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  • Persian Gate, near Persepolis
    Tuesday Jan 21, 330

    Ancient Greece

    Battle of the Persian Gate

    Persian Gate, near Persepolis
    Tuesday Jan 21, 330

    In the winter of 330 BC, at the Battle of the Persian Gate northeast of today's Yasuj in Iran, the Persian satrap Ariobarzanes led a last stand of the Persian forces. As a result, Alexander consolidated control of half of Persia and captures its dynastic center.




  • Umayyad Caliphate (now Iran)
    Saturday Apr 26, 662

    Disasters with highest death tolls

    662 Damghan Earthquake

    Umayyad Caliphate (now Iran)
    Saturday Apr 26, 662

    662 Damghan earthquake occurred on April 26, 662, in Umayyad Caliphate (now Iran), there were an estimated 40,000 deaths.




  • Abbasid Caliphate (now Iran)
    Friday Jul 15, 850

    Disasters with highest death tolls

    850 Iran Earthquake

    Abbasid Caliphate (now Iran)
    Friday Jul 15, 850

    850 Iran earthquake occurred on July 15, 850, in Abbasid Caliphate (now Iran), there were an estimated 45,000 deaths.




  • Abbasid Caliphate (now Iran)
    Friday Dec 22, 856

    Disasters with highest death tolls

    856 Damghan Earthquake

    Abbasid Caliphate (now Iran)
    Friday Dec 22, 856

    The 856 Damghan earthquake or the 856 Qumis earthquake occurred on 22 December 856 (242 AH). The earthquake had an estimated magnitude of 7.9, and a maximum intensity of X (Extreme) on the Mercalli intensity scale. The earthquake's epicenter is estimated to be close to the city of Damghan, which was then the capital of the Persian province of Qumis. It caused approximately 200,000 deaths and is listed by the USGS as the sixth deadliest earthquake in recorded history.




  • Abbasid Caliphate (now Iran)
    Monday Mar 23, 893

    Disasters with highest death tolls

    893 Ardabil Earthquake

    Abbasid Caliphate (now Iran)
    Monday Mar 23, 893

    Several earthquake catalogues and historical sources describe the 893 Ardabil earthquake as a destructive earthquake that struck the city of Ardabil, Iran, on 23 March 893. The magnitude is unknown, but the death toll was reported to be very large. The USGS, in their "List of Earthquakes with 50,000 or More Deaths", give an estimate that 150,000 were killed, which would make it the ninth deadliest earthquake in history.




  • Abbasid Caliphate (now Iran)
    Friday Nov 4, 1042

    Disasters with highest death tolls

    1042 Tabriz Earthquake

    Abbasid Caliphate (now Iran)
    Friday Nov 4, 1042

    1042 Tabriz earthquake occurred on November 4, 1042, in Abbasid Caliphate (now Iran), there were an estimated 50,000 deaths.




  • Tabriz, East Azarbaijan, Iran
    Saturday Apr 26, 1721

    Disasters with highest death tolls

    1721 Tabriz Earthquake

    Tabriz, East Azarbaijan, Iran
    Saturday Apr 26, 1721

    The 1721 Tabriz earthquake occurred on April 26, with an epicenter near the city of Tabriz, Iran. It leveled some three-quarters of the city, The total number of casualties caused by the earthquake is between 8,000 and 250,000; it was most likely approximately 80,000.


  • Tabriz, Iran
    Tuesday Nov 18, 1727

    1727 Tabriz earthquake

    The Disaster

    Tabriz, Iran
    Tuesday Nov 18, 1727

    The 1727 Tabriz earthquake occurred on 18 November with an epicenter near Tabriz in northwest Iran. The maximum felt intensity was VIII (Severe) on the Mercalli intensity scale, and there were an estimated 77,000 deaths. The only record for this earthquake comes from an account written in 1821 and it is very likely that the information for this earthquake refers instead to the 1721 Tabriz earthquake.


