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  • Holy Roman Empire
    Monday Dec 25, 800

    Holy Roman Empire

    Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne emperor

    Holy Roman Empire
    Monday Dec 25, 800

    On Christmas Day of 800, Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne emperor, restoring the title in the West for the first time in over three centuries.




  • Ingelheim (Present Day in Germany)
    Wednesday Jun 20, 840

    Holy Roman Empire

    Louis the Pious death

    Ingelheim (Present Day in Germany)
    Wednesday Jun 20, 840

    Upon Louis (Louis the Pious)' death in 840, it passed to his son Lothair, who had been his co-ruler.




  • East Francia (Present Day Germany)
    Wednesday May 24, 919

    Holy Roman Empire

    Henry the Fowler

    East Francia (Present Day Germany)
    Wednesday May 24, 919

    On his deathbed, Conrad of Franconia yielded the crown to his main rival, Henry the Fowler of Saxony (r. 919–36), who was elected king at the Diet of Fritzlar in 919.




  • (Present Day Central Germany)
    Sunday Mar 15, 933

    Holy Roman Empire

    Battle of Riade

    (Present Day Central Germany)
    Sunday Mar 15, 933

    Henry (Henry the Fowler) reached a truce with the raiding Magyars, and in 933 he won a first victory against them in the Battle of Riade. The Battle of Riade or Battle of Merseburg was fought between the troops of East Francia under King Henry I and the Magyars at an unidentified location in northern Thuringia along the river Unstrut on 15 March 933. The battle was precipitated by the decision of the Synod of Erfurt to stop paying an annual tribute to the Magyars in 932.




  • Aachen, East Francia
    Monday Jul 2, 936

    Holy Roman Empire

    Otto I king of Aachen (Germany (East Francia))

    Aachen, East Francia
    Monday Jul 2, 936

    Henry died in 936, but his descendants, the Liudolfing (or Ottonian) dynasty, would continue to rule the Eastern kingdom for roughly a century. Upon Henry the Fowler's death, Otto, his son and designated successor, was elected King in Aachen in 936. He overcame a series of revolts from a younger brother and from several dukes. After that, the king managed to control the appointment of dukes and often also employed bishops in administrative affairs.




  • Lechfeld plain, near Augsburg, Bavaria
    Sunday Aug 10, 955

    Holy Roman Empire

    Battle of Lechfeld

    Lechfeld plain, near Augsburg, Bavaria
    Sunday Aug 10, 955

    In 955, Otto won a decisive victory over the Magyars (Hungarians) in the Battle of Lechfeld. The Battle of Lechfeld was a series of military engagements over the course of three days from 10–12 August 955 in which the German forces of King Otto I the Great annihilated a Hungarian army led by harka Bulcsú and the chieftains Lél and Súr. With this German victory, further invasions by the Magyars into Latin Europe were ended.




  • Göttingen, Germany, Holy Roman Empire
    Tuesday Jul 13, 1024

    Holy Roman Empire

    Henry II Died

    Göttingen, Germany, Holy Roman Empire
    Tuesday Jul 13, 1024

    Henry II died in 1024 and Conrad II, first of the Salian Dynasty, was elected king only after some debate among dukes and nobles. This group eventually developed into the college of Electors.


  • Utrecht, Germany
    Saturday May 23, 1125

    Holy Roman Empire

    Salian dynasty ended

    Utrecht, Germany
    Saturday May 23, 1125

    When the Salian dynasty ended with Henry V's death in 1125, the princes chose not to elect the next of kin, but rather Lothair, the moderately powerful but already old Duke of Saxony. When he died in 1137, the princes again aimed to check royal power; accordingly they did not elect Lothair's favoured heir, his son-in-law Henry the Proud of the Welf family, but Conrad III of the Hohenstaufen family, the grandson of Emperor Henry IV and thus a nephew of Emperor Henry V. This led to over a century of strife between the two houses. Conrad ousted the Welfs from their possessions, but after his death in 1152, his nephew Frederick I "Barbarossa" succeeded him and made peace with the Welfs, restoring his cousin Henry the Lion to his – albeit diminished – possessions.


