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  • Kingdom of Aragon (Present Day Spain)
    Wednesday Jan 22, 1479

    Holy Roman Empire

    Ferdinand II of Aragon

    Kingdom of Aragon (Present Day Spain)
    Wednesday Jan 22, 1479

    Ferdinand II (10 March 1452 – 23 January 1516), called the Catholic, was King of Aragon from 1479 until his death. In 1469, he married Infanta Isabella, the future queen of Castile, which was regarded as the marital and political "cornerstone in the foundation of the Spanish monarchy". As a consequence of the marriage, in 1474 he became de jure uxoris King of Castile as Ferdinand V, when Isabella held the crown of Castile, until her death in 1504. At Isabella's death the crown of Castile passed to their daughter Joanna, by the terms of their prenuptial agreement and Isabella‘s last will and testament, and Ferdinand lost his monarchical status in Castile. Joanna's husband Philip became de jure uxoris King of Castile, but died in 1506, and Joanna ruled in her own right. In 1504, after a war with France, he became King of Naples as Ferdinand III, reuniting Naples with Sicily permanently and for the first time since 1458. In 1506, as part of a treaty with a France, Ferdinand married Germaine of Foix of France, but Ferdinand's only son and child of that marriage died soon after birth. (Had the child survived, the personal union of the crowns of Aragon and Castile would have ceased.) In 1508, Ferdinand was recognized as regent of Castile, following Joanna's alleged mental illness, until his own death in 1516. In 1512, he became King of Navarre by conquest.




  • Spain
    Friday Aug 15, 1502

    Chocolate

    Christopher Columbus with the Cacao

    Spain
    Friday Aug 15, 1502

    Christopher Columbus encountered the cacao bean on his fourth mission to the Americas on August 15, 1502, when he and his crew seized a large native canoe that proved to contain among other goods for trade, cacao beans. His son Ferdinand commented that the natives greatly valued the beans, which he termed almonds, "for when they were brought on board ship together with their goods, I observed that when any of these almonds fell, they all stooped to pick it up, as if an eye had fallen."




  • Madrigalejo, Extremadura
    Sunday Jan 23, 1516

    Holy Roman Empire

    Ferdinand II of Aragon death

    Madrigalejo, Extremadura
    Sunday Jan 23, 1516

    In 1516, Ferdinand II of Aragon, grandfather of the future Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, died.




  • Pyrenees mountains ( Spain, France and Andorra)
    Saturday Oct 17, 1807

    Napoleon

    French troops crossed the Pyrenees

    Pyrenees mountains ( Spain, France and Andorra)
    Saturday Oct 17, 1807

    On 17 October 1807, 24,000 French troops under General Junot crossed the Pyrenees with Spanish cooperation and headed towards Portugal to enforce Napoleon's orders.




  • Spain
    Tuesday Feb 16, 1808

    Napoleon

    Napoleon announced that he would intervene to mediate between the rival political factions in the country

    Spain
    Tuesday Feb 16, 1808

    Throughout the winter of 1808, French agents became increasingly involved in Spanish internal affairs, attempting to incite discord between members of the Spanish royal family. On 16 February 1808, secret French machinations finally materialized when Napoleon announced that he would intervene to mediate between the rival political factions in the country.




  • Madrid, Spain
    Thursday Mar 24, 1808

    Napoleon

    The French arrived in Madrid

    Madrid, Spain
    Thursday Mar 24, 1808

    Marshal Murat led 120,000 troops into Spain. The French arrived in Madrid on 24 March, where wild riots against the occupation erupted just a few weeks later.




  • Spain
    Monday Jun 6, 1808

    Napoleon

    Napoleon appointed his brother as the new King of Spain

    Spain
    Monday Jun 6, 1808

    Napoleon appointed his brother, Joseph Bonaparte, as the new King of Spain in the summer of 1808.


  • Bailén, Spain
    Saturday Jul 16, 1808

    Napoleon

    Battle of Bailén

    Bailén, Spain
    Saturday Jul 16, 1808

    The shocking French defeat at the Battle of Bailén in July gave hope to Napoleon's enemies and partly persuaded the French emperor to intervene in person.


  • Madrid, Spain
    Sunday Dec 4, 1808

    Napoleon

    Napoleon entered Madrid

    Madrid, Spain
    Sunday Dec 4, 1808

    After clearing the last Spanish force guarding the capital at Somosierra, Napoleon entered Madrid on 4 December with 80,000 troops.


