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  • Washington D.C., U.S.
    Tuesday Jan 26, 1802

    Library of Congress

    librarian and Joint Committee

    Washington D.C., U.S.
    Tuesday Jan 26, 1802

    President Thomas Jefferson played an important role in establishing the structure of the Library of Congress. On January 26, 1802, he signed a bill that allowed the president to appoint the librarian of Congress and establishing a Joint Committee on the Library to regulate and oversee it. The new law also extended borrowing privileges to the president and vice president.




  • Amiens, France
    Thursday Mar 25, 1802

    Napoleon

    Treaty of Amiens

    Amiens, France
    Thursday Mar 25, 1802

    France and Britain signed the Treaty of Amiens in March 1802, bringing the Revolutionary Wars to an end. Amiens called for the withdrawal of British troops from recently conquered colonial territories as well as for assurances to curtail the expansionary goals of the French Republic.




  • France
    Monday May 10, 1802

    Napoleon

    The 1802 French constitutional referendum

    France
    Monday May 10, 1802

    In a new plebiscite during the spring of 1802, the French public came out in huge numbers to approve a constitution that made the Consulate permanent, essentially elevating Napoleon to dictator for life.




  • Heiligenstadt, Austria
    Wednesday Oct 6, 1802

    Beethoven

    Heiligenstadt Testament

    Heiligenstadt, Austria
    Wednesday Oct 6, 1802

    On the advice of his doctor, he moved to the small Austrian town of Heiligenstadt, just outside Vienna, from April to October 1802 in an attempt to come to terms with his condition. There he wrote the document now known as the “Heiligenstadt Testament”, a letter to his brothers which records his thoughts of suicide due to his growing deafness and records his resolution to continue living for and through his art. The letter was never actually sent and was discovered in the composer’s papers after his death. The letters to Wegeler and Amenda were not so despairing; in them, Beethoven commented also on his ongoing professional and financial success at this period, and his determination, as he expressed it to Wegeler, to “seize Fate by the throat; it shall certainly not crush me completely.” In 1806, Beethoven noted on his musical sketches "Let your deafness no longer be a secret – even in art."




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