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  • Iraq, Italy, France, Germany
    165
    Plague

    Antonine Plague

    Iraq, Italy, France, Germany
    165

    Antonine Plague, also known as the plague of Galen, the Greek physician living in the Roman Empire who described it. It is suspected to have been smallpox or measles. The total deaths have been estimated at five million and the disease killed as much as one-third of the population in some areas and devastated the Roman army.




  • Danube region
    256
    Roman Empire

    Gallienus proclaimed his elder son Valerian II caesar

    Danube region
    256

    During his Danube sojourn (Drinkwater suggests in 255 or 256), he proclaimed his elder son Valerian II caesar and thus official heir to himself and Valerian I; the boy probably joined Gallienus on the campaign at that time, and when Gallienus moved west to the Rhine provinces in 257, he remained behind on the Danube as the personification of Imperial authority.




  • France
    Sunday Aug 20, 451
    Huns

    Battle of the Catalaunian Plains

    France
    Sunday Aug 20, 451

    Battle of the Catalaunian Plains, took place on June 20, 451 AD, between a coalition - led by the Roman general Flavius Aetius and by the Visigothic king Theodoric I - against the Huns and their vassals - commanded by their king Attila.




  • Champagne, Charente-Maritime, France
    451
    Huns

    The campaigns of the Huns under Attila

    Champagne, Charente-Maritime, France
    451

    The campaigns of the Huns under Attila in Europe, leading to their defeat at the Catalaunian Plains in 451 AD.




  • France
    594
    Kingdom of the Lombards

    Agilulf and Theodelinda developed a policy of strengthening their hold on Italian territory

    France
    594

    In 594 was preempted, Agilulf and Theodelinda developed a policy of strengthening their hold on Italian territory while securing their borders through peace treaties with France and the Avars.




  • Toulouse, France
    721

    The Battle of Toulouse

    Toulouse, France
    721

    The Battle of Toulouse (721) was a victory of an Aquitanian Christian army led by Duke Odo of Aquitaine over an Umayyad Muslim army besieging the city of Toulouse, and led by the governor of Al-Andalus, Al-Samh ibn Malik al-Khawlani.




  • Vouneuil-sur-Vienne, France
    Oct, 732

    The Battle of Tours

    Vouneuil-sur-Vienne, France
    Oct, 732

    The Battle of Tours, also called the Battle of Poitiers and, by Arab sources, the Battle of the Highway of the Martyrs, was fought on 10 October 732, and was an important battle during the Umayyad invasion of Gaul.


  • Occitanie, France
    737

    Battle of the River Berre

    Occitanie, France
    737

    At the Battle of the River Berre in 737 Frankish forces under the command of Charles Martel intercepted a sizeable Arab force sent from Al-Andalus and led by Uqba ibn al-Hayyay to relieve the siege of Narbonne.


  • Narbonne, Aude, France
    737

    The Siege of Narbonne

    Narbonne, Aude, France
    737

    The Siege of Narbonne was fought in 737 between the forces of Yusuf ibn 'Abd al-Rahman al-Fihri, Umayyad governor of Narbonne, and a Frankish army led by Charles Martel. The city of Narbonne was captured by Al-Samh ibn Malik al-Khawlani, governor of Al-Andalus


  • (Present Day France)
    8th Century
    Holy Roman Empire

    Charles Martel, had become the de facto rulers

    (Present Day France)
    8th Century

    By the middle of the 8th century, however, the Merovingians had been reduced to figureheads, and the Carolingians, led by Charles Martel, had become the de facto rulers.


  • (Present Day France)
    751
    Holy Roman Empire

    Martel's son Pepin became King of the Franks

    (Present Day France)
    751

    In 751, Martel's son Pepin became King of the Franks, and later gained the sanction of the Pope. The Carolingians would maintain a close alliance with the Papacy.


  • (Present Day France)
    768
    Holy Roman Empire

    Pepin's son Charlemagne became King of the Franks and began an extensive expansion of the realm

    (Present Day France)
    768

    In 768, Pepin's son Charlemagne became King of the Franks and began an extensive expansion of the realm. He eventually incorporated the territories of present-day France, Germany, northern Italy, and beyond, linking the Frankish kingdom with Papal lands.


