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  • Berlin, Germany
    Tuesday Jan 16, 1945

    Martin Bormann

    Hitler Transferred His Headquarters To The Führerbunker

    Berlin, Germany
    Tuesday Jan 16, 1945

    Hitler transferred his headquarters to the Führerbunker ("Leader's bunker") in Berlin on 16 January 1945, where he (along with Bormann, his secretary Else Krüger, and others) remained until the end of April.




  • Karkow, Poland
    Wednesday Jan 17, 1945

    Pope John Paul II

    Germans feld the City

    Karkow, Poland
    Wednesday Jan 17, 1945

    On the night of 17 January 1945, the Germans fled the city, and the students reclaimed the ruined seminary. Wojtyła and another seminarian volunteered for the task of clearing away piles of frozen excrement from the toilets. Wojtyła also helped a 14-year-old Jewish refugee girl named Edith Zierer, who had escaped from a Nazi labour camp in Częstochowa.




  • U.S.
    Saturday Jan 20, 1945

    Harry S. Truman

    A Vice President

    U.S.
    Saturday Jan 20, 1945

    Truman's nomination was dubbed the "Second Missouri Compromise" and was well received. The Roosevelt–Truman ticket achieved a 432–99 electoral-vote victory in the election, defeating the Republican ticket of Governor Thomas E. Dewey of New York and running mate Governor John Bricker of Ohio. Truman was sworn in as vice president on January 20, 1945.




  • Germany
    Sunday Jan 21, 1945

    Joseph Goebbels

    Goebbels noted in his diary millions of Germans were fleeing westward.

    Germany
    Sunday Jan 21, 1945

    Goebbels noted in his diary on 21 January that millions of Germans were fleeing westward.




  • Plötzensee Prison, Berlin, Germany
    Tuesday Jan 23, 1945

    Max Planck

    Erwin (His son) was hanged

    Plötzensee Prison, Berlin, Germany
    Tuesday Jan 23, 1945

    In 1944, Planck's son Erwin was arrested by the Gestapo following the attempted assassination of Hitler in the 20 July plot. He was tried and sentenced to death by the People's Court in October 1944. Erwin was hanged at Berlin's Plötzensee Prison in January 1945. The death of his son destroyed much of Planck's will to live.




  • Germany
    Saturday Jan 27, 1945

    Joseph Goebbels

    Goebbels and his wife discussed suicide

    Germany
    Saturday Jan 27, 1945

    He and Magda may have discussed suicide and the fate of their young children in a long meeting on the night of 27 January.




  • Malta
    Tuesday Jan 30, 1945

    Winston Churchill

    Malta Conference

    Malta
    Tuesday Jan 30, 1945

    From 30 January to 2 February 1945, Churchill and Roosevelt met for their Malta Conference.


  • Poland and Eastern Germany
    Friday Feb 2, 1945

    World War II

    Vistula–Oder Offensive ended

    Poland and Eastern Germany
    Friday Feb 2, 1945

    The Vistula–Oder Offensive was a Red Army operation on the Eastern Front in January 1945. The army made a major advance into German-held territory, capturing Kraków, Warsaw and Poznań. The offensive lasted from 12 January till 2 February 1945. As result, most of Poland occupied by the Soviet Union.


  • Yalta, Crimea, U.S.S.R.
    Sunday Feb 4, 1945

    World War II

    Yalta Conference

    Yalta, Crimea, U.S.S.R.
    Sunday Feb 4, 1945

    On 4 February, Soviet, British, and US leaders met for the Yalta Conference. They agreed on the occupation of post-war Germany, and on when the Soviet Union would join the war against Japan.


  • Yalta, Crimea
    Sunday Feb 4, 1945

    Winston Churchill

    Yalta Conference

    Yalta, Crimea
    Sunday Feb 4, 1945

    Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin had been met at the Yalta Conference, February 1945.