  • Holy Roman Empire
    Monday Apr 15, 1191

    Holy Roman Empire

    Henry VI

    Holy Roman Empire
    Monday Apr 15, 1191

    Under the son and successor of Frederick Barbarossa, Henry VI, the Hohenstaufen dynasty reached its apex. Henry added the Norman kingdom of Sicily to his domains, held English king Richard the Lionheart captive, and aimed to establish a hereditary monarchy when he died in 1197.


  • Germany, Holy Roman Empire
    Sunday Apr 26, 1220

    Holy Roman Empire

    1220 Confoederatio cum principibus ecclesiasticis

    Germany, Holy Roman Empire
    Sunday Apr 26, 1220

    Despite his imperial claims, Frederick's rule was a major turning point towards the disintegration of central rule in the Empire. While concentrated on establishing a modern, centralized state in Sicily, he was mostly absent from Germany and issued far-reaching privileges to Germany's secular and ecclesiastical princes: in the 1220 Confoederatio cum principibus ecclesiasticis, Frederick gave up a number of regalia in favor of the bishops, among them tariffs, coining, and fortification.


  • Speyer, Germany, Holy Roman Empire
    Sunday Jul 15, 1291

    Holy Roman Empire

    Rudolf's death (Rudolf I of Germany)

    Speyer, Germany, Holy Roman Empire
    Sunday Jul 15, 1291

    After Rudolf's death in 1291, Adolf and Albert were two further weak kings who were never crowned emperor. Adolf of Germany (c. 1255 – 2 July 1298) was Count of Nassau from about 1276 and elected King of Germany (King of the Romans) from 1292 until his deposition by the prince-electors in 1298. He was never crowned by the Pope, which would have secured him the title of Holy Roman Emperor. He was the first physically and mentally healthy ruler of the Holy Roman Empire ever to be deposed without a papal excommunication. Adolf died shortly afterwards in the Battle of Göllheim fighting against his successor Albert of Habsburg. Albert I of Germany (July 1255 – 1 May 1308), the eldest son of King Rudolf I of Germany and his first wife Gertrude of Hohenberg, was a Duke of Austria and Styria from 1282 and King of Germany from 1298 until his assassination.


  • Nuremberg and Metz, Holy Roman Empire
    Saturday Jan 10, 1356

    Holy Roman Empire

    Golden Bull of 1356

    Nuremberg and Metz, Holy Roman Empire
    Saturday Jan 10, 1356

    The difficulties in electing the king eventually led to the emergence of a fixed college of prince-electors (Kurfürsten), whose composition and procedures were set forth in the Golden Bull of 1356, which remained valid until 1806. This development probably best symbolizes the emerging duality between emperor and realm (Kaiser und Reich), which were no longer considered identical. The Golden Bull also set forth the system for election of the Holy Roman Emperor. The emperor now was to be elected by a majority rather than by consent of all seven electors. For electors the title became hereditary, and they were given the right to mint coins and to exercise jurisdiction. Also it was recommended that their sons learn the imperial languages – German, Latin, Italian, and Czech.


  • Holy Roman Empire
    Saturday Jan 16, 1362

    Disasters with highest death tolls

    St. Marcellus Flood

    Holy Roman Empire
    Saturday Jan 16, 1362

    Saint Marcellus' flood or Grote Mandrenke was a massive southwesterly Atlantic gale (also known as a European windstorm) which swept across the British Isles, the Netherlands, northern Germany, and Denmark (including Schleswig/Southern Jutland) around 16 January 1362, causing at minimum 25,000 deaths.


  • Holy Roman Empire
    Saturday Jul 25, 1564

    Holy Roman Empire

    Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor

    Holy Roman Empire
    Saturday Jul 25, 1564

    After Ferdinand I died in 1564, his son Maximilian II became Emperor, and like his father accepted the existence of Protestantism and the need for occasional compromise with it.


  • Frankfurt, Germany, Holy Roman Empire
    Tuesday Jun 26, 1612

    Holy Roman Empire

    Matthias became Holy Roman Emperor

    Frankfurt, Germany, Holy Roman Empire
    Tuesday Jun 26, 1612

    Matthias of Austria, a member of the House of Habsburg (February 24, 1557 - March 20, 1619) was Holy Roman Emperor and Archduke of Austria (1612 – 1619), king of Hungary (as Mátyás II) and Croatia (as Matija II) since 1608 and king of Bohemia (also as Matyáš II) since 1611. His personal motto was Concordia lumine maior ("Unity is stronger than light").