  • Tabriz, East Azarbaijan, Iran
    Tuesday Nov 18, 1727

    Disasters with highest death tolls

    1727 Tabriz Earthquake

    Tabriz, East Azarbaijan, Iran
    Tuesday Nov 18, 1727

    The 1727 Tabriz earthquake occurred on 18 November with an epicenter near Tabriz in northwest Iran. The maximum felt intensity was VIII (Severe) on the Mercalli intensity scale, and there were an estimated 77,000 deaths.


  • Iran
    Saturday Jun 7, 1755

    Disasters with highest death tolls

    1755 Tabriz Earthquake

    Iran
    Saturday Jun 7, 1755

    1755 Tabriz earthquake occurred on June 7, 1755, in Iran, there were an estimated 40,000 deaths.


  • Iran
    Saturday Jan 8, 1780

    Disasters with highest death tolls

    1780 Tabriz Earthquake

    Iran
    Saturday Jan 8, 1780

    1780 Tabriz earthquake occurred on January 8, 1780 in Iran, there were an estimated 200,000 deaths.


  • Khomeyn, Markazi Province, Iran
    Tuesday Sep 23, 1902

    Ruhollah Khomeini

    Birth

    Khomeyn, Markazi Province, Iran
    Tuesday Sep 23, 1902

    Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini, whose first name means "spirit of Allah", was born on 24 September 1902 in Khomeyn, Markazi Province.


  • Imperial State of Iran (Present Day Iran)
    Monday Aug 25, 1941

    World War II

    Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran

    Imperial State of Iran (Present Day Iran)
    Monday Aug 25, 1941

    The British and Soviets invaded neutral Iran to secure the Persian Corridor and Iran's oil fields. The invasion took place from 25 to 31 August.


  • Tehran, Iran
    Saturday Nov 27, 1943

    Josip Broz Tito

    The Tehran Conference

    Tehran, Iran
    Saturday Nov 27, 1943

    After the Partisans managed to endure and avoid these intense Axis attacks between January and June 1943, and the extent of Chetnik collaboration became evident, Allied leaders switched their support from Draža Mihailović to Tito. King Peter II, American President Franklin Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill joined Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin in officially recognising Tito and the Partisans at the Tehran Conference.


  • Tehran, Iran
    Sunday Nov 28, 1943

    Winston Churchill

    Tehran Conference

    Tehran, Iran
    Sunday Nov 28, 1943

    The most important conference of the year was soon afterward (28 November to 1 December) at Tehran (codenamed Eureka), where Churchill and Roosevelt met Stalin in the first of the "Big Three" meetings.


  • Tehran, Iran
    Monday Nov 29, 1943

    World War II

    Tehran Conference

    Tehran, Iran
    Monday Nov 29, 1943

    The Tehran Conference was a strategy meeting of Joseph Stalin, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Winston Churchill from 28 November to 1 December 1943, after the Anglo-Soviet Invasion of Iran.


  • Qanat-e Malek, Kerman Province, Iran
    Monday Mar 11, 1957

    Qasem Soleimani

    Birth

    Qanat-e Malek, Kerman Province, Iran
    Monday Mar 11, 1957

    Soleimani was born on 11 March 1957, in the village of Qanat-e Malek, Kerman Province.


  • Iran
    Monday Jan 21, 1963

    Ruhollah Khomeini

    Khomeini issued a strongly worded declaration denouncing the Shah and his plans

    Iran
    Monday Jan 21, 1963

    On 22 January 1963 Khomeini issued a strongly worded declaration denouncing the Shah and his plans. Two days later the Shah took an armored column to Qom, and delivered a speech harshly attacking the ulama as a class.


  • Iran
    Sunday Jun 2, 1963

    Ruhollah Khomeini

    The Feyziyeh madrasah speech

    Iran
    Sunday Jun 2, 1963

    On the afternoon of 'Ashura (3 June 1963), Khomeini delivered a speech at the Feyziyeh madrasah drawing parallels between the Sunni Muslim caliph Yazid, who is perceived as a 'tyrant' by Shias, and the Shah, denouncing the Shah as a "wretched, miserable man," and warning him that if he did not change his ways the day would come when the people would offer up thanks for his departure from the country.