  • Nine Mile, Saint Ann Parish, Jamaica
    Tuesday Feb 6, 1945

    Bob Marley

    Born

    Nine Mile, Saint Ann Parish, Jamaica
    Tuesday Feb 6, 1945

    Bob Marley was born on 6 February 1945 at the farm of his maternal grandfather in Nine Mile, Saint Ann Parish, Jamaica.


  • Dresden, Germany
    Tuesday Feb 13, 1945

    Winston Churchill

    Bombing of Dresden

    Dresden, Germany
    Tuesday Feb 13, 1945

    On the nights of 13–15 February 1945, some 1,200 British and US bombers attacked the German city of Dresden, which was crowded with wounded and refugees from the Eastern Front. The attacks were part of an area bombing campaign that was initiated by Churchill in January with the intention of shortening the war. Churchill came to regret the bombing because initial reports suggested an excessive number of civilian casualties close to the end of the war, though an independent commission in 2010 confirmed a death toll between 22,700 and 25,000.


  • Budapest, Kingdom of Hungary
    Tuesday Feb 13, 1945

    World War II

    Fall of Budapest

    Budapest, Kingdom of Hungary
    Tuesday Feb 13, 1945

    The Siege of Budapest was the 50-day-long encirclement by Soviet and Romanian forces of the Hungarian capital of Budapest. The city unconditionally surrendered on 13 February 1945. It was a strategic victory for the Allies in their push towards Berlin.


  • U.S.
    Thursday Mar 1, 1945

    John F. Kennedy

    Kennedy Retired

    U.S.
    Thursday Mar 1, 1945

    On March 1, 1945, Kennedy retired from the Navy Reserve on physical disability and was honorably discharged with the full rank of lieutenant.


  • Serbia (Yugoslavia)
    Wednesday Mar 7, 1945

    Josip Broz Tito

    The provisional government of the Democratic Federal Yugoslavia (Demokratska Federativna Jugoslavija, DFY) was assembled in Belgrade

    Serbia (Yugoslavia)
    Wednesday Mar 7, 1945

    On 7 March 1945, the provisional government of the Democratic Federal Yugoslavia (Demokratska Federativna Jugoslavija, DFY) was assembled in Belgrade by Josip Broz Tito, while the provisional name allowed for either a republic or monarchy.


  • France, Belgium, Luxembourg, Netherlands and Germany
    Thursday Mar 8, 1945

    World War II

    The Allied advance from Paris to the Rhine

    France, Belgium, Luxembourg, Netherlands and Germany
    Thursday Mar 8, 1945

    The Allied advance from Paris to the Rhine (25 August 1944–7 March 1945), also known as the Siegfried Line campaign, was a phase in the Western European campaign of the World War.


  • Tokyo, Japan
    Thursday Mar 8, 1945

    World War II

    Bombing of Tokyo

    Tokyo, Japan
    Thursday Mar 8, 1945

    A devastating bombing raid on Tokyo of 9–10 March was the deadliest conventional bombing raid in history.


  • French Indochina (Now Vietnam)
    Friday Mar 9, 1945

    First Indochina War

    The Second French Indochina Campaign

    French Indochina (Now Vietnam)
    Friday Mar 9, 1945

    In March 1945, Japan launched the Second French Indochina Campaign to oust the Vichy French and formally installed Emperor Bảo Đại as head of the nominally independent Empire of Vietnam. The Japanese arrested and imprisoned most of the French officials and military officers remaining in the country.


  • Australia
    Thursday Mar 15, 1945

    Penicillin

    Australia was the first country to make the drug available for civilian use

    Australia
    Thursday Mar 15, 1945

    After World War II, Australia was the first country to make the drug available for civilian use. In the U.S., penicillin was made available to the general public on March 15, 1945.


  • Nassau, Bahamas
    Friday Mar 16, 1945

    Edward VIII

    Resignation

    Nassau, Bahamas
    Friday Mar 16, 1945

    He resigned from the post on 16 March 1945.