  • Eisenach, Germany
    Saturday Mar 31, 1685

    Johann Sebastian Bach

    Birth

    Eisenach, Germany
    Saturday Mar 31, 1685

    Bach was born in 1685 in Eisenach, in the duchy of Saxe-Eisenach, into an extensive musical family. His father, Johann Ambrosius Bach, was the director of the town musicians, and all of his uncles were professional musicians. His father probably taught him to play the violin and harpsichord, and his brother Johann Christoph Bach taught him the clavichord and exposed him to much of the contemporary music.


  • Eisenach, Germany
    Saturday May 1, 1694

    Johann Sebastian Bach

    Mother's Death

    Eisenach, Germany
    Saturday May 1, 1694

    Bach's mother died in 1694, and his father died eight months later.


  • Lüneburg, Germany
    Saturday Apr 3, 1700

    Johann Sebastian Bach

    Enrolled in the prestigious St. Michael's School in Lüneburg

    Lüneburg, Germany
    Saturday Apr 3, 1700

    By 3 April 1700, Bach and his schoolfriend Georg Erdmann—who was two years Bach's elder—were enrolled in the prestigious St. Michael's School in Lüneburg, some two weeks' travel north of Ohrdruf.


  • Mühlhausen, Germany
    Sunday Apr 24, 1707

    Johann Sebastian Bach

    Bach had a cantata performed on Easter

    Mühlhausen, Germany
    Sunday Apr 24, 1707

    As part of his application, he had a cantata performed on Easter, 24 April 1707, likely an early version of his Christ lag in Todes Banden.


  • Dornheim, Germany
    Monday Oct 17, 1707

    Johann Sebastian Bach

    Marriage

    Dornheim, Germany
    Monday Oct 17, 1707

    Bach married Maria Barbara Bach, his second cousin.


  • Köthen, Germany
    Wednesday Dec 3, 1721

    Johann Sebastian Bach

    Anna Magdalena Wilcke

    Köthen, Germany
    Wednesday Dec 3, 1721

    The following year, Bach met Anna Magdalena Wilcke, a young, highly gifted soprano 16 years his junior, who performed at the court in Köthen; they married on 3 December 1721.


  • Leipzig, Germany
    Friday Jun 5, 1722

    Johann Sebastian Bach

    Johann Kuhnau death

    Leipzig, Germany
    Friday Jun 5, 1722

    Johann Kuhnau had been Thomaskantor in Leipzig from 1701 until his death on 5 June 1722. Bach had visited Leipzig during Kuhnau's tenure: in 1714 he attended the service at the St. Thomas Church on the first Sunday of Advent, and in 1717 he had tested the organ of the Paulinerkirche. In 1716 Bach and Kuhnau had met on the occasion of the testing and inauguration of an organ in Halle.


  • St. Nicholas Church, Leipzig, Germany
    Sunday May 30, 1723

    Johann Sebastian Bach

    Die Elenden sollen essen, BWV 75

    St. Nicholas Church, Leipzig, Germany
    Sunday May 30, 1723

    Bach usually led performances of his cantatas, most of which were composed within three years of his relocation to Leipzig. The first was Die Elenden sollen essen, BWV 75, performed in the Nikolaikirche on 30 May 1723, the first Sunday after Trinity. Bach collected his cantatas in annual cycles. Five are mentioned in obituaries, three are extant.


  • Leipzig, Germany
    Monday Jun 2, 1749

    Johann Sebastian Bach

    Heinrich von Brühl wrote to one of the Leipzig burgomasters to request that his music director, Johann Gottlob Harrer, fill the Thomaskantor and Director musics posts

    Leipzig, Germany
    Monday Jun 2, 1749

    On 2 June, Heinrich von Brühl wrote to one of the Leipzig burgomasters to request that his music director, Johann Gottlob Harrer, fill the Thomaskantor and Director musics posts "upon the eventual ... decease of Mr. Bach".