  • Iran
    Tuesday Jun 4, 1963

    Ruhollah Khomeini

    Detained

    Iran
    Tuesday Jun 4, 1963

    On 5 June 1963 (15 of Khordad) at 3:00 am, two days after this public denunciation of the Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Khomeini was detained in Qom and transferred to Tehran.


  • Iran
    Sunday Oct 25, 1964

    Ruhollah Khomeini

    Khomeini denounced both the Shah and the United States

    Iran
    Sunday Oct 25, 1964

    On 26 October 1964, Khomeini denounced both the Shah and the United States. This time it was in response to the "capitulations" or diplomatic immunity granted by the Shah to American military personnel in Iran.


  • Abadan, Iran
    Thursday Aug 18, 1977

    Iranian Revolution

    Cinema Rex fire

    Abadan, Iran
    Thursday Aug 18, 1977

    On 19 August, in the southwestern city of Abadan, four arsonists barred the door of the Cinema Rex movie theatre and set it on fire. In what was the largest terrorist attack in history prior to the 11 September 2001 attacks, 422 people inside the theatre were burned to death. Khomeini immediately blamed the Shah and SAVAK for setting the fire. Due to the pervasive revolutionary atmosphere, the public also blamed the Shah for starting the fire, despite the government's insistence that they were uninvolved.


  • Iran
    Friday Jan 6, 1978

    Iranian Revolution

    The article "Iran and Red and Black Colonization"

    Iran
    Friday Jan 6, 1978

    On 7 January 1978, an article ("Iran and Red and Black Colonization") appeared in the national daily Ettela'at newspaper. Written under a pseudonym by a government agent, it denounced Khomeini as a "British agent" and a "mad Indian poet" conspiring to sell out Iran to neo-colonialists and communists. Upon the publishing of the article, religious seminary students in the city of Qom, angered over the insult to Khomeini, clashed with police. According to the government, two were killed in the clash; according to the opposition, seventy were killed and over five hundred were injured. However, the casualty figures are different in different sources.


  • Tabriz, Iran
    Friday Feb 17, 1978

    Iranian Revolution

    Demonstrations broke out in various different cities

    Tabriz, Iran
    Friday Feb 17, 1978

    According to the Shi'ite customs, memorial services (referred to as chehelom) are held forty days after a person's death. Encouraged by Khomeini (who declared that the blood of martyrs must water the "tree of Islam"), radicals pressured the mosques and moderate clergy to commemorate the deaths of the students, and used the occasion to generate protests. The informal network of mosques and bazaars, which for years had been used to carry out religious events, increasingly became consolidated as a coordinated protest organization. On 18 February, forty days after Qom clashes, demonstrations broke out in various different cities. The largest was in Tabriz, which descended into a full-scale riot. "Western" and government symbols such as cinemas, bars, state-owned banks, and police stations were set ablaze. Units of Imperial Iranian Army were deployed to the city to restore order, and the death toll, according to government was six, while Khomeini claimed hundreds were "martyred".


  • Isfahan, Iran
    Thursday Aug 10, 1978

    Iranian Revolution

    Martial law was declared in Isfahan

    Isfahan, Iran
    Thursday Aug 10, 1978

    A series of escalating protests broke out in major cities, and deadly riots broke out in Isfahan where protesters fought for the release of Ayatollah Jalaluddin Taheri. Martial law was declared in the city on 11 August as symbols of Western culture and government buildings were burned, and a bus full of American workers was bombed. Due to his failure to stop the protests, Prime Minister Amuzegar offered his resignation.


  • Iran
    Saturday Aug 26, 1978

    Iranian Revolution

    Appointment of Jafar Sharif-Emami as prime minister

    Iran
    Saturday Aug 26, 1978

    The Shah increasingly felt that he was losing control of the situation and hoped to regain it through complete appeasement. He decided to appoint Jafar Sharif-Emami to the post of prime minister, himself a veteran prime minister. Emami was chosen due to his family ties to the clergy, but he had a reputation of corruption during his previous premiership. Under the Shah's guidance, Sharif-Emami effectively began a policy of "appeasing the opposition's demands before they even made them".


