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  • U.S.
    Saturday Feb 2, 1861
    Abraham Lincoln

    Florida, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas followed

    U.S.
    Saturday Feb 2, 1861

    by February 1, 1861, Florida, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas followed (secession).




  • Washington, United States
    Monday Feb 4, 1861
    USA civil war

    A pre-war February Peace Conference of 1861 met in Washington

    Washington, United States
    Monday Feb 4, 1861

    A pre-war February Peace Conference of 1861 met in Washington, proposing a solution similar to that of the Crittenden compromise; it was rejected by Congress. The Republicans proposed an alternative compromise to not interfere with slavery where it existed but the South regarded it as insufficient.




  • U.S.
    Saturday Feb 9, 1861
    Abraham Lincoln

    Confederate States of America

    U.S.
    Saturday Feb 9, 1861

    Six of these states declared themselves to be a sovereign nation, the Confederate States of America, and adopted a constitution.




  • The Confederacy (Present Day U.S.)
    Sunday Feb 10, 1861
    Abraham Lincoln

    The Confederacy selected Jefferson Davis

    The Confederacy (Present Day U.S.)
    Sunday Feb 10, 1861

    President Buchanan and President-elect Lincoln refused to recognize the Confederacy, declaring secession illegal. The Confederacy selected Jefferson Davis as its provisional President on February 9, 1861.




  • Italy
    Monday Feb 18, 1861
    Unification of Italy

    Victor Emmanuel assembled the deputies of the first Italian Parliament

    Italy
    Monday Feb 18, 1861

    On 18 February 1861, Victor Emmanuel assembled the deputies of the first Italian Parliament in Turin.




  • Virginia, United States
    Wednesday Feb 20, 1861
    USA civil war

    The primary Confederate force in the Eastern theater

    Virginia, United States
    Wednesday Feb 20, 1861

    The primary Confederate force in the Eastern theater was the Army of Northern Virginia. The Army originated as the (Confederate) Army of the Potomac, which was organized on June 20, 1861, from all operational forces in northern Virginia.




  • Washington D.C., U.S.
    Sunday Feb 24, 1861
    Abraham Lincoln

    Lincoln arrived in disguise in Washington, D.C.

    Washington D.C., U.S.
    Sunday Feb 24, 1861

    On February 23, 1861, Lincoln arrived in disguise in Washington, D.C., which was placed under substantial military guard.


  • U.S.
    Sunday Mar 3, 1861
    Abraham Lincoln

    Corwin Amendment

    U.S.
    Sunday Mar 3, 1861

    Lincoln tacitly supported the Corwin Amendment to the Constitution, which passed Congress and was awaiting ratification by the states when Lincoln took office. That doomed amendment would have protected slavery in states where it already existed. A few weeks before the war, Lincoln sent a letter to every governor informing them Congress had passed a joint resolution to amend the Constitution.


  • U.S
    Monday Mar 4, 1861
    USA civil war

    Abraham Lincoln was president of the United States

    U.S
    Monday Mar 4, 1861

    Abraham Lincoln was an American lawyer and statesman who served as the 16th president of the United States from 1861 until his assassination in 1865. Lincoln led the nation through the American Civil War and succeeded in preserving the Union, abolishing slavery, bolstering the federal government, and modernizing the U.S. economy.


  • U.S
    Monday Mar 4, 1861
    USA civil war

    Lincoln's Inaugurations

    U.S
    Monday Mar 4, 1861

    On March 4, 1861, Abraham Lincoln was sworn in as president. In his inaugural address, he argued that the Constitution was a more perfect union than the earlier Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, that it was a binding contract, and called any secession "legally void".


  • Washington D.C., U.S.
    Monday Mar 4, 1861
    Abraham Lincoln

    A President

    Washington D.C., U.S.
    Monday Mar 4, 1861

    The presidency of Abraham Lincoln began on March 4, 1861, when he was inaugurated as the 16th President of the United States.


  • U.S.
    Tuesday Mar 5, 1861
    Abraham Lincoln

    Abraham Lincoln's first inaugural address

    U.S.
    Tuesday Mar 5, 1861

    Lincoln directed his inaugural address to the South, proclaiming once again that he had no inclination to abolish slavery in the Southern states: Apprehension seems to exist among the people of the Southern States that by the accession of a Republican Administration their property and their peace and personal security are to be endangered. There has never been any reasonable cause for such apprehension. Indeed, the most ample evidence to the contrary has all the while existed and been open to their inspection. It is found in nearly all the published speeches of him who now addresses you. I do but quote from one of those speeches when I declare that "I have no purpose, directly or indirectly, to interfere with the institution of slavery in the States where it exists. I believe I have no lawful right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so." — First inaugural address, 4 March 1861.


  • Rome, Italy
    Sunday Mar 17, 1861
    Unification of Italy

    Proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy

    Rome, Italy
    Sunday Mar 17, 1861

    The proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy was the formal act that sanctioned the birth of the unified Kingdom of Italy. It happened with a normative act of the Savoyard Kingdom of Sardinia — the law 17 March 1861, n. 4761 — with which Victor Emmanuel II assumed for himself and for his successors the title of King of Italy.


  • Italy
    Sunday Mar 17, 1861
    Unification of Italy

    The Parliament proclaimed Victor Emmanuel King of Italy

    Italy
    Sunday Mar 17, 1861

    On 17 March 1861, the Parliament proclaimed Victor Emmanuel King of Italy


  • Rome, Italy
    Wednesday Mar 27, 1861
    Unification of Italy

    Rome was declared Capital of Italy

    Rome, Italy
    Wednesday Mar 27, 1861

    on 27 March 1861 Rome was declared Capital of Italy, even though it was not yet in the new Kingdom.


