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  • Tian'anmen Square, Dongcheng, Beijing, China
    Saturday Apr 15, 1989

    1989 Tiananmen Square protests

    Small Spontaneous gatherings to mourn Hu Yaobang

    Tian'anmen Square, Dongcheng, Beijing, China
    Saturday Apr 15, 1989

    Small spontaneous gatherings to mourn Hu began on 15 April around Monument to the People's Heroes at Tiananmen Square. On the same day, many students at Peking University (PKU) and Tsinghua University erected shrines, and joined the gathering in Tiananmen Square in a piecemeal fashion.




  • Beijing, China
    Saturday Apr 15, 1989

    1989 Tiananmen Square protests

    The Death of Hu Yaobang

    Beijing, China
    Saturday Apr 15, 1989

    When Hu Yaobang suddenly died of a heart attack on 15 April 1989, students reacted strongly, most of them believing that his death was related to his forced resignation. Hu's death provided the initial impetus for students to gather in large numbers.




  • Beijing, China
    Saturday Apr 15, 1989

    Hong Kong independence

    Tiananmen Square crackdown

    Beijing, China
    Saturday Apr 15, 1989

    From 1983 to 1997, Hong Kong saw an exodus of emigrants to overseas countries, especially in the wake of the 1989 Tiananmen Square crackdown, which more than a million Hongkongers showed up on the streets to support to student protesters in Beijing. The Tiananmen incident of 1989 strengthened anti-Beijing sentiments and also led to the emergence of the local democracy movement, which demanded a faster pace of democratisation before and after 1997.




  • Shanghai, China - Xi'an, Shaanxi, China
    Sunday Apr 16, 1989

    1989 Tiananmen Square protests

    Student gatherings in Xi'an and Shanghai

    Shanghai, China - Xi'an, Shaanxi, China
    Sunday Apr 16, 1989

    Organized student gatherings began on a small scale in Xi'an and Shanghai on 16 April.




  • Beijing, China
    Monday Apr 17, 1989

    1989 Tiananmen Square protests

    Students at the (CUPL) made a Large Wreath to Commemorate Hu Yaobang

    Beijing, China
    Monday Apr 17, 1989

    On 17 April, students at the China University of Political Science and Law (CUPL) made a large wreath to commemorate Hu Yaobang. Its laying-party was on 17 April and a larger-than-expected crowd assembled. At 5 pm, 500 CUPL students reached the eastern gate of the Great Hall of the People, near Tiananmen Square, to mourn Hu. The gathering featured speakers from various backgrounds giving public orations commemorating Hu and discussing social problems. However, it was soon deemed obstructive to the operation of the Great Hall, so police tried to persuade the students to disperse.




  • Tian'anmen Square, Dongcheng, Beijing, China
    Monday Apr 17, 1989

    1989 Tiananmen Square protests

    Three Thousand PKU Students marched from the Campus Towards Tiananmen Square

    Tian'anmen Square, Dongcheng, Beijing, China
    Monday Apr 17, 1989

    Starting on the night of 17 April, three thousand PKU students marched from the campus towards Tiananmen Square, and soon nearly a thousand students from Tsinghua joined. Upon arrival, they soon joined forces with those already gathered at the Square. As its size grew, the gathering gradually evolved into a protest, as students began to draft a list of pleas and suggestions (Seven Demands) for the government.




  • Zhongnanhai, Beijing, China
    Tuesday Apr 18, 1989

    1989 Tiananmen Square protests

    A few thousand students gathered at Xinhua Gate, Where They demanded dialogue with the leadership

    Zhongnanhai, Beijing, China
    Tuesday Apr 18, 1989

    On the morning of 18 April, students remained in the Square. Some gathered around the Monument to the People's Heroes singing patriotic songs and listening to impromptu speeches by student organizers, others gathered at the Great Hall. Meanwhile, a few thousand students gathered at Xinhua Gate, the entrance to Zhongnanhai, the seat of the party leadership, where they demanded dialogue with the leadership. Police restrained the students from entering the compound. Students then staged a sit-in.


  • Zhongnanhai, Beijing, China
    Thursday Apr 20, 1989

    1989 Tiananmen Square protests

    Police used batons to disperse about 200 Students

    Zhongnanhai, Beijing, China
    Thursday Apr 20, 1989

    On 20 April, most students had been persuaded to leave Xinhua Gate. To disperse about 200 students that remained, police used batons; minor clashes were reported. Many students felt abused by the police, and rumours about police brutality spread quickly. This incident angered students on campus, where those who were not politically active decided to join the protests. Also on this date, a group of workers calling themselves the Beijing Workers' Autonomous Federation issued two handbills challenging the central leadership.