  • Tehran, Iran
    Sunday Sep 3, 1978

    Iranian Revolution

    The large march of Eid-e-Fitr

    Tehran, Iran
    Sunday Sep 3, 1978

    4 September was Eid-e-Fitr, the holiday celebrating the end of the month of Ramadan. A permit for an open air prayer was granted, in which 200,000–500,000 people attended. Instead, the clergy directed the crowd on a large march through the center of Tehran (the Shah reportedly watched the march from his helicopter, unnerved and confused). A few days later even larger protests took place, and for the first time protesters called for Khomeini's return and the establishment of an Islamic republic.


  • Tehran, Iran
    Thursday Sep 7, 1978

    Iranian Revolution

    The Shah declared martial law in Tehran and 11 other major cities

    Tehran, Iran
    Thursday Sep 7, 1978

    At midnight on 8 September, the Shah declared martial law in Tehran and 11 other major cities throughout the country. All street demonstrations were banned, and a night-time curfew was established. Tehran's martial law commander was General Gholam-Ali Oveissi, who was known for his severity against opponents.


  • Tehran, Iran
    Friday Sep 8, 1978

    Iranian Revolution

    Workers' strike at Tehran's main oil refinery

    Tehran, Iran
    Friday Sep 8, 1978

    On 9 September, 700 workers at Tehran's main oil refinery went on strike, and on 11 September the same occurred at refineries in five other cities.


  • Tehran, Iran
    Tuesday Sep 12, 1978

    Iranian Revolution

    Government workers' strike at Tehran's

    Tehran, Iran
    Tuesday Sep 12, 1978

    On 13 September, central government workers in Tehran simultaneously went on strike.


  • Tehran, Iran
    Saturday Nov 4, 1978

    Iranian Revolution

    The Day Tehran Burned

    Tehran, Iran
    Saturday Nov 4, 1978

    On 5 November, demonstrations at University of Tehran became deadly after a fight broke out with armed soldiers. Within hours, Tehran broke out into a full-scale riot. Block after block of Western symbols such as movie theaters and department stores, as well as government and police buildings, were seized, looted, and burned. The British embassy in Tehran was partially burned and vandalized as well, and the American embassy nearly suffered the same fate (the event became known to foreign observers as "The Day Tehran Burned").


  • Iran
    Sunday Nov 5, 1978

    Iranian Revolution

    Appointment of a military government

    Iran
    Sunday Nov 5, 1978

    On 6 November, the Shah dismissed Sharif-Emami from the post of prime minister, and chose to appoint a military government in its place. The Shah chose General Gholam-Reza Azhari to be prime minister because of his mild-mannered approach to the situation. The cabinet he would choose was a military cabinet in name only and consisted primarily of civilian leaders.


  • Iran
    Friday Dec 1, 1978

    Iranian Revolution

    The Muharram protests

    Iran
    Friday Dec 1, 1978

    On 2 December 1978, the Muharram protests began. Named for the Islamic month they began in, the Muharram protests were impressively huge and pivotal. Over two million protesters (many of whom were teenagers organized by the mullahs from the mosques of southern Tehran) took to the streets, crowding Shahyad Square. Protesters frequently went out at night, defying the set curfew, often taking to rooftops and shouting "Allahu-Akbar" (God is Great). According to one witness, many of the clashes on the street had an air of playfulness rather than seriousness, with security forces using "kid gloves" against the opposition (nevertheless, the government reported at least 12 opposition deaths).


  • Lavizan barracks, Tehran, Iran
    Sunday Dec 10, 1978

    Iranian Revolution

    Demoralization of The Army

    Lavizan barracks, Tehran, Iran
    Sunday Dec 10, 1978

    On 11 December, a dozen officers were shot dead by their own troops at Tehran's Lavizan barracks. Fearing further mutinies, many soldiers were returned to their barracks.Mashhad (the second largest city in Iran) was abandoned to the protesters, and in many provincial towns demonstrators were effectively in control.


