Historydraft LogoHistorydraft Logo HistorydraftbetaHistorydraft Logo Historydraftbeta

  • Iran
    Monday Jan 15, 1979

    Ruhollah Khomeini

    Shah left the country

    Iran
    Monday Jan 15, 1979

    Khomeini was not allowed to return to Iran during the Shah's reign (as he had been in exile). On 16 January 1979, the Shah left the country (ostensibly "on vacation"), never to return.




  • Iran
    Wednesday Jan 31, 1979

    Ruhollah Khomeini

    Return to Iran

    Iran
    Wednesday Jan 31, 1979

    Two weeks later, on Thursday, 1 February 1979, Khomeini returned in triumph to Iran, welcomed by a joyous crowd estimated (by the BBC) to be of up to five million people.




  • Tehran, Iran
    Wednesday Jan 31, 1979

    Iranian Revolution

    Khomeini Returned To Tehran

    Tehran, Iran
    Wednesday Jan 31, 1979

    Bakhtiar invited Khomeini back to Iran, with the intention of creating a Vatican-like state in the holy city of Qom, declaring that "We will soon have the honor of welcoming home the Ayatollah Khomeini". On 1 February 1979 Khomeini returned to Tehran in a chartered Air France Boeing 747. The welcoming crowd of several million Iranians was so large he was forced to take a helicopter after the car taking him from the airport was overwhelmed by an enthusiastic welcoming crowd.




  • Tehran, Iran
    Sunday Feb 4, 1979

    Iranian Revolution

    Khomeini appoints a new government

    Tehran, Iran
    Sunday Feb 4, 1979

    On the day of his arrival Khomeini made clear his rejection of Bakhtiar's government in a speech promising, "I shall kick their teeth in. I appoint the government, I appoint the government in support of this nation". On 5 February at Khomeini's headquarters in the Refah School in southern Tehran, he declared a provisional revolutionary government, appointed opposition leader Mehdi Bazargan (from the religious-nationalist Freedom Movement, affiliated with the National Front) as his own prime minister, and commanded Iranians to obey Bazargan as a religious duty.




  • Tehran, Iran
    Thursday Feb 8, 1979

    Iranian Revolution

    The Rebellion of pro-Khomeini air force Technicians

    Tehran, Iran
    Thursday Feb 8, 1979

    On 9 February, a rebellion of pro-Khomeini air force technicians broke out at the Doshan Tappeh Air Base. A unit of the pro-Shah Immortal Guards attempted to apprehend the rebels, and an armed battle broke out. Soon large crowds took to the streets, building barricades and supporting the rebels, while Islamic-Marxist guerillas with their weapons joined in support.




  • Iran
    Saturday Feb 10, 1979

    Ruhollah Khomeini

    Military declared neutrality

    Iran
    Saturday Feb 10, 1979

    On 11 February, as revolt spread and armories were taken over, the military declared neutrality and the Bakhtiar regime collapsed.




  • Iran
    Saturday Feb 10, 1979

    Ruhollah Khomeini

    Khomeini appointed his own competing interim prime minister

    Iran
    Saturday Feb 10, 1979

    On 11 February, Khomeini appointed his own competing interim prime minister, Mehdi Bazargan, demanding, "since I have appointed him, he must be obeyed." It was "God's government," he warned, disobedience against him or Bazargan was considered a "revolt against God".


  • Tehran, Iran
    Saturday Feb 10, 1979

    Iranian Revolution

    The Final Collapse of The Provisional non-Islamist Government

    Tehran, Iran
    Saturday Feb 10, 1979

    The final collapse of the provisional non-Islamist government came at 2 pm 11 February when the Supreme Military Council declared itself "neutral in the current political disputes... in order to prevent further disorder and bloodshed." All military personnel were ordered back to their bases, effectively yielding control of the entire country to Khomeini. Revolutionaries took over government buildings, TV and radio stations, and palaces of the Pahlavi dynasty, marking the end of the monarchy in Iran. Bakhtiar escaped the palace under a hail of bullets, fleeing Iran in disguise.


  • Iran
    Thursday Mar 29, 1979

    Ruhollah Khomeini

    Replace the monarchy

    Iran
    Thursday Mar 29, 1979

    On 30 and 31 March 1979, a referendum to replace the monarchy with an Islamic Republic passed with 98% voting in favour of the replacement, with the question: "should the monarchy be abolished in favour of an Islamic Government?".


  • Iran
    Thursday Mar 29, 1979

    Iranian Revolution

    The Iranian Islamic Republic referendum

    Iran
    Thursday Mar 29, 1979

    On 30 and 31 March (Farvardin 10, 11) a referendum was held over whether to replace the monarchy with an "Islamic republic". Khomeini called for a massive turnout and only the National Democratic Front, Fadayan, and several Kurdish parties opposed the vote. The results showed that 98.2% had voted in favor of the Islamic Republic.


  • Iran
    Friday May 4, 1979

    Iranian Revolution

    The establishement of The Revolutionary Guard

    Iran
    Friday May 4, 1979

    The Revolutionary Guard, or Pasdaran-e Enqelab, was established by Khomeini on 5 May 1979, as a counterweight both to the armed groups of the left, and to the Shah's military. The guard eventually grew into "a full-scale" military force,becoming "the strongest institution of the revolution."


  • Iran
    Sunday Oct 21, 1979

    Ruhollah Khomeini

    Demanding the Shah's return to Iran for trial

    Iran
    Sunday Oct 21, 1979

    On 22 October 1979, the United States admitted the exiled and ailing Shah into the country for cancer treatment. In Iran, there was an immediate outcry, with both Khomeini and leftist groups demanding the Shah's return to Iran for trial and execution.


  • Tehran, Iran
    Saturday Nov 3, 1979

    Iranian Revolution

    Iran hostage crisis

    Tehran, Iran
    Saturday Nov 3, 1979

    On 4 November 1979 youthful Islamists, calling themselves Muslim Student Followers of the Imam's Line, invaded the US embassy compound in Tehran and seized its staff. Revolutionaries were angry because of how the Shah had fled abroad while the Embassy-based American CIA and British intelligence organized a coup d'état to overthrow his nationalist opponent who was a legitimately elected official. The students held 52 American diplomats hostage for 444 days, which played a role in helping to pass the constitution, suppressing moderates, and otherwise radicalising the revolution.


  • Tehran, Iran
    Saturday Nov 3, 1979

    Ruhollah Khomeini

    Iran hostage crisis

    Tehran, Iran
    Saturday Nov 3, 1979

    On 4 November, a group of Iranian college students calling themselves the Muslim Student Followers of the Imam's Line, took control of the American Embassy in Tehran, holding 52 embassy staff hostage for 444 days – an event known as the Iran hostage crisis.


  • Tehran, Iran
    Saturday Nov 3, 1979

    Iranian Revolution

    The Fall of The provisional government and Bazargan's Resignation

    Tehran, Iran
    Saturday Nov 3, 1979

    The provisional government fell shortly after American Embassy officials were taken hostage on 4 November 1979. Bazargan's resignation was received by Khomeini without complaint, saying "Mr. Bazargan ... was a little tired and preferred to stay on the sidelines for a while." Khomeini later described his appointment of Bazargan as a "mistake."


  • Tehran, Iran
    Saturday Nov 3, 1979

    Jimmy Carter

    Iranian students took over the U.S. Embassy in Tehran

    Tehran, Iran
    Saturday Nov 3, 1979

    On November 4, 1979, a group of Iranian students took over the U.S. Embassy in Tehran. The students belonged to the Muslim Student Followers of the Imam's Line and were in support of the Iranian Revolution.


<