  • (Present Day France and Germany)
    840s
    Holy Roman Empire

    Western Francia and Eastern Francia

    (Present Day France and Germany)
    840s

    By this point the territory of Charlemagne had been divided into several territories, and over the course of the later ninth century the title of Emperor was disputed by the Carolingian rulers of Western Francia and Eastern Francia, with first the western king (Charles the Bald) and then the eastern (Charles the Fat), who briefly reunited the Empire, attaining the prize; however, after the death of Charles the Fat in 888 the Carolingian Empire broke apart, and was never restored. According to Regino of Prüm, the parts of the realm "spewed forth kinglets", and each part elected a kinglet "from its own bowels".


  • Clermont, Auvergne (Present-Day in France)
    Sunday Nov 17, 1095
    Crusades

    Council of Clermont

    Clermont, Auvergne (Present-Day in France)
    Sunday Nov 17, 1095

    Pope Urban II hosted the Council of Clermont in November 1095 that resulted in the mobilization of Western Europe to go to the Holy Land.


  • Clermont-Ferrand, Auvergne (Present-Day in France)
    Wednesday Nov 27, 1095
    Byzantine Empire

    Council of Clermont

    Clermont-Ferrand, Auvergne (Present-Day in France)
    Wednesday Nov 27, 1095

    On 27 November 1095, Pope Urban II called together the Council of Clermont, and urged all those present to take up arms under the sign of the Cross and launch an armed pilgrimage to recover Jerusalem and the East from the Muslims. The response in Western Europe was overwhelming.


  • France
    Jun, 1147
    Crusades

    The French contingent departed

    France
    Jun, 1147

    The French contingent departed in June 1147.


  • Paris, France
    1212
    Libraries

    1212 the council of Paris condemned those monasteries that still forbade loaning books

    Paris, France
    1212

    In 1212 the council of Paris condemned those monasteries that still forbade loaning books, reminding them that lending is "one of the chief works of mercy".


  • France
    1308
    Holy Roman Empire

    Charles of Valois

    France
    1308

    King Philip IV of France began aggressively seeking support for his brother, Charles of Valois, to be elected the next King of the Romans. Philip thought he had the backing of the French Pope Clement V (established at Avignon in 1309), and that his prospects of bringing the empire into the orbit of the French royal house were good. He lavishly spread French money in the hope of bribing the German electors. Although Charles of Valois had the backing of Henry, Archbishop of Cologne, a French supporter, many were not keen to see an expansion of French power, least of all Clement V. The principal rival to Charles appeared to be Rudolf, the Count Palatine.


  • France, Switzerland
    1349
    Plague

    Black Death Jewish persecutions

    France, Switzerland
    1349

    Black Death Jewish persecutions. A rumor rises claiming that Jews are responsible for the plague as an attempt to kill Christians and dominate the world. Supported by a widely distributed report of the trial of Jews who supposedly had poisoned wells in Switzerland, the rumor spreads quickly. As a result, a wave of pogroms against Jews breaks out. Christians start to attack Jews in their communities, burning their homes, and murder them with clubs and axes. In the Strasbourg massacre, it is estimated that people locked up and burned 900 Jews alive. Finally, Pope Clement VI issues a religious order to stop the violence against the Jews, claiming that the plague is “the result of an angry God striking at the Christian people for their sins.”


  • Vienne, Holy Roman Empire
    1414
    Holy Roman Empire

    Council of Constance

    Vienne, Holy Roman Empire
    1414

    The conflict between several papal claimants (two anti-popes and the "legitimate" Pope) ended only with the Council of Constance (1414–1418); after 1419 the Papacy directed much of its energy to suppressing the Hussites. The medieval idea of unifying all Christendom into a single political entity, with the Church and the Empire as its leading institutions, began to decline. The Council of Constance was a 15th-century ecumenical council recognized by the Catholic Church, held from 1414 to 1418 in the Bishopric of Constance in present-day Germany. The council ended the Western Schism by deposing or accepting the resignation of the remaining papal claimants and by electing Pope Martin V.