  • Iran
    Wednesday Dec 27, 1978

    Iranian Revolution

    The return To Civilian Rule

    Iran
    Wednesday Dec 27, 1978

    The Shah began to search for a new prime minister, one who was a civilian and a member of the opposition. On 28 December, he secured an agreement with another major National Front figure, Shahpour Bakhtiar. Bakhtiar would be appointed prime minister (a return to civilian rule), while the Shah and his family would leave the country for a "vacation". His royal duties would be carried out by a Regency Council, and three months after his departure a referendum would be submitted to the people deciding on whether Iran would remain a monarchy or become a republic. A former opponent of the Shah, Bakhtiar became motivated to join the government because he was increasingly aware of Khomeini's intentions to implement hard-line religious rule rather than a democracy. Karim Sanjabi immediately expelled Bakhtiar from the National Front, and Bakhtiar was denounced by Khomeini (who declared that acceptance of his government was the equivalent of "obedience to false gods").


  • Iran
    Monday Jan 15, 1979

    Ruhollah Khomeini

    Shah left the country

    Iran
    Monday Jan 15, 1979

    Khomeini was not allowed to return to Iran during the Shah's reign (as he had been in exile). On 16 January 1979, the Shah left the country (ostensibly "on vacation"), never to return.


  • Tehran, Iran
    Wednesday Jan 31, 1979

    Iranian Revolution

    Khomeini Returned To Tehran

    Tehran, Iran
    Wednesday Jan 31, 1979

    Bakhtiar invited Khomeini back to Iran, with the intention of creating a Vatican-like state in the holy city of Qom, declaring that "We will soon have the honor of welcoming home the Ayatollah Khomeini". On 1 February 1979 Khomeini returned to Tehran in a chartered Air France Boeing 747. The welcoming crowd of several million Iranians was so large he was forced to take a helicopter after the car taking him from the airport was overwhelmed by an enthusiastic welcoming crowd.


  • Iran
    Wednesday Jan 31, 1979

    Ruhollah Khomeini

    Return to Iran

    Iran
    Wednesday Jan 31, 1979

    Two weeks later, on Thursday, 1 February 1979, Khomeini returned in triumph to Iran, welcomed by a joyous crowd estimated (by the BBC) to be of up to five million people.


  • Tehran, Iran
    Sunday Feb 4, 1979

    Iranian Revolution

    Khomeini appoints a new government

    Tehran, Iran
    Sunday Feb 4, 1979

    On the day of his arrival Khomeini made clear his rejection of Bakhtiar's government in a speech promising, "I shall kick their teeth in. I appoint the government, I appoint the government in support of this nation". On 5 February at Khomeini's headquarters in the Refah School in southern Tehran, he declared a provisional revolutionary government, appointed opposition leader Mehdi Bazargan (from the religious-nationalist Freedom Movement, affiliated with the National Front) as his own prime minister, and commanded Iranians to obey Bazargan as a religious duty.


  • Tehran, Iran
    Thursday Feb 8, 1979

    Iranian Revolution

    The Rebellion of pro-Khomeini air force Technicians

    Tehran, Iran
    Thursday Feb 8, 1979

    On 9 February, a rebellion of pro-Khomeini air force technicians broke out at the Doshan Tappeh Air Base. A unit of the pro-Shah Immortal Guards attempted to apprehend the rebels, and an armed battle broke out. Soon large crowds took to the streets, building barricades and supporting the rebels, while Islamic-Marxist guerillas with their weapons joined in support.


  • Tehran, Iran
    Saturday Feb 10, 1979

    Iranian Revolution

    The Final Collapse of The Provisional non-Islamist Government

    Tehran, Iran
    Saturday Feb 10, 1979

    The final collapse of the provisional non-Islamist government came at 2 pm 11 February when the Supreme Military Council declared itself "neutral in the current political disputes... in order to prevent further disorder and bloodshed." All military personnel were ordered back to their bases, effectively yielding control of the entire country to Khomeini. Revolutionaries took over government buildings, TV and radio stations, and palaces of the Pahlavi dynasty, marking the end of the monarchy in Iran. Bakhtiar escaped the palace under a hail of bullets, fleeing Iran in disguise.


  • Iran
    Saturday Feb 10, 1979

    Ruhollah Khomeini

    Military declared neutrality

    Iran
    Saturday Feb 10, 1979

    On 11 February, as revolt spread and armories were taken over, the military declared neutrality and the Bakhtiar regime collapsed.


