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  • France and Algeria
    Sunday Jan 8, 1961

    Algerian War

    The first referendum on the self-determination of Algeria

    France and Algeria
    Sunday Jan 8, 1961

    De Gaulle convoked the first referendum on the self-determination of Algeria on January 8, 1961, which 75% of the voters (both in France and Algeria) approved and de Gaulle's government began secret peace negotiations with the FLN. In the Algerian départements 69.51% voted in favor of self-determination.




  • Washington D.C., U.S.
    Friday Jan 20, 1961

    John F. Kennedy

    A President

    Washington D.C., U.S.
    Friday Jan 20, 1961

    John F. Kennedy was sworn in as the 35th president at noon on January 20, 1961.




  • White House, Washington D.C., U.S.
    Friday Jan 20, 1961

    Richard Nixon

    The End of His Term of office as Vice President

    White House, Washington D.C., U.S.
    Friday Jan 20, 1961

    At the end of his term of office as vice president in January 1961, Nixon and his family returned to California, where he practiced law.




  • Goldsboro, North Carolina, U.S.
    Tuesday Jan 24, 1961

    Atomic Bomb

    The 1961 Goldsboro B-52 crash

    Goldsboro, North Carolina, U.S.
    Tuesday Jan 24, 1961

    January 24, 1961: the 1961 Goldsboro B-52 crash occurred near Goldsboro, North Carolina. A Boeing B-52 Stratofortress carrying two Mark 39 nuclear bombs broke up in mid-air, dropping its nuclear payload in the process.




  • Washington D.C., U.S.
    Saturday Jan 28, 1961

    Bay of Pigs Invasion

    Operation Pluto

    Washington D.C., U.S.
    Saturday Jan 28, 1961

    On 28 January 1961, President Kennedy was briefed, together with all the major departments, on the latest plan (code-named Operation Pluto).That scheme was subsequently rejected by the State Department because the airfield there was not large enough for B-26 bombers and, since B-26s were to play a prominent role in the invasion, this would destroy the façade that the invasion was just an uprising with no American involvement. Secretary of State Dean Rusk raised some eyebrows by contemplating airdropping a bulldozer to extend the airfield. Kennedy rejected Trinidad, preferring a more low-key locale.




  • Santa Monica, California, U.S.
    Friday Feb 3, 1961

    Anna May Wong

    Death

    Santa Monica, California, U.S.
    Friday Feb 3, 1961

    On February 3, 1961, at the age of 56, Anna died of a heart attack as she slept at home in Santa Monica, two days after her final screen performance on television's The Barbara Stanwyck Show.




  • New York, U.S.
    Saturday Feb 18, 1961

    Fidel Castro

    Castro garnered support in New York City

    New York, U.S.
    Saturday Feb 18, 1961

    Despite the fear of a coupe, Castro garnered support in New York City. In on February 18, 1961, 400 people—mainly Cubans, Puerto Ricans, and college students—picketed in the rain outside of the United Nations rallying for Castro's anti-colonial values and his effort to reduce the United States' power over Cuba. The protesters held up signs that read, "Mr. Kennedy, Cuba is Not For Sale.", "Viva Fidel Castro!" and "Down With Yankee Imperialism!". Around 200 policemen were on the scene, but the protesters continued to chant slogans and throw pennies in support of Fidel Castro's socialist movement. Some Americans disagreed with President Kennedy's choice to ban trade with Cuba, and outwardly supported his nationalist revolutionary tactics.


  • Vallauris, France
    Thursday Mar 2, 1961

    Pablo Picasso

    Second Marriage

    Vallauris, France
    Thursday Mar 2, 1961

    Jacqueline Roque (1927–1986) worked at the Madoura Pottery in Vallauris on the French Riviera, where Picasso made and painted ceramics. She became his lover, and then his second wife in 1961. The two were together for the remainder of Picasso's life.


  • United Kingdom
    Monday Mar 27, 1961

    James Bond

    Thunderball was published

    United Kingdom
    Monday Mar 27, 1961

    Thunderball is the ninth book in Ian Fleming's James Bond series and the eighth full-length Bond novel. It was first published in the UK by Jonathan Cape on 27 March 1961, where the initial print run of 50,938 copies quickly sold out.