  • Rennes, France
    Dec, 1483
    Elizabeth Woodville

    Henry Tudor agreed to the plan

    Rennes, France
    Dec, 1483

    To strengthen his claim and unite the two feuding noble houses, Elizabeth Woodville and Margaret Beaufort agreed that the latter's son should marry the former's eldest daughter, Elizabeth of York, who upon the death of her brothers became the heiress of the House of York. Henry Tudor agreed to this plan and in December 1483 publicly swore an oath to that effect in the cathedral in Rennes, France. A month earlier, an uprising in his favour, led by Buckingham, had been crushed.


  • France
    1508
    April Fools' Day

    The First Reference to the Celebration in France

    France
    1508

    In 1508, French poet Eloy d'Amerval referred to a poisson d'avril (April fool, literally "fish of April"), possibly the first reference to the celebration in France.


  • France
    1516
    Mona Lisa

    Leonardo was invited by King Francis I

    France
    1516

    In 1516, Leonardo was invited by King Francis I to work at the Clos Lucé near the Château d'Amboise; it is believed that he took the Mona Lisa with him and continued to work on it after he moved to France.


  • Amboise, France
    1516
    Leonardo da Vinci

    Leonardo entered Francis' service, being given the use of the manor house Clos Lucé

    Amboise, France
    1516

    In 1516, Leonardo entered Francis' service, being given the use of the manor house Clos Lucé, near the king's residence at the royal Château d'Amboise. Being frequently visited by Francis, he drew plans for an immense castle town the king intended to erect at Romorantin, and made a mechanical lion, which during a pageant walked toward the king and—upon being struck by a wand—opened its chest to reveal a cluster of lilies. Leonardo was accompanied during this time by his friend and apprentice, Francesco Melzi, and supported by a pension totalling 10,000 scudi. At some point, Melzi drew a portrait of Leonardo; the only others known from his lifetime were a sketch by an unknown assistant on the back of one of Leonardo's studies (c. 1517) and a drawing by Giovanni Ambrogio Figino depicting an elderly Leonardo with his right arm assuaged by cloth. The latter, in addition to the record of an October 1517 visit by Louis d'Aragon, confirms an account of Leonardo's right hand being paralytic at the age of 65, which may indicate why he left works such as the Mona Lisa unfinished. He continued to work at some capacity until eventually becoming ill and bedridden for several months.


  • Clos Lucé, Amboise, France
    Friday May 2, 1519
    Leonardo da Vinci

    Death

    Clos Lucé, Amboise, France
    Friday May 2, 1519

    Leonardo died at Clos Lucé on 2 May 1519 at the age of 67, possibly of a stroke.


  • Collegiate Church of Saint Florentin at the Château d'Amboise, Amboise, France
    Tuesday Aug 12, 1519
    Leonardo da Vinci

    Leonardo's remains

    Collegiate Church of Saint Florentin at the Château d'Amboise, Amboise, France
    Tuesday Aug 12, 1519

    On 12 August 1519, Leonardo's remains were interred in the Collegiate Church of Saint Florentin at the Château d'Amboise.


  • Paris, France
    1643
    Libraries

    Bibliothèque Mazarine

    Paris, France
    1643

    The Bibliothèque Mazarine was initially the personal library of cardinal Mazarin, who was a great bibliophile. At his death he bequeathed his library, which he had opened to scholars since 1643, to the Collège des Quatre-Nations which he had founded in 1661.


  • France
    1690s
    Disasters with highest death tolls

    French Famine

    France
    1690s

    French Famine (1693–1694) was a famine in France. It began in 1693. The death toll from this famine is estimated to be in the range of 1,300,000–1,500,000.


  • France
    18th Century
    Meditation

    Meditation in The West (Denis Diderot)

    France
    18th Century

    By the 18th century, the study of Buddhism in the West was a topic for intellectuals. The philosopher Schopenhauer discussed it, and Voltaire asked for toleration towards Buddhists. There was also some influence from the Enlightenment through the Encyclopédie of Denis Diderot (1713–1784), although he states, "I find that a meditation practitioner is often quite useless and that a contemplation practitioner is always insane".


  • France
    1704
    Arameans

    The first known Aramaic inscription

    France
    1704

    The first known Aramaic inscription was the Carpentras Stela, found in southern France in 1704; it was considered to be Phoenician text at the time.