  • Iran
    Saturday Feb 10, 1979

    Ruhollah Khomeini

    Khomeini appointed his own competing interim prime minister

    Iran
    Saturday Feb 10, 1979

    On 11 February, Khomeini appointed his own competing interim prime minister, Mehdi Bazargan, demanding, "since I have appointed him, he must be obeyed." It was "God's government," he warned, disobedience against him or Bazargan was considered a "revolt against God".


  • Iran
    Thursday Mar 29, 1979

    Ruhollah Khomeini

    Replace the monarchy

    Iran
    Thursday Mar 29, 1979

    On 30 and 31 March 1979, a referendum to replace the monarchy with an Islamic Republic passed with 98% voting in favour of the replacement, with the question: "should the monarchy be abolished in favour of an Islamic Government?".


  • Iran
    Thursday Mar 29, 1979

    Iranian Revolution

    The Iranian Islamic Republic referendum

    Iran
    Thursday Mar 29, 1979

    On 30 and 31 March (Farvardin 10, 11) a referendum was held over whether to replace the monarchy with an "Islamic republic". Khomeini called for a massive turnout and only the National Democratic Front, Fadayan, and several Kurdish parties opposed the vote. The results showed that 98.2% had voted in favor of the Islamic Republic.


  • Iran
    Friday May 4, 1979

    Iranian Revolution

    The establishement of The Revolutionary Guard

    Iran
    Friday May 4, 1979

    The Revolutionary Guard, or Pasdaran-e Enqelab, was established by Khomeini on 5 May 1979, as a counterweight both to the armed groups of the left, and to the Shah's military. The guard eventually grew into "a full-scale" military force,becoming "the strongest institution of the revolution."


  • Iran
    Sunday Oct 21, 1979

    Ruhollah Khomeini

    Demanding the Shah's return to Iran for trial

    Iran
    Sunday Oct 21, 1979

    On 22 October 1979, the United States admitted the exiled and ailing Shah into the country for cancer treatment. In Iran, there was an immediate outcry, with both Khomeini and leftist groups demanding the Shah's return to Iran for trial and execution.


  • Tehran, Iran
    Saturday Nov 3, 1979

    Jimmy Carter

    Iranian students took over the U.S. Embassy in Tehran

    Tehran, Iran
    Saturday Nov 3, 1979

    On November 4, 1979, a group of Iranian students took over the U.S. Embassy in Tehran. The students belonged to the Muslim Student Followers of the Imam's Line and were in support of the Iranian Revolution.


  • Tehran, Iran
    Saturday Nov 3, 1979

    Iranian Revolution

    The Fall of The provisional government and Bazargan's Resignation

    Tehran, Iran
    Saturday Nov 3, 1979

    The provisional government fell shortly after American Embassy officials were taken hostage on 4 November 1979. Bazargan's resignation was received by Khomeini without complaint, saying "Mr. Bazargan ... was a little tired and preferred to stay on the sidelines for a while." Khomeini later described his appointment of Bazargan as a "mistake."


  • Tehran, Iran
    Saturday Nov 3, 1979

    Ruhollah Khomeini

    Iran hostage crisis

    Tehran, Iran
    Saturday Nov 3, 1979

    On 4 November, a group of Iranian college students calling themselves the Muslim Student Followers of the Imam's Line, took control of the American Embassy in Tehran, holding 52 embassy staff hostage for 444 days – an event known as the Iran hostage crisis.


  • Tehran, Iran
    Saturday Nov 3, 1979

    Iranian Revolution

    Iran hostage crisis

    Tehran, Iran
    Saturday Nov 3, 1979

    On 4 November 1979 youthful Islamists, calling themselves Muslim Student Followers of the Imam's Line, invaded the US embassy compound in Tehran and seized its staff. Revolutionaries were angry because of how the Shah had fled abroad while the Embassy-based American CIA and British intelligence organized a coup d'état to overthrow his nationalist opponent who was a legitimately elected official. The students held 52 American diplomats hostage for 444 days, which played a role in helping to pass the constitution, suppressing moderates, and otherwise radicalising the revolution.


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