  • U.S
    Thursday Apr 4, 1861
    USA civil war

    Rejection of joined the Confederacy

    U.S
    Thursday Apr 4, 1861

    The remaining eight slave states rejected pleas to join the Confederacy following a two-to-one no-vote in Virginia's First Secessionist Convention on April 4, 1861.


  • U.S
    Friday Apr 12, 1861
    USA civil war

    Virginia was the capital of the Confederate States of America for almost the whole of the American Civil War

    U.S
    Friday Apr 12, 1861

    Virginia in particular was the site of many major and decisive battles. These battles would change the standing and historical memory of the United States. Richmond, Virginia served as the capital of the Confederate States of America for almost the whole of the American Civil War. It was a vital source of weapons and supplies for the war effort, and the terminus of five railroads.


  • U.S.
    Saturday Apr 13, 1861
    Elizabeth Blackwell

    American Civil War broke out

    U.S.
    Saturday Apr 13, 1861

    When the American Civil War broke out, the Blackwell sisters aided in nursing efforts. Blackwell sympathized heavily with the North due to her abolitionist roots, and even went so far as to say she would have left the country if the North had compromised on the subject of slavery. However, Blackwell did meet with some resistance on the part of the male-dominated United States Sanitary Commission (USSC) . The male physicians refused to help with the nurse education plan if it involved the Blackwells. In response to the USSC, Blackwell organized with the Woman's Central Relief Association (WCRA). The WCRA worked against the problem of uncoordinated benevolence, but ultimately was absorbed by the USSC. Still, the New York Infirmary managed to work with Dorothea Dix to train nurses for the Union effort.


  • Charleston, South Carolina, U.S.
    Saturday Apr 13, 1861
    Abraham Lincoln

    Civil War Begin

    Charleston, South Carolina, U.S.
    Saturday Apr 13, 1861

    Major Robert Anderson, commander of the Union's Fort Sumter in Charleston, South Carolina, sent a request for provisions to Washington, and Lincoln's order to meet that request was seen by the secessionists as an act of war. On April 12, 1861, Confederate forces fired on Union troops at Fort Sumter and began the fight.


  • U.S
    Monday Apr 15, 1861
    USA civil war

    Invitations to recapture the fort and other federal properties

    U.S
    Monday Apr 15, 1861

    On April 15, 1861, Lincoln called on all the states to send forces to recapture the fort and other federal properties. The scale of the rebellion appeared to be small, so he called for only 75,000 volunteers for 90 days.


  • U.S.
    Monday Apr 15, 1861
    Abraham Lincoln

    Lincoln called on the states to send detachments totaling 75,000 troops

    U.S.
    Monday Apr 15, 1861

    On April 15, Lincoln called on the states to send detachments totaling 75,000 troops to recapture forts, protect Washington, and "preserve the Union", which, in his view, remained intact despite the seceding states. This call forced states to choose sides. Virginia seceded and was rewarded with the designation of Richmond as the Confederate capital, despite its exposure to Union lines. North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas followed over the following two months. Secession sentiment was strong in Missouri and Maryland, but did not prevail; Kentucky remained neutral. The Fort Sumter attack rallied Americans north of the Mason-Dixon line to defend the nation.


  • Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
    Friday Apr 19, 1861
    Abraham Lincoln

    Baltimore riot of 1861

    Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
    Friday Apr 19, 1861

    As States sent Union regiments south, on April 19, Baltimore mobs in control of the rail links attacked Union troops who were changing trains. Local leaders' groups later burned critical rail bridges to the capital and the Army responded by arresting local Maryland officials. Lincoln suspended the writ of habeas corpus where needed for the security of troops trying to reach Washington. John Merryman, one Maryland official hindering the U.S. troop movements, petitioned Supreme Court Chief Justice Roger B. Taney to issue a writ of habeas corpus. In June Taney, ruling only for the lower circuit court in ex parte Merryman, issued the writ which he felt could only be suspended by Congress. Lincoln persisted with the policy of suspension in select areas.


  • Warrenton, Virginia, U.S.
    Monday Jun 3, 1861
    Memorial day

    First civil war grave decorated

    Warrenton, Virginia, U.S.
    Monday Jun 3, 1861

    On June 3, 1861, Warrenton, Virginia, was the location of the first Civil War soldier's grave ever to be decorated, according to a Richmond Times-Dispatch newspaper article in 1906. This decoration was for the funeral of the first soldier killed in action during the Civil War, John Quincy Marr, who died on June 1, 1861, during a skirmish at Battle of Fairfax Courthouse in Virginia.


  • U.S.
    Thursday Jul 4, 1861
    Flag of the United States

    Star for Kansas

    U.S.
    Thursday Jul 4, 1861

    The flag was changed to have 34 stars. (for Kansas)


  • Fairfax County and Prince William County, Virginia, U.S.
    Sunday Jul 21, 1861
    Abraham Lincoln

    First Battle of Bull Run

    Fairfax County and Prince William County, Virginia, U.S.
    Sunday Jul 21, 1861

    After the Union rout at Bull Run and Winfield Scott's retirement, Lincoln appointed Major General George B. McClellan general-in-chief.


  • U.S.
    Tuesday Aug 6, 1861
    Abraham Lincoln

    Lincoln signed the Confiscation Act

    U.S.
    Tuesday Aug 6, 1861

    On August 6, 1861, Lincoln signed the Confiscation Act that authorized judicial proceedings to confiscate and free slaves who were used to support the Confederates. The law had little practical effect, but it signaled political support for abolishing slavery.


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