  • Leipzig, Germany
    Tuesday Jul 28, 1750

    Johann Sebastian Bach

    Bach Death

    Leipzig, Germany
    Tuesday Jul 28, 1750

    Bach died on 28 July 1750 from complications due to the unsuccessful treatment.


  • Munich, Gernany
    Friday Jan 13, 1775

    Mozart

    Lafinta giardiniera

    Munich, Gernany
    Friday Jan 13, 1775

    The resulting work, when a commission came from Munich that year, Lafinta giardiniera (an opera buffa) is yards more accomplished than his former comic work, Lafinta semplice. Naturally it also offered a justification for Mozart to leave Salzburg. On 6 December the same year, he and his father arrived in Munich to attend the rehearsals of the new opera.


  • Mannheim, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
    Thursday Oct 30, 1777

    Mozart

    Going to Mannheim and meeting the Webers

    Mannheim, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
    Thursday Oct 30, 1777

    He and his mother moved on to Mannheim, became pleasant with the Mannheim musicians, did some teaching and playing, accepted and partially fulfilled a flute music commission from a German surgeon, and fell in love with Aloysia Weber, a soprano, the second of four daughters of a music copyist. He has also written numerous sonatas for piano, some with violin. He put a scheme to his father for traveling with the naive and reckless Webers to Italy, and met with an angry response from Leopald.


  • Cuvilliés Theatre, Munich, Germany
    Thursday Jan 29, 1778

    Mozart

    Idomeneo Premier

    Cuvilliés Theatre, Munich, Germany
    Thursday Jan 29, 1778

    Idomeneo's first dress rehearsal was coinciding with the 25th birthday of Mozart. His father Leopold had arrived with Nannerl in Munich sometime between then and the premiere. The first night-the only fair night-went really well. Mozart had achieved the popularity he had wished for, but for another 5 years the opera would not be performed again.


  • Hohenlinden, east of Munich, (Present Day Germany)
    Wednesday Dec 3, 1800

    Napoleon

    Battle of Hohenlinden

    Hohenlinden, east of Munich, (Present Day Germany)
    Wednesday Dec 3, 1800

    Bonaparte gave orders to his general Moreau to strike Austria once more. Moreau and the French swept through Bavaria and scored an overwhelming victory at Hohenlinden in December 1800.


  • Central Europe
    Wednesday Sep 25, 1805

    Napoleon

    200,000 French troops began to cross the Rhine

    Central Europe
    Wednesday Sep 25, 1805

    On 25 September, after great secrecy and feverish marching, 200,000 French troops began to cross the Rhine on a front of 260 km (160 mi).


  • Ulm, Electorate of Bavaria (Present Day Ulm, Germany)
    Wednesday Oct 16, 1805

    Napoleon

    Battle of Ulm

    Ulm, Electorate of Bavaria (Present Day Ulm, Germany)
    Wednesday Oct 16, 1805

    Austrian commander Karl Mack had gathered the greater part of the Austrian army at the fortress of Ulm in Swabia. Napoleon swung his forces to the southeast and the Grande Armée performed an elaborate wheeling movement that outflanked the Austrian positions. The Ulm Maneuver completely surprised General Mack, who belatedly understood that his army had been cut off. After some minor engagements that culminated in the Battle of Ulm, Mack finally surrendered after realizing that there was no way to break out of the French encirclement. For just 2,000 French casualties, Napoleon had managed to capture a total of 60,000 Austrian soldiers through his army's rapid marching.


  • Central Europe
    Sunday Oct 20, 1805

    Napoleon

    Ulm Campaign ended

    Central Europe
    Sunday Oct 20, 1805

    The Ulm Campaign is generally regarded as a strategic masterpiece and was influential in the development of the Schlieffen Plan in the late 19th century.


  • Central Europe (Germany, Austria, France, Switzerland and Poland)
    Saturday Jul 12, 1806

    Napoleon

    Confederation of the Rhine

    Central Europe (Germany, Austria, France, Switzerland and Poland)
    Saturday Jul 12, 1806

    After Austerlitz, Napoleon established the Confederation of the Rhine in 1806.


