    Sunday Jul 02, 2000

    In 2000, he married Australian Kirsty Sword, with whom he had three sons: Alexandre, Kay Olok and Daniel.


  • Timor-Leste
    Thursday Aug 30, 2001

    The 2001 Parliamentary Election

    Timor-Leste
    Thursday Aug 30, 2001

    During this time he continually campaigned for unity and peace within East Timor, and was generally regarded as the de facto leader of the emerging nation. Elections were held in late 2001 and Gusmão, endorsed by nine parties but not by Fretilin.


  • Timor-Leste
    Sunday Apr 14, 2002

    2002 East Timorese presidential election

    Timor-Leste
    Sunday Apr 14, 2002

    In the 2002 presidential election, Gusmão ran as an independent and he was comfortably elected as leader .


  • Timor-Leste
    Monday May 20, 2002

    The First President of Timor-Leste

    Timor-Leste
    Monday May 20, 2002

    Gusmão became the first President of East Timor when it became formally independent on 20 May 2002.


  • Dili, Timor-Leste
    Mar, 2007

    The National Congress For Timorese Reconstruction

    Dili, Timor-Leste
    Mar, 2007

    In March 2007 he said that he would lead the new National Congress for Timorese Reconstruction (CNRT) into the parliamentary election planned to be held later in the year, and said that he would be willing to become prime minister if his party won the election.


  • Timor-Leste
    Monday Apr 09, 2007

    The 2007 presidential election

    Timor-Leste
    Monday Apr 09, 2007

    Gusmão declined to run for another term in the April 2007 presidential election.


  • Timor-Leste
    Saturday Jun 30, 2007

    The June 2007 Parliamentary Election

    Timor-Leste
    Saturday Jun 30, 2007

    The CNRT placed second in the June 2007 parliamentary election, behind Fretilin, taking 24.10% of the vote and 18 seats. He won a seat in parliament as the first name on the CNRT's candidate list.


  • Dili, Timor-Leste
    Monday Aug 06, 2007

    Ramos-Horta announcedment about The Government Formation

    Dili, Timor-Leste
    Monday Aug 06, 2007

    The CNRT allied with other parties to form a coalition that would hold a majority of seats in parliament. After weeks of dispute between this coalition and Fretilin over who should form the government, Ramos-Horta announced on 6 August that the CNRT-led coalition would form the government and that Gusmão would become Prime Minister on 8 August.


  • Dili, Timor-Leste
    Wednesday Aug 08, 2007

    Gusmão sworn as a Prime Minister

    Dili, Timor-Leste
    Wednesday Aug 08, 2007

    Gusmão was sworn in at the presidential palace in Dili on 8 August.


  • Timor-Leste
    Monday Feb 11, 2008

    The Assassination attempt

    Timor-Leste
    Monday Feb 11, 2008

    On 11 February 2008, a motorcade containing Gusmão came under gunfire one hour after President José Ramos-Horta was shot in the stomach. Gusmão's residence was also occupied by rebels. According to the Associated Press, the incidents raised the possibility of a coup attempt; they have also described as possible assassination attempts and kidnap attempts.


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