  • ChIna
    Friday Apr 21, 1989

    1989 Tiananmen Square protests

    Organizing under The banners of Formal Organizations

    ChIna
    Friday Apr 21, 1989

    On April 21, students began organizing under the banners of formal organizations.


  • Changsha, Hunan, China - Xi'an, Shaanxi, China
    Saturday Apr 22, 1989

    1989 Tiananmen Square protests

    Serious Rioting broke out in Changsha and Xi'an

    Changsha, Hunan, China - Xi'an, Shaanxi, China
    Saturday Apr 22, 1989

    On 22 April, near dusk, serious rioting broke out in Changsha and Xi'an. In Xi'an, arson from rioters destroyed cars and houses, and looting occurred in shops near the city's Xihua Gate. In Changsha, 38 stores were ransacked by looters. Over 350 people were arrested in both cities. In Wuhan, university students organized protests against the provincial government. As the situation became more volatile nationally, Zhao Ziyang called numerous meetings of the Politburo Standing Committee (PSC). Zhao stressed three points: discourage students from further protests and ask them to go back to class, use all measures necessary to combat rioting, and open forms of dialogue with students at different levels of government.


  • Beijing, China
    Saturday Apr 22, 1989

    1989 Tiananmen Square protests

    Hu's State Funeral

    Beijing, China
    Saturday Apr 22, 1989

    Hu's state funeral took place on 22 April. On the evening of 21 April, some 100,000 students marched on Tiananmen Square, ignoring orders from Beijing municipal authorities that the Square was to be closed off for the funeral. The funeral, which took place inside the Great Hall and attended by the leadership, was broadcast live to the students. General secretary Zhao Ziyang delivered the eulogy. The funeral seemed rushed, and only lasted 40 minutes, as emotions ran high in the Square. Students wept.


  • Beijing, China
    Sunday Apr 23, 1989

    1989 Tiananmen Square protests

    Forming the Beijing Students' Autonomous Federation

    Beijing, China
    Sunday Apr 23, 1989

    On 23 April, in a meeting of around 40 students from 21 universities, the Beijing Students' Autonomous Federation (also known as the Union) was formed. It elected CUPL student Zhou Yongjun as chair. Wang Dan and Wu'erkaixi also emerged as leaders. The Union then called for a general class boycott at all Beijing universities. Such an independent organization operating outside of party jurisdiction alarmed the leadership.


  • Beijing, China
    Monday Apr 24, 1989

    1989 Tiananmen Square protests

    Li Peng and The PSC met With Beijing Party Secretary Li Ximing and mayor Chen Xitong

    Beijing, China
    Monday Apr 24, 1989

    Zhao's departure to North Korea left Li Peng as the acting executive authority in Beijing. On 24 April, Li Peng and the PSC met with Beijing Party Secretary Li Ximing and mayor Chen Xitong to gauge the situation at the Square. The municipal officials wanted a quick resolution to the crisis and framed the protests as a conspiracy to overthrow China's political system and major party leaders, including Deng Xiaoping. In Zhao's absence, the PSC agreed that firm action against protesters must be taken.


  • Beijing, China
    Tuesday Apr 25, 1989

    1989 Tiananmen Square protests

    The First Official evaluation of The Protests From The Leadership

    Beijing, China
    Tuesday Apr 25, 1989

    On the morning of 25 April, President Yang Shangkun and Premier Li Peng met with Deng at the latter's residence. Deng endorsed a hardline stance and said an appropriate 'warning' must be disseminated via mass media to curb further demonstrations. The meeting firmly established the first official evaluation of the protests from the leadership, and highlighted Deng's having 'final say' on important issues.


  • Beijing, China
    Thursday Apr 27, 1989

    1989 Tiananmen Square protests

    Students from all Beijing Universities marched through The Streets of The Capital to Tiananmen Square

    Beijing, China
    Thursday Apr 27, 1989

    Organized by the Union on 27 April, some 50,000–100,000 students from all Beijing universities marched through the streets of the capital to Tiananmen Square, breaking through lines set up by police, and receiving widespread public support along the way, particularly from factory workers.


  • Beijing, China
    Sunday Apr 30, 1989

    1989 Tiananmen Square protests

    Zhao Ziyang Returned From Pyongyang

    Beijing, China
    Sunday Apr 30, 1989

    The government's tone grew increasingly conciliatory as Zhao Ziyang returned from Pyongyang on 30 April and resumed his executive authority. In Zhao's view, the hardliner approach was not working, and concession was the only alternative. Zhao asked that the press be opened to report the movement positively, and delivered two sympathetic speeches on 3–4 May.