  • South Africa
    Wednesday Mar 29, 1961

    Nelson Mandela

    The Innocence

    South Africa
    Wednesday Mar 29, 1961

    On 29 March 1961, six years after the Treason Trial began, the judges produced a verdict of not guilty, ruling that there was insufficient evidence to convict the accused of "high treason", since they had advocated neither communism nor violent revolution; the outcome embarrassed the government.


  • Bayamo, Cuba
    Monday Apr 3, 1961

    Bay of Pigs Invasion

    Bomb attack on militia barracks

    Bayamo, Cuba
    Monday Apr 3, 1961

    Soon after the success of the Cuban Revolution, militant counter-revolutionary groups developed in an attempt to overthrow the new regime. Undertaking armed attacks against government forces. On 3 April 1961, a bomb attack on militia barracks in Bayamo killed four militia, and wounded eight more.


  • Washington D.C., U.S.
    Tuesday Apr 4, 1961

    Bay of Pigs Invasion

    The Bay of Pigs plan (Operation Zapata)

    Washington D.C., U.S.
    Tuesday Apr 4, 1961

    On 4 April 1961, President Kennedy then approved the Bay of Pigs plan (also known as Operation Zapata), because it had a sufficiently long airfield, it was farther away from large groups of civilians than the Trinidad plan, and it was less "noisy" militarily, which would make denial of direct US involvement more plausible. The invasion landing area was changed to beaches bordering the Bahía de Cochinos (Bay of Pigs) in Las Villas Province.


  • U.S.
    Tuesday Apr 4, 1961

    John F. Kennedy

    Final Invasion Plan

    U.S.
    Tuesday Apr 4, 1961

    The Eisenhower administration had created a plan to overthrow Fidel Castro's regime in Cuba. Led by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), with help from the U.S. military, the plan was for an invasion of Cuba by a counter-revolutionary insurgency composed of U.S.-trained, anti-Castro Cuban exiles led by CIA paramilitary officers. The intention was to invade Cuba and instigate an uprising among the Cuban people, hoping to remove Castro from power. Kennedy approved the final invasion plan on April 4, 1961.


  • Puerto Cabezas, Nicaragua
    Sunday Apr 9, 1961

    Bay of Pigs Invasion

    Brigade 2506 Started Transferring To Puerto Cabezas

    Puerto Cabezas, Nicaragua
    Sunday Apr 9, 1961

    On 9 April 1961, Brigade 2506 personnel, ships, and aircraft started transferring from Guatemala to Puerto Cabezas. Curtiss C-46s were also used for transport between Retalhuleu and a CIA base (code-named JMTide, aka Happy Valley) at Puerto Cabezas.


  • Havana, Cuba
    Thursday Apr 13, 1961

    Bay of Pigs Invasion

    The El Encanto Fire

    Havana, Cuba
    Thursday Apr 13, 1961

    The Cuban security apparatus knew the invasion was coming, via their extensive secret intelligence network. Nevertheless, days before the invasion, multiple acts of sabotage were carried out, such as the El Encanto fire, an arson attack in a department store in Havana on 13 April that killed one shop worker.


  • Puerto Cabezas, Nicaragua
    Friday Apr 14, 1961

    Bay of Pigs Invasion

    The invasion Fleet

    Puerto Cabezas, Nicaragua
    Friday Apr 14, 1961

    Under cover of darkness, the invasion fleet set sail from Puerto Cabezas, Nicaragua and headed towards the Bay of Pigs on the night of 14 April.