  • Holy Roman Empire
    Wednesday Aug 6, 1806

    Holy Roman Empire

    The empire was dissolved

    Holy Roman Empire
    Wednesday Aug 6, 1806

    The empire was dissolved on 6 August 1806, when the last Holy Roman Emperor Francis II (from 1804, Emperor Francis I of Austria) abdicated, following a military defeat by the French under Napoleon at Austerlitz.


  • Jena and Auerstedt, Germany
    Tuesday Oct 14, 1806

    Napoleon

    Battle of Jena–Auerstedt

    Jena and Auerstedt, Germany
    Tuesday Oct 14, 1806

    Napoleon invaded Prussia with 180,000 troops, rapidly marching on the right bank of the River Saale. As in previous campaigns, his fundamental objective was to destroy one opponent before reinforcements from another could tip the balance of the war. Upon learning the whereabouts of the Prussian army, the French swung westwards and crossed the Saale with overwhelming force. At the twin battles of Jena and Auerstedt, fought on 14 October, the French convincingly defeated the Prussians and inflicted heavy casualties. With several major commanders dead or incapacitated, the Prussian king proved incapable of effectively commanding the army, which began to quickly disintegrate.


  • Berlin, Germany
    Friday Nov 21, 1806

    Napoleon

    Berlin Decree

    Berlin, Germany
    Friday Nov 21, 1806

    Following his triumph, Napoleon imposed the first elements of the Continental System through the Berlin Decree issued in November 1806. The Continental System, which prohibited European nations from trading with Britain, was widely violated throughout his reign.


  • Erfurt, Germany
    Saturday Aug 27, 1808

    Napoleon

    Congress of Erfurt

    Erfurt, Germany
    Saturday Aug 27, 1808

    Before going to Iberia, Napoleon decided to address several lingering issues with the Russians. At the Congress of Erfurt in October 1808, Napoleon hoped to keep Russia on his side during the upcoming struggle in Spain and during any potential conflict against Austria. The two sides reached an agreement, the Erfurt Convention, that called upon Britain to cease its war against France, that recognized the Russian conquest of Finland from Sweden, and that affirmed Russian support for France in a possible war against Austria "to the best of its ability".


  • Germany
    Monday Apr 10, 1809

    Napoleon

    Austrian army crossed the Inn River and invaded Bavaria

    Germany
    Monday Apr 10, 1809

    In the early morning of 10 April, leading elements of the Austrian army crossed the Inn River and invaded Bavaria.


  • Donauwörth, Germany
    Monday Apr 17, 1809

    Napoleon

    Napoleonarrived at Donauwörth

    Donauwörth, Germany
    Monday Apr 17, 1809

    Napoleon arrived at Donauwörth on 17 April to find the Grande Armée in a dangerous position, with its two wings separated by 120 km (75 mi) and joined together by a thin cordon of Bavarian troops. Charles pressed the left wing of the French army and hurled his men towards the III Corps of Marshal Davout. In response, Napoleon came up with a plan to cut off the Austrians in the celebrated Landshut Maneuver.


  • Eckmühl, Germany
    Friday Apr 21, 1809

    Napoleon

    Battle of Eckmühl

    Eckmühl, Germany
    Friday Apr 21, 1809

    Napoleon realigned the axis of his army and marched his soldiers towards the town of Eckmühl. The French scored a convincing win in the resulting Battle of Eckmühl, forcing Charles to withdraw his forces over the Danube and into Bohemia.


  • Dresden, Kingdom of Saxony (Present Day Germany)
    Thursday Aug 26, 1813

    Napoleon

    Battle of Dresden

    Dresden, Kingdom of Saxony (Present Day Germany)
    Thursday Aug 26, 1813

    There was a lull in fighting over the winter of 1812–13 while both the Russians and the French rebuilt their forces; Napoleon was able to field 350,000 troops. Heartened by France's loss in Russia, Prussia joined with Austria, Sweden, Russia, Great Britain, Spain, and Portugal in a new coalition. Napoleon assumed command in Germany and inflicted a series of defeats on the Coalition (Austria, Russia and Prussia) culminating in the Battle of Dresden in August 1813.