  • Beijing, China
    Thursday May 4, 1989

    1989 Tiananmen Square protests

    100,000 Students marched on the Streets of Beijing

    Beijing, China
    Thursday May 4, 1989

    While some 100,000 students marched on the streets of Beijing on 4 May to commemorate the May Fourth Movement and repeat demands from earlier marches, many students were satisfied with the government's concessions. On 4 May, all Beijing universities except PKU and BNU announced the end of the class boycott. Subsequently, the majority of students began to lose interest in the movement.


  • Beijing, China
    Saturday May 13, 1989

    1989 Tiananmen Square protests

    The Hunger Strike Plan

    Beijing, China
    Saturday May 13, 1989

    Students began the hunger strike on 13 May, two days before the highly publicized state visit by Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev. Knowing that the welcoming ceremony for Gorbachev was scheduled to be held on the Square, student leaders wanted to use the hunger strike there to force the government into meeting their demands. Moreover, the hunger strike gained widespread sympathy from the population at large and earned the student movement the moral high ground that it sought. By the afternoon of 13 May, some 300,000 were gathered at the Square.


  • Beijing, China
    Saturday May 13, 1989

    1989 Tiananmen Square protests

    The Head of The Communist Party's United Front, called an Emergency meeting

    Beijing, China
    Saturday May 13, 1989

    On the morning of 13 May, Yan Mingfu, head of the Communist Party's United Front, called an emergency meeting, gathering prominent student leaders and intellectuals, including Liu Xiaobo, Chen Ziming and Wang Juntao. Yan said the government was prepared to hold immediate dialogue with student representatives, but that the Tiananmen welcoming ceremony for Gorbachev would be cancelled whether the students withdraw or not—in effect removing the bargaining power the students thought they possessed. The announcement sent the student leadership into disarray.


  • Beijing, China
    Monday May 15, 1989

    1989 Tiananmen Square protests

    1989 Sino-Soviet Summit

    Beijing, China
    Monday May 15, 1989

    The students remained in the Square during the Gorbachev visit; his welcoming ceremony was held at the airport. The Sino-Soviet summit, the first of its kind in some 30 years, marked the normalization of Sino-Soviet relations, and was seen as a breakthrough of tremendous historical significance for China's leaders. However, its smooth proceedings was derailed by the student movement; this created a major embarrassment ("loss of face") for the leadership on the global stage, and drove many moderates in government onto a more 'hardliner' path. The summit between Deng and Gorbachev took place at the Great Hall of the People amid the backdrop of commotion and protest in the Square.


  • Zhongnanhai, Beijing, China
    Wednesday May 17, 1989

    1989 Tiananmen Square protests

    The PSC Meeting

    Zhongnanhai, Beijing, China
    Wednesday May 17, 1989

    On the evening of 17 May, the PSC met at Zhongnanhai to finalize plans for martial law. At the meeting, Zhao announced that he was ready to "take leave", citing he could not bring himself to carry out martial law. The elders in attendance at the meeting, Bo Yibo and Yang Shangkun, urged the PSC to follow Deng's orders. Zhao did not consider the inconclusive PSC vote to have legally binding implications on martial law; Yang Shangkun, in his capacity as Vice Chairman of the Central Military Commission, went on to mobilize the military to move into the capital.


  • Beijing, China
    Wednesday May 17, 1989

    1989 Tiananmen Square protests

    The Politburo Standing Committee Meeting

    Beijing, China
    Wednesday May 17, 1989

    The situation seemed intractable, so the weight of taking decisive action fell on paramount leader Deng Xiaoping. Matters came to a head on 17 May, during a Politburo Standing Committee meeting at Deng's residence. At the meeting, Zhao Ziyang's concessions-based strategy was thoroughly criticized.


  • Beijing, China
    Wednesday May 17, 1989

    1989 Tiananmen Square protests

    The Movement Regained Momentum

    Beijing, China
    Wednesday May 17, 1989

    The movement, on the wane at the end of April, now regained momentum. By 17 May, as students from across the country poured into the capital to join the movement, protests of varying sizes were occurring in some 400 Chinese cities. Students demonstrated at provincial party headquarters in Fujian, Hubei, and Xinjiang. Without a clearly articulated official position from the Beijing leadership, local authorities did not know how to respond. Because the demonstrations now included a wide array of social groups, each carrying its own set of grievances, it became increasingly unclear with whom the government should negotiate, and what the demands were.