  • Corunna, Galicia, Spain
    Monday Jan 16, 1809

    Napoleon

    Battle of Corunna

    Corunna, Galicia, Spain
    Monday Jan 16, 1809

    Napoleon then unleashed his soldiers against Moore and the British forces. The British were swiftly driven to the coast, and they withdrew from Spain entirely after a last stand at the Battle of Corunna in January 1809.


  • Spain
    Thursday Mar 19, 1812

    Spanish Civil War

    Spanish Constitution of 1812

    Spain
    Thursday Mar 19, 1812

    The 19th century was a turbulent time for Spain. Those in favour of reforming Spain's government vied for political power with conservatives, who tried to prevent reforms. Some liberals, in a tradition that started with the Spanish Constitution of 1812, sought to limit the power of the monarchy of Spain and to establish a liberal state. The reforms of 1812 were overturned when King Ferdinand VII dissolved the Constitution and ended the Trienio Liberal government.


  • Spain
    Tuesday Dec 29, 1874

    Spanish Civil War

    Restoration of the Bourbons

    Spain
    Tuesday Dec 29, 1874

    After the restoration of the Bourbons in December 1874, Carlists and Anarchists emerged in opposition to the monarchy.


  • Ferrol, Galicia, Spain
    Sunday Dec 4, 1892

    Francisco Franco

    Birth

    Ferrol, Galicia, Spain
    Sunday Dec 4, 1892

    Franco was born on 4 December 1892 at 108 Calle Frutos Saavedra in Ferrol, Galicia.


  • Figueres, Catalonia, Spain
    Wednesday May 11, 1904

    Salvador Dali

    Birth

    Figueres, Catalonia, Spain
    Wednesday May 11, 1904

    Salvador Dalí was born on 11 May 1904, on the first floor of Carrer Monturiol, 20 in the town of Figueres, in the Empordà region, close to the French border in Catalonia, Spain.


  • Ḷḷuarca, Valdés, Asturias, Spain
    Sunday Sep 24, 1905

    Severo Ochoa

    Ochoa's birth

    Ḷḷuarca, Valdés, Asturias, Spain
    Sunday Sep 24, 1905

    Ochoa was born in Luarca (Asturias), Spain. His father was Severo Manuel Ochoa, (who he was named after), a lawyer and businessman,and his mother was Carmen de Albornoz.


  • Spain
    Saturday Jul 28, 1917

    Spanish Civil War

    Spain was neutral in World War I

    Spain
    Saturday Jul 28, 1917

    Spain was neutral in World War I. Following the war, wide swathes of Spanish society, including the armed forces, united in hopes of removing the corrupt central government, but were unsuccessful. Popular perception of communism as a major threat significantly increased during this period.


  • Figueres, Catalonia, Spain
    Sunday Feb 6, 1921

    Salvador Dali

    Mother's Death

    Figueres, Catalonia, Spain
    Sunday Feb 6, 1921

    On 6 February 1921, Dalí's mother died of uterus cancer.


  • Spain
    Monday Oct 22, 1923

    Francisco Franco

    Marriage

    Spain
    Monday Oct 22, 1923

    On 22 October 1923, Franco married María del Carmen Polo y Martínez-Valdès.


  • Barcelona, Spain
    Saturday Nov 14, 1925

    Salvador Dali

    First Solo Exhibition

    Barcelona, Spain
    Saturday Nov 14, 1925

    Dalí held his first solo exhibition at Galeries Dalmau in Barcelona, from 14 to 27 November 1925.


  • Arganda del Rey, Madrid, Spain
    Monday Feb 7, 1927

    Spanish Civil War

    Battle of Jarama

    Arganda del Rey, Madrid, Spain
    Monday Feb 7, 1927

    The consolidation of various militias into the Republican Army had started in December 1936. The main Nationalist advance to cross the Jarama and cut the supply to Madrid by the Valencia road, termed the Battle of Jarama, led to heavy casualties (6,000–20,000) on both sides. The operation's main objective was not met, though Nationalists gained a modest amount of territory.


  • Cadaqués, Catalonia, Spain
    Saturday Dec 28, 1929

    Salvador Dali

    Thrown out

    Cadaqués, Catalonia, Spain
    Saturday Dec 28, 1929

    Violently thrown out of his paternal home on 28 December 1929. Dalí's relationship with his father was close to rupture. Don Salvador Dalí y Cusi strongly disapproved of his son's romance with Gala, and saw his connection to the Surrealists as a bad influence on his morals. The final straw was when Don Salvador read in a Barcelona newspaper that his son had recently exhibited in Paris a drawing of the Sacred Heart of Jesus Christ, with a provocative inscription: "Sometimes, I spit for fun on my mother's portrait". Outraged, Don Salvador demanded that his son recant publicly. Dalí refused, perhaps out of fear of expulsion from the Surrealist group, and was violently thrown out of his paternal home on 28 December 1929. His father told him that he would be disinherited and that he should never set foot in Cadaqués again.