  • Varel, Duchy of Oldenburg (Present Day Varel, Germany)
    Friday Aug 20, 1830

    Lothar Meyer

    Birth

    Varel, Duchy of Oldenburg (Present Day Varel, Germany)
    Friday Aug 20, 1830

    Lothar Meyer was born in Varel, Germany (then part of the Duchy of Oldenburg). He was the son of Friedrich August Meyer, a physician, and Anna Biermann.


  • Rostock, Germany
    Friday Sep 16, 1853

    Albrecht Kossel

    Birth

    Rostock, Germany
    Friday Sep 16, 1853

    On 16 September 1853, Albrecht Kossel was born in Rostock, Germany as the son of the merchant and Prussian consul Albrecht Karl Ludwig Enoch Kossel and his wife Clara Jeppe Kossel.


  • Kiel, Holstein, Germany
    Friday Apr 23, 1858

    Max Planck

    Born

    Kiel, Holstein, Germany
    Friday Apr 23, 1858

    Planck was born in Kiel, Holstein, to Johann Julius Wilhelm Planck and his second wife, Emma Patzig.


  • Köpenicker Straße 66, Berlin, German Empire (Present day Germany)
    Friday May 10, 1878

    Gustav Stresemann

    Stresemann's birth

    Köpenicker Straße 66, Berlin, German Empire (Present day Germany)
    Friday May 10, 1878

    Stresemann was born on 10 May 1878 in 66 Köpenicker Straße in Southeast Berlin, the youngest of seven children. His father worked as a beer bottler and distributor, and also ran a small bar out of the family home, as well as renting rooms for extra money.


  • Berlin, Germany
    Saturday Jul 13, 1878

    Armenian Genocide

    The Treaty of Berlin

    Berlin, Germany
    Saturday Jul 13, 1878

    The Treaty of Berlin (formally the Treaty between Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Great Britain and Ireland, Italy, Russia, and the Ottoman Empire for the Settlement of Affairs in the East) was signed on 13 July 1878. In the aftermath of the Russian victory against the Ottoman Empire in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878, the major powers restructured the map of the Balkan region. They reversed some of the extreme gains claimed by Russia in the preliminary Treaty of San Stefano, but the Ottomans lost their major holdings in Europe. It was one of three major peace agreements in the period after the 1815 Congress of Vienna. It was the final act of the Congress of Berlin (13 June – 13 July 1878) and included Great Britain and Ireland, Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Russia and the Ottoman Empire. Germany's Otto von Bismarck was the chairman and dominant personality.


  • Ulm, Kingdom of Württemberg, German Empire, Germany
    Friday Mar 14, 1879

    Albert Einstein

    Birth

    Ulm, Kingdom of Württemberg, German Empire, Germany
    Friday Mar 14, 1879

    Albert Einstein was born in Ulm, in the Kingdom of Württemberg in the German Empire, on 14 March 1879.


  • Germany
    Saturday Oct 6, 1883

    Thanksgiving

    German-American Day

    Germany
    Saturday Oct 6, 1883

    The United States has observed German-American Day annually on October 6, within the vicinity of Erntedankfest, from 1883 until the early 1910s, then again from 1983 to the present day.


  • Berlin, Germany
    Saturday Nov 15, 1884

    Rwandan genocide

    Berlin Conference

    Berlin, Germany
    Saturday Nov 15, 1884

    Rwanda and neighbouring Burundi were assigned to Germany by the Berlin Conference of 1884, and Germany established a presence in the country in 1897 with the formation of an alliance with the king.


  • Tübingen, Kingdom of Württemberg (Present Day Tübingen, Germany)
    Friday Apr 12, 1895

    Lothar Meyer

    Death

    Tübingen, Kingdom of Württemberg (Present Day Tübingen, Germany)
    Friday Apr 12, 1895

    Meyer served until his death from a stroke on April 11, 1895 at the age of 64.


  • Germany
    Friday Nov 8, 1895

    X-ray

    Discovery by Röntgen

    Germany
    Friday Nov 8, 1895

    On November 8, 1895, German physics professor Wilhelm Röntgen stumbled on X-rays while experimenting with Lenard tubes and Crookes tubes and began studying them.


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