  • United Kingdom
    Wednesday Mar 28, 1945

    Winston Churchill

    Churchill decided to restrict area bombing and sent a memorandum to General Ismay

    United Kingdom
    Wednesday Mar 28, 1945

    On 28 March, he decided to restrict area bombing and sent a memorandum to General Ismay for the Chiefs of Staff Committee: The destruction of Dresden remains a serious query against the conduct of Allied bombing..... I feel the need for more precise concentration upon military objectives..... rather than on mere acts of terror and wanton destruction, however impressive.


  • Upper Silesia, Germany
    Saturday Mar 31, 1945

    World War II

    Upper Silesian Offensive

    Upper Silesia, Germany
    Saturday Mar 31, 1945

    In February, the Soviets entered Upper Silesia.


  • Pomerania, Danzig-West Prussia inside Germany
    Wednesday Apr 4, 1945

    World War II

    East Pomeranian Offensive

    Pomerania, Danzig-West Prussia inside Germany
    Wednesday Apr 4, 1945

    Soviets entered Pomerania. The offensive lasted from 24 February to 4 April 1945.


  • Zhijiang, Huaihua, Hunan, China
    Friday Apr 6, 1945

    Second Sino-Japanese War

    Battle of West Hunan

    Zhijiang, Huaihua, Hunan, China
    Friday Apr 6, 1945

    In Spring 1945 the Chinese launched offensives that retook Hunan and Guangxi.


  • Königsberg, East Prussia (Present Day Kaliningrad, Russia)
    Sunday Apr 8, 1945

    World War II

    Fall of Königsberg

    Königsberg, East Prussia (Present Day Kaliningrad, Russia)
    Sunday Apr 8, 1945

    The Battle of Königsberg was one of the last operations of the East Prussian Offensive. The siege started in late January 1945 when the Soviets initially surrounded the city. The battle ended when the German garrison surrendered to the Soviets on 9 April after a three-day assault made their position untenable. As result, Königsberg and its surrounding areas are annexed by the Soviet Union.


  • U.S.
    Thursday Apr 12, 1945

    Harry S. Truman

    A President

    U.S.
    Thursday Apr 12, 1945

    33rd President of the United States.


  • U.S.
    Thursday Apr 12, 1945

    Harry S. Truman

    Truman's brief vice-presidency was relatively uneventful

    U.S.
    Thursday Apr 12, 1945

    Truman had been vice president for 82 days when President Roosevelt died on April 12, 1945.


  • U.S.
    Thursday Apr 12, 1945

    World War II

    Roosevelt death

    U.S.
    Thursday Apr 12, 1945

    Several changes in leadership occurred during this period. On 12 April, President Roosevelt died and was succeeded by Harry S. Truman.


  • Germany
    Thursday Apr 12, 1945

    Joseph Goebbels

    Goebbels knew how to play on Hitler's fantasies

    Germany
    Thursday Apr 12, 1945

    Goebbels knew how to play on Hitler's fantasies, encouraging him to see the hand of providence in the death of the United States, President Franklin D. Roosevelt, on 12 April.


  • U.S.
    Thursday Apr 12, 1945

    Charles de Gaulle

    Roosevelt died

    U.S.
    Thursday Apr 12, 1945

    On 12 April 1945, Roosevelt died, and despite their uneasy relationship de Gaulle declared a week of mourning in France and forwarded an emotional and conciliatory letter to the new American president, Harry S. Truman, in which he said of Roosevelt, "all of France loved him".


  • Lake Balaton, Kingdom of Hungary
    Sunday Apr 15, 1945

    World War II

    Operation Spring Awakening - Last German major offensive

    Lake Balaton, Kingdom of Hungary
    Sunday Apr 15, 1945

    In early March, in an attempt to protect its last oil reserves in Hungary and to retake Budapest, Germany launched its last major offensive against Soviet troops near Lake Balaton. In two weeks, the offensive had been repulsed. The operation lasted from 6 to 16 March, while the Soviet counter attack took place between 16 March to 15 April 1945.