  • Spain
    Sunday Apr 12, 1931

    Spanish Civil War

    General Dámaso Berenguer

    Spain
    Sunday Apr 12, 1931

    Support for the Rivera regime gradually faded, and Miguel Primo de Rivera resigned in January 1930. He was replaced by General Dámaso Berenguer, who was in turn himself replaced by Admiral Juan Bautista Aznar-Cabañas; both men continued a policy of rule by decree. There was little support for the monarchy in the major cities. Consequently, King Alfonso XIII gave in to popular pressure for the establishment of a republic in 1931 and called municipal elections for 12 April of that year. The socialist and liberal republicans won almost all the provincial capitals, and following the resignation of Aznar's government, King Alfonso XIII fled the country.


  • Spain
    Tuesday Apr 14, 1931

    Spanish Civil War

    Second Spanish Republic

    Spain
    Tuesday Apr 14, 1931

    At this time, the Second Spanish Republic was formed. It remained in power until the culmination of the Spanish Civil War.


  • Spain
    Wednesday Dec 9, 1931

    Spanish Civil War

    Spanish Constitution of 1931

    Spain
    Wednesday Dec 9, 1931

    Fascism remained a reactive threat, helped by controversial reforms to the military. In December, a new reformist, liberal, and democratic constitution was declared. It included strong provisions enforcing a broad secularisation of the Catholic country, which included the abolishing of Catholic schools and charities, which many moderate committed Catholics opposed.


  • Coruña, Spain
    Friday Feb 5, 1932

    Francisco Franco

    Command in a Coruña

    Coruña, Spain
    Friday Feb 5, 1932

    On 5 February 1932, he was given a command in Coruña.


  • Spain
    Sunday Nov 19, 1933

    Spanish Civil War

    1933 Spanish general election

    Spain
    Sunday Nov 19, 1933

    In 1933, the parties of the right won the general elections, largely due to the anarchists' abstention from the vote, increased right-wing resentment of the incumbent government caused by a controversial decree implementing land reform, the Casas Viejas incident, and the formation of a right-wing alliance, Spanish Confederation of Autonomous Right-wing Groups (CEDA). Another factor was the recent enfranchisement of women, most of whom voted for centre-right parties.


  • Barcelona, Spain
    Friday Oct 5, 1934

    Spanish Civil War

    Azaña was in Barcelona

    Barcelona, Spain
    Friday Oct 5, 1934

    On 5 October 1934, in response to an invitation to CEDA to form part of the government, the Acción Republicana and the Socialists (PSOE) and Communists attempted a general left-wing rebellion. The rebellion had a temporary success in Asturias and Barcelona, but was over in two weeks. Azaña was in Barcelona that day, and the Lerroux-CEDA government tried to implicate him. He was arrested and charged with complicity. The October 1934 rebellion is regarded by historians as the beginning of the decline of the Spanish Republic and of constitutional government and constitutional consensus, as the Socialists and left Republicans had been integral to the new system and had governed for two years, yet the Socialists were now attempting a revolt against the democratic system and the left Republicans provided a sort of passive support for them.


  • Spain
    Sunday Feb 16, 1936

    Francisco Franco

    Spanish general election, 1936

    Spain
    Sunday Feb 16, 1936

    After the ruling centre-right coalition collapsed amid the Straperlo corruption scandal, new elections were scheduled. Two wide coalitions formed: the Popular Front on the left, ranging from Republican Union to Communists, and the Frente Nacional on the right, ranging from the centre radicals to the conservative Carlists. On 16 February 1936, the left won by a narrow margin.


  • Canary Islands, Spain
    Sunday Feb 23, 1936

    Francisco Franco

    To the Canary Islands

    Canary Islands, Spain
    Sunday Feb 23, 1936

    On 23 February Franco was sent to the Canary Islands to serve as the islands' military commander, an appointment perceived by him as a destierro (banishment).


  • Busdongo de Arbás, León, Spain
    Saturday Mar 28, 1936

    Amancio Ortega

    Birth

    Busdongo de Arbás, León, Spain
    Saturday Mar 28, 1936

    on March 28, 1936, Ortega was born in Busdongo de Arbás, León, Spain, to Antonio Ortega Rodríguez and Josefa Gaona Hernández.