  • Marseille, France
    1720
    Plague

    The Great Plague of Marseille

    Marseille, France
    1720

    The Great Plague of Marseille kills more than 100,000 people in the French city of Marseille.


  • France
    1760
    Chocolate

    The Chocolate Lombart

    France
    1760

    Wind-powered and horse-drawn mills were used to speed production, augmenting human labor. Heating the working areas of the table-mill, an innovation that emerged in France in 1732, also assisted in extraction. The Chocolaterie Lombart, created in 1760, claimed to be the first chocolate company in France, ten years before Pelletier et Pelletier.


  • Paris, France
    Friday Nov 18, 1763
    Mozart

    Mozart with king Louis XV in Paris

    Paris, France
    Friday Nov 18, 1763

    On 18 November Mozart arrived at Paris. His family and he would end up living there for 5 months. The family was allowed to live in Rue St Antoine in the home of Count Maximilian Emanuel Franz von Eyck and gave a concert for Louis XV on 1 January 1764. The Mozart 's reputation followed them and they were fed by the aristocracy everywhere they went.


  • Paris, France
    1764
    Mozart

    First published music

    Paris, France
    1764

    A momentous event for classical music occurred in Paris in 1764. In five movements, a violin sonata was published: the first was fast; the second was slow; two minuets followed, followed by a final fast movement. An eight-year-old Mozart had switched from actor to composer. His first recorded music was this, his Opus 1.


  • Corsica, Kingdom of France
    1769
    Napoleon

    Republic of Genoa transferred Corsica to France

    Corsica, Kingdom of France
    1769

    Napoleon was born the same year the Republic of Genoa, a former commune of Italy, transferred Corsica to France.


  • France
    1777
    Napoleon

    The father was an attorney who went on to be named Corsica's representative to the court of Louis XVI

    France
    1777

    Napoleon's parents fought against the French to maintain independence even when Maria was pregnant with him. His father was an attorney who went on to be named Corsica's representative to the court of Louis XVI in 1777.


  • Paris, France
    Apr, 1778
    Mozart

    Leaving Mannheim for Paris

    Paris, France
    Apr, 1778

    In the spring of 1778 Mozart eventually pushed himself away from Mannheim, arriving in Paris at the beginning of April, even though Mozart obtained a commission from the Paris Opéra for some incidental ballet music. He worked on Les petits riens in the month of May, and he saw it performed on 11 June. He was especially badly treated during this time by the Duchess of Chabot, who seemed to view him as nothing more than a hired hand, playing for her art class while she and her guests ignored his performances.


  • France
    1778
    Napoleon

    Napoleon moved to the French mainland

    France
    1778

    When Napoleon turned 9 years old, he moved to the French mainland.


  • Paris, France
    Friday Jul 3, 1778
    Mozart

    His mother's death

    Paris, France
    Friday Jul 3, 1778

    After Mannheim, she had been unwell, complaining of a sore throat and ear infections, and while she was keen for them to move on, Leopold declined to countenance her return home, to recover there. Things quickly got worse in Paris. She began suffering from chills and a fever along with constant headaches and died on July 3.


  • Paris, France
    Monday Jul 13, 1778
    Mozart

    The Paris Symphony

    Paris, France
    Monday Jul 13, 1778

    On 12 June, his Symphony No. 31 in D — eventually nicknamed “The Paris Symphony” — newly written that month, was performed at the house of another local bigwig, Count Sickingen.


  • Autun, France
    Jan, 1779
    Napoleon

    Napoleon enrolled at a religious school

    Autun, France
    Jan, 1779

    Napoleon enrolled at a religious school in Autun in January 1779.


  • Brienne-le-Château, France
    May, 1779
    Napoleon

    Military academy at Brienne-le-Château

    Brienne-le-Château, France
    May, 1779

    In May, Napoleon transferred with a scholarship to a military academy at Brienne-le-Château.


  • France
    1779
    Napoleon

    Napoleon began learning French

    France
    1779

    In his youth he was an outspoken Corsican nationalist and supported the state's independence from France. Like many Corsicans, Napoleon spoke and read Corsican (as his mother tongue) and Italian (as the official language of Corsica). Napoleon began learning French in school at around age 10.