  • Berlin, Germany
    Monday Apr 16, 1945

    Martin Bormann

    The Battle of Berlin

    Berlin, Germany
    Monday Apr 16, 1945

    The Battle of Berlin, the final major Soviet offensive of the war, began on 16 April 1945.


  • Berlin, Germany
    Monday Apr 16, 1945

    World War II

    Fall of Berlin

    Berlin, Germany
    Monday Apr 16, 1945

    Soviet forces stormed and captured Berlin in late April. The battle started on 16 April 1945.


  • Ruhr Area, Germany
    Wednesday Apr 18, 1945

    World War II

    Ruhr Pocket

    Ruhr Area, Germany
    Wednesday Apr 18, 1945

    By April, the Western Allies crossed the Rhine north and south of the Ruhr, encircling the German Army Group B. The battle of encirclement took place from 1 to 18 April.


  • Germany
    Wednesday Apr 18, 1945

    Joseph Goebbels

    Goebbels burned his private papers

    Germany
    Wednesday Apr 18, 1945

    He knew how the outside world would view the criminal acts committed by the regime, and had no desire to subject himself to the "debacle" of a trial. He burned his private papers on the night of 18 April.


  • Japan
    Wednesday Apr 18, 1945

    World War II

    Air raids on Japan

    Japan
    Wednesday Apr 18, 1945

    United States Army Air Forces launched a massive firebombing campaign of strategic cities in Japan in an effort to destroy Japanese war industry and civilian morale.


  • Berlin, Germany
    Thursday Apr 19, 1945

    Martin Bormann

    The Red Army started to Encircle Berlin

    Berlin, Germany
    Thursday Apr 19, 1945

    By 19 April the Red Army started to encircle the city.


  • Berlin, Germany
    Friday Apr 20, 1945

    Adolf Hitler

    Last trip from the Führerbunker

    Berlin, Germany
    Friday Apr 20, 1945

    On 20 April, his 56th birthday, Hitler made his last trip from the Führerbunker (Führer's shelter) to the surface.


  • Berlin, Germany
    Friday Apr 20, 1945

    Martin Bormann

    Hitler's 56th Birthday

    Berlin, Germany
    Friday Apr 20, 1945

    On 20 April, Hitler's 56th birthday, he made his last trip to the surface. In the ruined garden of the Reich Chancellery, he awarded Iron Crosses to boy soldiers of the Hitler Youth. That afternoon, Berlin was bombarded by Soviet artillery for the first time.


  • Berlin, Germany
    Friday Apr 20, 1945

    Joseph Goebbels

    Most of Hitler's inner circle to leave Berlin

    Berlin, Germany
    Friday Apr 20, 1945

    Most of Hitler's inner circle, including Göring, Himmler, Ribbentrop, and Speer, prepared to leave Berlin immediately after Hitler's birthday celebration on 20 April.


  • Seelow Heights, Province of Brandenburg, Prussia, Germany
    Saturday Apr 21, 1945

    Adolf Hitler

    Battle of the Seelow

    Seelow Heights, Province of Brandenburg, Prussia, Germany
    Saturday Apr 21, 1945

    By 21 April, Georgy Zhukov's 1st Belorussian Front had broken through the defenses of General Gotthard Heinrici's Army Group Vistula during the Battle of the Seelow Heights and advanced to the outskirts of Berlin.


  • Obersalzberg, Berchtesgaden, Germany
    Monday Apr 23, 1945

    Martin Bormann

    Albert Bormann Left The Bunker complex and flew to the Obersalzberg

    Obersalzberg, Berchtesgaden, Germany
    Monday Apr 23, 1945

    On 23 April, Albert Bormann left the bunker complex and flew to the Obersalzberg. He and several others had been ordered by Hitler to leave Berlin.