  • Spain
    Friday Jun 12, 1936

    Spanish Civil War

    Prime Minister Casares Quiroga met General Juan Yagüe

    Spain
    Friday Jun 12, 1936

    On 12 June, Prime Minister Casares Quiroga met General Juan Yagüe, who falsely convinced Casares of his loyalty to the republic. Mola began serious planning in the spring. Franco was a key player because of his prestige as a former director of the military academy and as the man who suppressed the Asturian miners' strike of 1934. He was respected in the Army of Africa, the Army's toughest troops. He wrote a cryptic letter to Casares on 23 June, suggesting that the military was disloyal, but could be restrained if he were put in charge. Casares did nothing, failing to arrest or buy off Franco.


  • Spain
    Tuesday Jun 23, 1936

    Francisco Franco

    Offering to quell the discontent in the Spanish Republican Army

    Spain
    Tuesday Jun 23, 1936

    On 23 June 1936, he wrote to the head of the government, Casares Quiroga, offering to quell the discontent in the Spanish Republican Army, but received no reply.


  • Canary Islands, Spain
    Saturday Jul 11, 1936

    Spanish Civil War

    From the Canary Islands to Spanish Morocco

    Canary Islands, Spain
    Saturday Jul 11, 1936

    With the help of the British Secret Intelligence Service agents Cecil Bebb and Major Hugh Pollard, the rebels chartered a Dragon Rapide aircraft (paid for with help from Juan March, the wealthiest man in Spain at the time) to transport Franco from the Canary Islands to Spanish Morocco. The plane flew to the Canaries on 11 July, and Franco arrived in Morocco on 19 July.


  • Madrid, Spain
    Sunday Jul 12, 1936

    Spanish Civil War

    Falangists in Madrid killed police officer Lieutenant José Castillo of the Guardia de Asalto

    Madrid, Spain
    Sunday Jul 12, 1936

    On 12 July 1936, Falangists in Madrid killed police officer Lieutenant José Castillo of the Guardia de Asalto (Assault Guard). Castillo was a Socialist party member who, among other activities, was giving military training to the UGT youth. Castillo had led the Assault Guards that violently suppressed the riots after the funeral of Guardia Civil lieutenant Anastasio de los Reyes. (Los Reyes had been shot by anarchists during 14 April military parade commemorating the five years of the Republic.)


  • Spain
    Friday Jul 17, 1936

    Francisco Franco

    Spanish Civil War

    Spain
    Friday Jul 17, 1936

    The Spanish Civil War began in July 1936 and officially ended with Franco's victory in April 1939, leaving 190,000 to 500,000 dead.


  • Seville, Spain
    Monday Jul 20, 1936

    Francisco Franco

    Air bridge to Seville

    Seville, Spain
    Monday Jul 20, 1936

    From 20 July onward Franco was able, with a small group of 22 mainly German Junkers Ju 52 aircraft, to initiate an air bridge to Seville, where his troops helped to ensure the rebel control of the city.


  • Ferrol, Galicia, Spain
    Tuesday Jul 21, 1936

    Spanish Civil War

    Nationalists captured the central Spanish naval base

    Ferrol, Galicia, Spain
    Tuesday Jul 21, 1936

    On 21 July, the fifth day of the rebellion, the Nationalists captured the central Spanish naval base, located in Ferrol, Galicia.


  • Burgos, Spain
    Friday Jul 24, 1936

    Francisco Franco

    Coordinating junta was established

    Burgos, Spain
    Friday Jul 24, 1936

    From 24 July a coordinating junta was established, based at Burgos. Nominally led by Cabanellas, as the most senior general, it initially included Mola, three other generals, and two colonels; Franco was later added in early August.


  • Spain
    Saturday Jul 25, 1936

    Francisco Franco

    Negotiate with the for more military support

    Spain
    Saturday Jul 25, 1936

    Through representatives, he started to negotiate with the United Kingdom, Germany, and Italy for more military support, and above all for more aircraft. Negotiations were successful with the last two on 25 July.


  • Spain
    Monday Jul 27, 1936

    Spanish Civil War

    French government declared that it would not send military aid

    Spain
    Monday Jul 27, 1936

    In July 1936, British officials convinced Blum (the prime minister) not to send arms to the Republicans and, on 27 July, the French government declared that it would not send military aid, technology or forces to assist the Republican forces. However, Blum made clear that France reserved the right to provide aid should it wish to the Republic: "We could have delivered arms to the Spanish Government [Republicans], a legitimate government... We have not done so, in order not to give an excuse to those who would be tempted to send arms to the rebels [Nationalists]."