  • Miami Beach, Florida, U.S.
    Saturday Apr 15, 1961

    Bay of Pigs Invasion

    Deception flight

    Miami Beach, Florida, U.S.
    Saturday Apr 15, 1961

    About 90 minutes after the eight B-26s had taken off from Puerto Cabezas to attack Cuban airfields, another B-26 departed on a deception flight that took it close to Cuba but headed north towards Florida. Like the bomber groups, it carried false FAR markings and the same number 933 as painted on at least two of the others. Before departure, the cowling from one of the aircraft's two engines was removed by CIA personnel, fired upon, then re-installed to give the false appearance that the aircraft had taken ground fire at some point during its flight. At a safe distance north of Cuba, the pilot feathered the engine with the pre-installed bullet holes in the cowling, radioed a mayday call, and requested immediate permission to land at Miami International airport. He landed and taxied to the military area of the airport near an Air Force C-47 and was met by several government cars. The pilot was Mario Zúñiga, formerly of the FAEC (Cuban Air Force under Batista), and after landing, he masqueraded as 'Juan Garcia' and publicly claimed that three colleagues had also defected from the FAR.


  • Cuba
    Saturday Apr 15, 1961

    Fidel Castro

    The CIA Attack

    Cuba
    Saturday Apr 15, 1961

    On 15 April, CIA-supplied B-26s bombed three Cuban military airfields; the U.S. announced that the perpetrators were defecting Cuban air force pilots, but Castro exposed these claims as false flag misinformation.


  • Havana, Cuba
    Saturday Apr 15, 1961

    Bay of Pigs Invasion

    The Cuban national police Reaction

    Havana, Cuba
    Saturday Apr 15, 1961

    On April 15,The Cuban national police, led by Efigenio Ameijeiras, started the process of arresting thousands of suspected anti-revolutionary individuals, and detaining them in provisional locations such as the Karl Marx Theatre, the moat of Fortaleza de la Cabana and the Principe Castle all in Havana, and the baseball park in Matanzas.


  • Baracoa, Cuba
    Saturday Apr 15, 1961

    Bay of Pigs Invasion

    Sending reconnaissance sortie

    Baracoa, Cuba
    Saturday Apr 15, 1961

    During the night of 14/15 April, a diversionary landing was planned near Baracoa, Oriente Province, by about 164 Cuban exiles commanded by Higinio 'Nino' Diaz.The reconnaissance boats turned back to the ship after their crews detected activities by Cuban militia forces along the coastline. As a result of those activities, at daybreak, a reconnaissance sortie over the Baracoa area was launched from Santiago de Cuba. That was a FAR (Fuerza Aérea Revolucionaria) (Cuban Air Force) T-33, piloted by Lt Orestes Acosta, and it crashed fatally into the sea.


  • Las Villas, Santiago de Cuba, Cuba
    Sunday Apr 16, 1961

    Bay of Pigs Invasion

    The armed uprising

    Las Villas, Santiago de Cuba, Cuba
    Sunday Apr 16, 1961

    On 16 April, Merardo Leon, Jose Leon, and 14 others staged an armed uprising at Las Delicias Estate in Las Villas, with only four surviving. Leonel Martinez and three others took to the countryside.


  • Baracoa, Cuba
    Sunday Apr 16, 1961

    Bay of Pigs Invasion

    Failing to land near Baracoa

    Baracoa, Cuba
    Sunday Apr 16, 1961

    On the night of 15/16 April, the Nino Diaz group failed in a second attempted diversionary landing at a different location near Baracoa.


  • South of Cuba
    Sunday Apr 16, 1961

    Bay of Pigs Invasion

    The Brigade 2506 invasion fleet converged on 'Rendezvous Point Zulu'

    South of Cuba
    Sunday Apr 16, 1961

    Late on 16 April, the CIA/Brigade 2506 invasion fleet converged on 'Rendezvous Point Zulu', about 65 kilometres (40 mi) south of Cuba, having sailed from Puerto Cabezas in Nicaragua where they had been loaded with troops and other materiel, after loading arms and supplies at New Orleans.


  • Bahía Honda, Pinar del Río Province, Cuba
    Monday Apr 17, 1961

    Bay of Pigs Invasion

    The mock diversionary Landing

    Bahía Honda, Pinar del Río Province, Cuba
    Monday Apr 17, 1961

    During the night of 16/17 April, a mock diversionary landing was organized by CIA operatives near Bahía Honda, Pinar del Río Province. A flotilla containing equipment that broadcast sounds and other effects of a shipborne invasion landing provided the source of Cuban reports that briefly lured Fidel Castro away from the Bay of Pigs battlefront area.