  • Beijing, China
    Thursday May 18, 1989

    1989 Tiananmen Square protests

    Li Peng Met With Students For The First Time

    Beijing, China
    Thursday May 18, 1989

    Li Peng met with students for the first time on 18 May in an attempt to placate public concern over the hunger strike. Li Peng said the government's main concern was sending hunger strikers to hospital. The discussions were confrontational and yielded little substantive progress or dialogue, but gained student leaders prominent airtime on national television.


  • Beijing, China
    Friday May 19, 1989

    1989 Tiananmen Square protests

    The PSC Met With Military Leaders and Party Elders

    Beijing, China
    Friday May 19, 1989

    On 19 May, the PSC met with military leaders and party elders. Deng presided over the meeting and said that martial law was the only option. At the meeting Deng declared that he was 'mistaken' in choosing Hu Yaobang and Zhao Ziyang as his successors, and resolved to remove Zhao from his position as general secretary. Deng also vowed to deal resolutely with Zhao's supporters and begin propaganda work.


  • China
    Saturday May 20, 1989

    1989 Tiananmen Square protests

    The Chinese Government declared Martial Law

    China
    Saturday May 20, 1989

    The Chinese government declared martial law on 20 May and mobilized at least 30 divisions from five of the country's seven military regions. At least 14 of PLA's 24 army corps contributed troops. As many as 250,000 troops were eventually sent to the capital, some arriving by air and others by rail.


  • Beijing, China
    Wednesday May 24, 1989

    1989 Tiananmen Square protests

    The Authorities Ordered The Army to withdraw

    Beijing, China
    Wednesday May 24, 1989

    The army's entry into the city was blocked at its suburbs by throngs of protesters. Tens of thousands of demonstrators surrounded military vehicles, preventing them from either advancing or retreating. Protesters lectured soldiers and appealed to them to join their cause; they also provided soldiers with food, water, and shelter. Seeing no way forward, the authorities ordered the army to withdraw on 24 May. All government forces retreated to bases outside the city. While the Army's withdrawal was initially seen as 'turning the tide' in favour of protesters, in reality mobilization took place across the country for a final assault.


  • Beijing, China
    Thursday Jun 1, 1989

    1989 Tiananmen Square protests

    Li Peng Issued a Report Titled "On the True Nature of The Turmoil"

    Beijing, China
    Thursday Jun 1, 1989

    On 1 June, Li Peng issued a report titled "On the True Nature of the Turmoil", which was circulated to every member of the Politburo. The report aimed to persuade the Politburo of the necessity and legality of clearing Tiananmen Square by referring to the protestors as terrorists and counterrevolutionaries. The report stated that turmoil was continuing to grow, the students had no plans to leave, and they were gaining popular support.


  • Beijing, China
    Friday Jun 2, 1989

    1989 Tiananmen Square protests

    The Movement Saw an Increase In Action and Protest

    Beijing, China
    Friday Jun 2, 1989

    On 2 June, the movement saw an increase in action and protest, solidifying the CPC's decision that it was time to act. Protests broke out as newspapers published articles that called for the students to leave Tiananmen Square and end the movement. Many of the students in the Square were not willing to leave and were outraged by the articles.


  • Beijing, China
    Friday Jun 2, 1989

    1989 Tiananmen Square protests

    Deng Xiaoping and Several Party Elders Met With The Three Remaining Politburo Standing Committee Members

    Beijing, China
    Friday Jun 2, 1989

    On 2 June, Deng Xiaoping and several party elders met with the three remaining politburo standing committee members, Li Peng, Qiao Shi and Yao Yilin, after Zhao Ziyang and Hu Qili had been ousted; the committee members agreed to clear the Square so "the riot can be halted and order be restored to the Capital." They also agreed that the Square needed to be cleared as peacefully as possible, but if protesters did not cooperate, the troops were authorized to use force to complete the job. That day, state-run newspapers reported that troops were positioned in ten key areas in the city.


  • Beijing, China
    Friday Jun 2, 1989

    1989 Tiananmen Square protests

    An Army Trencher Ran Into Four Civilians, Killing Three

    Beijing, China
    Friday Jun 2, 1989

    On the evening of 2 June, reports that an army trencher ran into four civilians, killing three sparked fear that the army and the police were trying to advance into Tiananmen Square. Student leaders issued emergency orders to set up roadblocks at major intersections to prevent the entry of troops into the center of the city.