  • Berlin, Germany
    Monday Apr 23, 1945

    Joseph Goebbels

    Goebbels made the last proclamation to the people of Berlin

    Berlin, Germany
    Monday Apr 23, 1945

    On 23 April, Goebbels made the following proclamation to the people of Berlin: I call on you to fight for your city. Fight with everything you have got, for the sake of your wives and your children, your mothers, and your parents. Your arms are defending everything we have ever held dear, and all the generations that will come after us. Be proud and courageous! Be inventive and cunning! Your Gauleiter is amongst you. He and his colleagues will remain in your midst. His wife and children are here as well. He, who once captured the city with 200 men, will now use every means to galvanize the defense of the capital. The battle for Berlin must become the signal for the whole nation to rise up in battle ...".


  • San Francisco, California, U.S.
    Wednesday Apr 25, 1945

    W. E. B. Du Bois

    United Nations Conference on International Organization

    San Francisco, California, U.S.
    Wednesday Apr 25, 1945

    Du Bois was a member of the three-person delegation from the NAACP that attended the 1945 conference in San Francisco at which the United Nations was established.


  • East Prussia (Present Day in Poland)
    Wednesday Apr 25, 1945

    World War II

    East Prussian Offensive

    East Prussia (Present Day in Poland)
    Wednesday Apr 25, 1945

    The East Prussian Offensive was a strategic offensive by the Soviet Red Army against the German Wehrmacht on the Eastern Front (World War II). It lasted from 13 January to 25 April 1945, though some German units did not surrender until 9 May. The Battle of Königsberg was a major part of the offensive, which ended in victory for the Red Army.


  • Italy
    Wednesday Apr 25, 1945

    Martin Bormann

    Gerda Bormann and the Children fled Obersalzberg for Italy

    Italy
    Wednesday Apr 25, 1945

    Gerda Bormann and the children fled Obersalzberg for Italy on 25 April 1945 after an Allied air attack.


  • San Francisco, California, U.S.
    Wednesday Apr 25, 1945

    United Nations

    United Nations Conference on International Organization

    San Francisco, California, U.S.
    Wednesday Apr 25, 1945

    After months of planning, the UN Conference on International Organization opened in San Francisco, 25 April 1945, attended by 50 governments and a number of non-governmental organizations involved in drafting the UN Charter.


  • Italy
    Saturday Apr 28, 1945

    World War II

    Benito Mussolini was killed

    Italy
    Saturday Apr 28, 1945

    Benito Mussolini was killed by Italian partisans on 28 April.


  • Berlin, Germany
    Sunday Apr 29, 1945

    Adolf Hitler

    Marriage

    Berlin, Germany
    Sunday Apr 29, 1945

    After midnight on the night of 28–29 April, Hitler married Eva Braun in a small civil ceremony in the Führerbunker.


  • Berlin, Germany
    Sunday Apr 29, 1945

    Adolf Hitler

    Hitler removed Göring from all government positions

    Berlin, Germany
    Sunday Apr 29, 1945

    Göring sent a telegram from Berchtesgaden, arguing that since Hitler was isolated in Berlin, Göring should assume leadership of Germany. Göring set a deadline, after which he would consider Hitler incapacitated. Hitler responded by having Göring arrested, and in his last will and testament of 29 April, he removed Göring from all government positions.


  • Obersalzberg, Berchtesgaden, Germany
    Sunday Apr 29, 1945

    Martin Bormann

    Bormann was Named Executor of The Estate

    Obersalzberg, Berchtesgaden, Germany
    Sunday Apr 29, 1945

    In the early morning hours of 29 April 1945, Wilhelm Burgdorf, Goebbels, Hans Krebs, and Bormann witnessed and signed Hitler's last will and testament. Bormann was named executor of the estate. That same night, Hitler married Eva Braun in a civil ceremony.


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