  • Aromas de Velázquez, Cuba
    Monday Apr 17, 1961

    Bay of Pigs Invasion

    Capturing Osvaldo Ramírez

    Aromas de Velázquez, Cuba
    Monday Apr 17, 1961

    On 17 April 1961, Osvaldo Ramírez (leader of the rural resistance to Castro) was captured by Castro's forces in Aromas de Velázquez, and immediately executed.


  • The Bay of Pigs, Cuba
    Monday Apr 17, 1961

    Fidel Castro

    The Bay of Pigs Invasion

    The Bay of Pigs, Cuba
    Monday Apr 17, 1961

    The CIA and the Democratic Revolutionary Front had based a 1,400-strong army, Brigade 2506, in Nicaragua. On the night of 16 to 17 April, Brigade 2506 landed along Cuba's Bay of Pigs and engaged in a firefight with a local revolutionary militia .


  • Cuba
    Monday Apr 17, 1961

    Che Guevara

    Bay of Pigs

    Cuba
    Monday Apr 17, 1961

    On April 17, 1961, 1,400 U.S.-trained Cuban exiles invaded Cuba during the Bay of Pigs Invasion. Guevara did not play a key role in the fighting, as one day before the invasion a warship carrying Marines faked an invasion off the West Coast of Pinar del Río and drew forces commanded by Guevara to that region.


  • Cuba
    Monday Apr 17, 1961

    John F. Kennedy

    Bay of Pigs

    Cuba
    Monday Apr 17, 1961

    The Bay of Pigs Invasion began on April 17, 1961.


  • Cuba
    Monday Apr 17, 1961

    Bay of Pigs Invasion

    Attacking CEF ships

    Cuba
    Monday Apr 17, 1961

    At daybreak around 06:30 am, three FAR Sea Furies, one B-26 bomber and two Lockheed T-33 fighter jets started attacking those CEF ships still unloading troops.


  • Girón, San Román, Cuba
    Monday Apr 17, 1961

    Bay of Pigs Invasion

    Arriving at Girón

    Girón, San Román, Cuba
    Monday Apr 17, 1961

    As the men from Red Beach arrived at Girón, San Román and Oliva met to discuss the situation. With ammunition running low, Oliva suggested that the Brigade 2506 retreat into the Escambray mountains to wage guerilla warfare, but San Román decided to hold the beachhead.


  • Playa Larga, Cuba
    Monday Apr 17, 1961

    Bay of Pigs Invasion

    Airdrops From four C-54s and 2 C-46s had Failled

    Playa Larga, Cuba
    Monday Apr 17, 1961

    During the night of 17–18 April, the force at Red Beach came under repeated counter-attacks from the Cuban Army and militia. As casualties mounted and ammunition was used up, the brigadistas steadily gave way. Airdrops from four C-54s and 2 C-46s had only limited success in landing more ammunition.


  • Girón, Cuba
    Tuesday Apr 18, 1961

    Bay of Pigs Invasion

    Delivering arms and equipment to the Girón airstrip

    Girón, Cuba
    Tuesday Apr 18, 1961

    During the night of 18 April, a FAL C-46 delivered arms and equipment to the Girón airstrip occupied by Brigade 2506 ground forces and took off before daybreak on 19 April.


  • Cuba
    Wednesday Apr 19, 1961

    John F. Kennedy

    Bay of Pigs Negotiations

    Cuba
    Wednesday Apr 19, 1961

    By April 19, 1961, the Cuban government had captured or killed the invading exiles, and Kennedy was forced to negotiate for the release of the 1,189 survivors. Twenty months later, Cuba released the captured exiles in exchange for $53 million worth of food and medicine.