  • Spain
    Saturday Aug 1, 1936

    Spanish Civil War

    Pro-Republican rally of 20,000 people confronted Blum

    Spain
    Saturday Aug 1, 1936

    On 1 August 1936, a pro-Republican rally of 20,000 people confronted Blum, demanding that he send aircraft to the Republicans, at the same time as right-wing politicians attacked Blum for supporting the Republic and being responsible for provoking Italian intervention on the side of Franco.


  • Spain
    Friday Aug 7, 1936

    Spanish Civil War

    Blum government provided aircraft to the Republicans

    Spain
    Friday Aug 7, 1936

    However, the Blum government provided aircraft to the Republicans covertly with Potez 540 bomber aircraft (nicknamed the "Flying Coffin" by Spanish Republican pilots), Dewoitine aircraft, and Loire 46 fighter aircraft being sent from 7 August 1936 to December of that year to Republican forces.


  • Spain
    Friday Sep 4, 1936

    Spanish Civil War

    The Republican government under Giral resigned

    Spain
    Friday Sep 4, 1936

    The Republic proved ineffective militarily, relying on disorganised revolutionary militias. The Republican government under Giral resigned on 4 September, unable to cope with the situation, and was replaced by a mostly Socialist organisation under Francisco Largo Caballero. The new leadership began to unify central command in the republican zone.


  • Gipuzkoa, Spain
    Saturday Sep 5, 1936

    Spanish Civil War

    Nationalists closed the French border to the Republicans

    Gipuzkoa, Spain
    Saturday Sep 5, 1936

    On 5 September, the Nationalists closed the French border to the Republicans in the battle of Irún.


  • San Sebastián, Spain
    Tuesday Sep 15, 1936

    Spanish Civil War

    San Sebastián was taken by Nationalist soldiers

    San Sebastián, Spain
    Tuesday Sep 15, 1936

    On 15 September, San Sebastian, home to a divided Republican force of anarchists and Basque nationalists, was taken by Nationalist soldiers.


  • Toledo, Spain
    Monday Sep 21, 1936

    Francisco Franco

    A Detour to free the besieged garrison at the Alcázar of Toledo

    Toledo, Spain
    Monday Sep 21, 1936

    On 21 September, with the head of the column at the town of Maqueda (some 80 km away from Madrid), Franco ordered a detour to free the besieged garrison at the Alcázar of Toledo, which was achieved on 27 September.


  • Spain
    Monday Sep 21, 1936

    Francisco Franco

    Commander-in-chief and head of government

    Spain
    Monday Sep 21, 1936

    On 21 September it was decided that Franco was to be commander-in-chief (this unified command was opposed only by Cabanellas), and, after some discussion, with no more than a lukewarm agreement from Queipo de Llano and from Mola, also head of government. Emilio Mola y Vidal, 1st Duke of Mola, Grandee of Spain was one of the three leaders of the Nationalist coup of July 1936, which started the Spanish Civil War.


  • Salamanca, Spain
    Monday Sep 21, 1936

    Spanish Civil War

    Franco was chosen as chief military commander at a meeting of ranking generals

    Salamanca, Spain
    Monday Sep 21, 1936

    On the Nationalist side, Franco was chosen as chief military commander at a meeting of ranking generals at Salamanca on 21 September, now called by the title Generalísimo.


  • Toledo, Spain
    Sunday Sep 27, 1936

    Spanish Civil War

    Siege of the Alcázar

    Toledo, Spain
    Sunday Sep 27, 1936

    Franco won another victory on 27 September when his troops relieved the siege of the Alcázar in Toledo.


  • Burgos, Spain
    Thursday Oct 1, 1936

    Francisco Franco

    Head of State

    Burgos, Spain
    Thursday Oct 1, 1936

    On 1 October 1936, in Burgos, Franco was publicly proclaimed as Generalísimo of the National army and Jefe del Estado (Head of State).


  • Burgos, Spain
    Thursday Oct 1, 1936

    Spanish Civil War

    General Franco was confirmed head of state and armies in Burgos

    Burgos, Spain
    Thursday Oct 1, 1936

    On 1 October 1936, General Franco was confirmed head of state and armies in Burgos. A similar dramatic success for the Nationalists occurred on 17 October, when troops coming from Galicia relieved the besieged town of Oviedo, in Northern Spain.


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