  • Beijing, China
    Saturday Jun 3, 1989

    1989 Tiananmen Square protests

    The PLA Units advanced on Beijing From Every Direction

    Beijing, China
    Saturday Jun 3, 1989

    On the evening of 3 June, state-run television warned residents to stay indoors but crowds of people took to the streets, as they had two weeks before, to block the incoming army. PLA units advanced on Beijing from every direction—the 38th, 63rd and 28th Armies from the west, the 15th Airborne Corps, 20th, 26th and 54th Armies from the south, the 39th Army and the 1st Armored Division from the east and the 40th and 64th Armies from the north.


  • Beijing, China
    Saturday Jun 3, 1989

    1989 Tiananmen Square protests

    Students and Residents discovered Troops dressed in Plainclothes Trying To Smuggle Weapons Into The City

    Beijing, China
    Saturday Jun 3, 1989

    On the morning of 3 June, students and residents discovered troops dressed in plainclothes trying to smuggle weapons into the city. The students seized and handed the weapons to Beijing Police. The students protested outside the Xinhua Gate of the Zhongnanhai leadership compound and the police fired tear gas. Unarmed troops emerged from the Great Hall of the People and were quickly met with crowds of protesters. Several protesters tried to injure the troops as they collided outside the Great Hall of the People, forcing soldiers to retreat, but only for a short while.


  • Chengdu, Sichuan, China
    Sunday Jun 4, 1989

    1989 Tiananmen Square protests

    The Police forcibly broke up the student demonstration

    Chengdu, Sichuan, China
    Sunday Jun 4, 1989

    On the morning of 4 June, police forcibly broke up the student demonstration taking place in Chengdu's main square. The resulting violence killed eight people, and injured hundreds.


  • China
    Sunday Jun 4, 1989

    1989 Tiananmen Square protests

    The End of a period of relative press freedom in china

    China
    Sunday Jun 4, 1989

    The suppression on June 4 marked the end of a period of relative press freedom in China and media workers—both foreign and domestic—faced heightened restrictions and punishment in the aftermath of the crackdown. State media reports in the immediate aftermath were sympathetic to the students. As a result, those responsible were all later removed from their posts.


  • Shanghai, China
    Monday Jun 5, 1989

    1989 Tiananmen Square protests

    Shanghai Marches

    Shanghai, China
    Monday Jun 5, 1989

    In Shanghai, students marched on the streets on 5 June and erected roadblocks on major thoroughfares. Factory workers went on a general strike and took to the streets as well; railway traffic was also blocked. Public transport was also suspended and prevented people from getting to work.


  • Tian'anmen Square, Beijing, China
    Monday Jun 5, 1989

    1989 Tiananmen Square protests

    The Tank Man Incident

    Tian'anmen Square, Beijing, China
    Monday Jun 5, 1989

    On 5 June, the suppression of the protest was immortalized outside of China via video footage and photographs of a lone man standing in front of a column of tanks leaving Tiananmen Square via Chang'an Avenue. The "Tank Man", as it became known, became one of the most iconic photographs in the 20th century. As the tank driver tried to go around him, the "Tank Man" moved into the tank's path. He continued to stand defiantly in front of the tanks for some time, then climbed up onto the turret of the lead tank to speak to the soldiers inside. After returning to his position in front of the tanks, the man was pulled aside by a group of people.


  • Shanghai, China
    Wednesday Jun 7, 1989

    1989 Tiananmen Square protests

    Students From major Shanghai universities Stormed Various Campus Facilities

    Shanghai, China
    Wednesday Jun 7, 1989

    On 7 June, students from major Shanghai universities stormed various campus facilities to erect biers in commemoration of the dead in Beijing. The situation gradually came under control without use of deadly force.


  • Nanjing, Jiangsu, China
    Wednesday Jun 7, 1989

    1989 Tiananmen Square protests

    Hundreds of Students staged a blockade at the Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge as well as The Zhongyangmen Railway Bridge

    Nanjing, Jiangsu, China
    Wednesday Jun 7, 1989

    Similar scenes unfolded in Nanjing. On 7 June, hundreds of students staged a blockade at the Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge as well as the Zhongyangmen Railway Bridge. They were persuaded to evacuate without incident later that day, though returned the next day to occupy the main railway station and the bridges.


  • Beijing, China
    Tuesday Jun 13, 1989

    1989 Tiananmen Square protests

    The Beijing Public Security Bureau released an order For The arrest of 21 Students' Leaders

    Beijing, China
    Tuesday Jun 13, 1989

    On 13 June 1989, the Beijing Public Security Bureau released an order for the arrest of 21 students who they identified as leaders of the protest. These 21 most wanted student leaders were part of the Beijing Students Autonomous Federation which had been an instrumental student organization in the Tiananmen Square protests. Though decades have passed, the Most Wanted list has never been retracted by the Chinese government.


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