  • Cuba
    Wednesday Apr 19, 1961

    Bay of Pigs Invasion

    The Final air attack mission

    Cuba
    Wednesday Apr 19, 1961

    The final air attack mission (code-named Mad Dog Flight) comprised five B-26s, four of which were manned by American CIA contract aircrews and volunteer pilots from the Alabama Air Guard. One FAR Sea Fury (piloted by Douglas Rudd) and two FAR T-33s (piloted by Rafael del Pino and Alvaro Prendes) shot down two of these B-26s, killing four American airmen. Combat air patrols were flown by Douglas A4D-2N Skyhawk jets of VA-34 squadron operating from USS Essex, with nationality and other markings removed. Sorties were flown to reassure Brigade soldiers and pilots, and to intimidate Cuban government forces without directly engaging in acts of war.


  • Pinar del Río Province, Cuba
    Wednesday Apr 19, 1961

    Bay of Pigs Invasion

    Executed Prisoners

    Pinar del Río Province, Cuba
    Wednesday Apr 19, 1961

    On 19 April 1961, at least seven Cubans plus two CIA-hired US citizens (Angus K. McNair and Howard F. Anderson) were executed in Pinar del Rio province, after a two-day trial.


  • Bay of Pigs, Cuba
    Wednesday Apr 19, 1961

    Bay of Pigs Invasion

    Evacuating retreating Brigade Soldiers From Beaches

    Bay of Pigs, Cuba
    Wednesday Apr 19, 1961

    Late on 19 April, destroyers USS Eaton (code-named Santiago) and USS Murray (code-named Tampico) moved into Cochinos Bay to evacuate retreating Brigade soldiers from beaches, before fire from Cuban army tanks caused Commodore Crutchfield to order a withdrawal.


  • Fortaleza de la Cabaña, Havana, Cuba
    Thursday Apr 20, 1961

    Bay of Pigs Invasion

    Humberto Sorí Marin execution

    Fortaleza de la Cabaña, Havana, Cuba
    Thursday Apr 20, 1961

    On 20 April, Humberto Sorí Marin was executed at Fortaleza de la Cabaña, having been arrested on 18 March following infiltration into Cuba with 14 tons of explosives. His fellow conspirators Rogelio González Corzo (alias "Francisco Gutierrez"), Rafael Diaz Hanscom, Eufemio Fernandez, Arturo Hernandez Tellaheche and Manuel Lorenzo Puig Miyar were also executed.


  • The Bay of Pigs, Cuba
    Thursday Apr 20, 1961

    Fidel Castro

    Castro forced the Brigade to Surrender

    The Bay of Pigs, Cuba
    Thursday Apr 20, 1961

    Castro ordered Captain José Ramón Fernández to launch the counter-offensive, before taking personal control of it. After bombing the invaders' ships and bringing in reinforcements, Castro forced the Brigade to surrender on 20 April.


  • Cuba
    Saturday Apr 22, 1961

    Bay of Pigs Invasion

    Searching For Scattered Brigade Survivors

    Cuba
    Saturday Apr 22, 1961

    On 21 April, Eaton and Murray, joined on 22 April by destroyers USS Conway and USS Cony, plus submarine USS Threadfin and a CIA PBY-5A Catalina flying boat, continued to search the coastline, reefs, and islands for scattered Brigade survivors, about 24–30 being rescued.


  • Japan
    Sunday Apr 30, 1961

    Hachikō

    Yaeko Sakano

    Japan
    Sunday Apr 30, 1961

    Yaeko Sakano, more often referred to as Yaeko Ueno, was an unmarried partner to Hidesaburō Ueno for about 10 years until his death in 1925. Hachikō was reported to have shown great happiness and affection towards her whenever she came to visit him. Yaeko died on 30 April 1961 at the age of 76 and was buried at a temple in Taitō, further away from Ueno's grave, despite her requests to her family members to be buried with her late partner.


  • Vienna, Austria
    Sunday Jun 4, 1961

    John F. Kennedy

    Khrushchev meeting

    Vienna, Austria
    Sunday Jun 4, 1961

    On June 4, 1961, the president met with Khrushchev in Vienna and left the meetings angry and disappointed that he had allowed the premier to bully him, despite the warnings he had received.