  • France
    1780
    Napoleon

    Napoleon was routinely bullied by his peers for his accent

    France
    1780

    Napoleon was routinely bullied by his peers for his accent, birthplace, short stature, mannerisms and inability to speak French quickly. Bonaparte became reserved and melancholy applying himself to reading.


  • Paris, France
    Wednesday Sep 3, 1783
    George Washington

    Treaty of Paris

    Paris, France
    Wednesday Sep 3, 1783

    Washington resigned as commander-in-chief once the Treaty of Paris was signed, and he planned to retire to Mount Vernon. The treaty was ratified in April 1783, and Hamilton's Congressional committee adapted the army for peacetime. Washington gave the Army's perspective to the Committee in his Sentiments on a Peace Establishment. The Treaty was signed on September 3, 1783, and Great Britain officially recognized the independence of the United States. Washington then disbanded his army, giving an eloquent farewell address to his soldiers on November 2.


  • École Militaire, Paris, France
    1784
    Napoleon

    Napoleon was admitted to the École Militaire

    École Militaire, Paris, France
    1784

    On completion of his studies at Brienne in 1784, Napoleon was admitted to the École Militaire in Paris.


  • École Militaire, Paris, France
    1785
    Napoleon

    Graduated

    École Militaire, Paris, France
    1785

    Upon graduating in September 1785, Bonaparte was commissioned a second lieutenant in La Fère artillery regiment.


  • France
    1789
    Napoleon

    Napoleon wrote to Corsican leader Pasquale Paoli

    France
    1789

    At this time, Napoleon was a fervent Corsican nationalist, and wrote to Corsican leader Pasquale Paoli in May 1789, "As the nation was perishing I was born. Thirty thousand Frenchmen were vomited on to our shores, drowning the throne of liberty in waves of blood. Such was the odious sight which was the first to strike me".


  • France
    1789
    Napoleon

    Napoleon served in Valence and Auxonne

    France
    1789

    Napoleon served in Valence and Auxonne until after the outbreak of the Revolution in 1789, and took nearly two years' leave in Corsica and Paris during this period.


  • France
    1792
    Holy Roman Empire

    Revolutionary France was at war with various parts of the Empire

    France
    1792

    From 1792 onwards, revolutionary France was at war with various parts of the Empire intermittently.


  • France
    Apr, 1792
    George Washington

    French Revolutionary Wars began

    France
    Apr, 1792

    In April 1792, the French Revolutionary Wars began between Great Britain and France, and Washington declared America's neutrality. The revolutionary government of France sent diplomat Citizen Genêt to America, and he was welcomed with great enthusiasm. He created a network of new Democratic-Republican Societies promoting France's interests, but Washington denounced them and demanded that the French recall Genêt.


  • Corsica, France
    Jul, 1792
    Napoleon

    Napoleon was promoted to captain

    Corsica, France
    Jul, 1792

    He spent the early years of the Revolution in Corsica, fighting in a complex three-way struggle among royalists, revolutionaries, and Corsican nationalists. He was a supporter of the republican Jacobin movement, organizing clubs in Corsica, and was given command over a battalion of volunteers. Napoleon was promoted to captain in the regular army in July 1792, despite exceeding his leave of absence and leading a riot against French troops.


  • France
    Sunday Aug 26, 1792
    George Washington

    The National Assembly of France granted Washington honorary French citizenship

    France
    Sunday Aug 26, 1792

    The National Assembly of France granted Washington honorary French citizenship on August 26, 1792, during the early stages of the French Revolution.


  • France
    Jun, 1793
    Napoleon

    Bonaparte and his family fled to the French mainland

    France
    Jun, 1793

    Napoleon came into conflict with Paoli, who had decided to split with France and sabotage the Corsican contribution to the Expédition de Sardaigne, by preventing a French assault on the Sardinian island of La Maddalena. Bonaparte and his family fled to the French mainland in June 1793 because of the split with Paoli.


  • Beaucaire, France
    Jul, 1793
    Napoleon

    Le souper de Beaucaire

    Beaucaire, France
    Jul, 1793

    In July 1793, Bonaparte published a pro-republican pamphlet entitled Le souper de Beaucaire (Supper at Beaucaire) which gained him the support of Augustin Robespierre, younger brother of the Revolutionary leader Maximilien Robespierre.