  • East Germany, Germany
    Thursday Jun 15, 1961

    Berlin Wall

    First time the colloquial term Mauer (wall) had been used in this context

    East Germany, Germany
    Thursday Jun 15, 1961

    On 15 June 1961, First Secretary of the Socialist Unity Party and GDR State Council chairman Walter Ulbricht stated in an international press conference, "Niemand hat die Absicht, eine Mauer zu errichten!" (No one has the intention of erecting a wall!). It was the first time the colloquial term Mauer (wall) had been used in this context.


  • France
    Thursday Jun 29, 1961

    Algerian War

    Fighting was "virtually finished"

    France
    Thursday Jun 29, 1961

    On 29 June 1961, De Gaulle announced on TV that fighting was "virtually finished" and afterwards there was no major fighting between the French Army and the FLN; during the summer of 1961 the OAS and the FLN engaged in a civil war, in which the greater number of the Muslims soon made a difference.


  • Havana, Cuba
    Saturday Jul 1, 1961

    Raúl Castro

    A Member of The National Leadership of The Integrated Revolutionary PO Organizations

    Havana, Cuba
    Saturday Jul 1, 1961

    Raúl Castro Ruiz was a member of the national leadership of the Integrated Revolutionary PO Organizations (established July 1961; dissolved March 1962) and of the United Party of the Socialist Revolution of Cuba (established March 1962; dissolved October 1965).


  • Park House, Sandringham, Norfolk, United Kingdom
    Saturday Jul 1, 1961

    Princess Diana

    Birth

    Park House, Sandringham, Norfolk, United Kingdom
    Saturday Jul 1, 1961

    Diana Frances Spencer was born on 1 July 1961, in Park House, Sandringham, Norfolk.


  • East Germany, Germany
    Tuesday Aug 1, 1961

    Berlin Wall

    Suggestion

    East Germany, Germany
    Tuesday Aug 1, 1961

    The transcript of a telephone call between Nikita Khrushchev (the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964) and Ulbricht, on 1 August in the same year, suggests that the initiative for the construction of the Wall came from Khrushchev.


  • Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.
    Friday Aug 4, 1961

    Barack Obama

    Birth

    Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.
    Friday Aug 4, 1961

    Obama was born on August 4, 1961, at Kapiolani Medical Center for Women and Children in Honolulu, Hawaii.


  • East Germany, Germany
    Wednesday Aug 9, 1961

    Berlin Wall

    Advance Warning Information

    East Germany, Germany
    Wednesday Aug 9, 1961

    On 9 August 1961, the NSA (the American National Security Agency) intercepted an advance warning information of the Socialist Unity Party's plan to close the intra-Berlin border between East and West Berlin completely for foot traffic.


  • East Germany, Germany
    Saturday Aug 12, 1961

    Berlin Wall

    The Order has signed

    East Germany, Germany
    Saturday Aug 12, 1961

    On Saturday, 12 August 1961, the leaders of the GDR attended a garden party at a government guesthouse in Döllnsee, in a wooded area to the north of East Berlin. There, Ulbricht signed the order to close the border and erect a wall.


  • East Germany, Germany
    Sunday Aug 13, 1961

    Berlin Wall

    Barbed Wire Sunday

    East Germany, Germany
    Sunday Aug 13, 1961

    At midnight, the police and units of the East German army began to close the border and, by Sunday morning, 13 August, the border with West Berlin was closed. East German troops and workers had begun to tear up streets running alongside the border to make them impassable to most vehicles and to install barbed wire entanglements and fences along the 156 kilometres (97 mi) around the three western sectors, and the 43 kilometres (27 mi) that divided West and East Berlin. The date of 13 August became commonly referred to as Barbed Wire Sunday in Germany.


  • East Germany, Germany
    Thursday Aug 17, 1961

    Berlin Wall

    The First concrete elements

    East Germany, Germany
    Thursday Aug 17, 1961

    Later, the initial barrier was built up into the Wall proper, the first concrete elements and large blocks being put in place on 17 August.


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