  • France
    1793
    Napoleon

    Napoleon was promoted to brigadier general

    France
    1793

    Napoleon adopted a plan to capture a hill where republican guns could dominate the city's harbour and force the British to evacuate. The assault on the position led to the capture of the city, but during it Bonaparte was wounded in the thigh. Napoleon was promoted to brigadier general at the age of 24. Catching the attention of the Committee of Public Safety, he was put in charge of the artillery of France's Army of Italy.


  • Saorge, Alpes-Maritimes, France
    Thursday Apr 24, 1794
    Napoleon

    Battle of Saorgio

    Saorge, Alpes-Maritimes, France
    Thursday Apr 24, 1794

    The French army carried out Bonaparte's plan in the Battle of Saorgio in April 1794, and then advanced to seize Ormea in the mountains. From Ormea, they headed west to outflank the Austro-Sardinian positions around Saorge. After this campaign, Augustin Robespierre sent Bonaparte on a mission to the Republic of Genoa to determine that country's intentions towards France.


  • Paris, France
    1790s
    Robert Fulton

    Nautilus

    Paris, France
    1790s

    While living in France, Fulton designed the first working muscle-powered submarine, Nautilus, between 1793 and 1797. He also experimented with torpedoes. When tested, his submarine operated underwater for 17 minutes in 25 feet of water. He asked the government to subsidize its construction, but he was turned down twice. Eventually, he approached the Minister of Marine and in 1800 was granted permission to build. The shipyard Perrier in Rouen built it, and the submarine sailed first in July 1800 on the Seine River in the same city.


  • France
    1795
    Napoleon

    Bonaparte had become engaged to Désirée Clary

    France
    1795

    By 1795, Bonaparte had become engaged to Désirée Clary, daughter of François Clary.


  • Vendée, France
    Apr, 1795
    Napoleon

    Napoleon was assigned to the Army of the West

    Vendée, France
    Apr, 1795

    In April 1795, Napoleon was assigned to the Army of the West, which was engaged in the War in the Vendée (a civil war and royalist counter-revolution) in Vendée, a region in west central France on the Atlantic Ocean.


  • France
    1795
    Napoleon

    Clisson et Eugénie

    France
    1795

    Napoleon wrote the romantic novella Clisson et Eugénie, about a soldier and his lover, in a clear parallel to Bonaparte's own relationship with Désirée.


  • France
    Tuesday Sep 15, 1795
    Napoleon

    Bonaparte was removed from the list of generals in regular service

    France
    Tuesday Sep 15, 1795

    On 15 September, Bonaparte was removed from the list of generals in regular service for his refusal to serve in the Vendée campaign.


  • Paris, France
    Saturday Oct 3, 1795
    Napoleon

    Royalists declared a rebellion against the National Convention

    Paris, France
    Saturday Oct 3, 1795

    On 3 October, royalists in Paris declared a rebellion against the National Convention.


  • Paris, France
    Monday Oct 5, 1795
    Napoleon

    1,400 royalists died and the rest fled

    Paris, France
    Monday Oct 5, 1795

    Napoleon ordered a young cavalry officer named Joachim Murat to seize large cannons and used them to repel the attackers on 5 October 1795 (13 Vendémiaire An IV in the French Republican Calendar); 1,400 royalists died and the rest fled.


  • Paris, France
    Wednesday Mar 9, 1796
    Napoleon

    Napoleon married Joséphine de Beauharnais

    Paris, France
    Wednesday Mar 9, 1796

    Napoleon was romantically involved with Joséphine de Beauharnais, the former mistress of Barras. The couple married on 9 March 1796 in a civil ceremony.


  • Paris, France
    1797
    Robert Fulton

    Fulton went to Paris

    Paris, France
    1797

    In 1797 Fulton went to Paris, where he was well known as an inventor. He studied French and German, along with mathematics and chemistry. In Paris, Fulton met James Rumsey, an inventor from Virginia with an interest in steamboats, who in 1786 ran his own first steamboat up the Potomac River.


  • Paris, France
    Monday Sep 4, 1797
    Napoleon

    Coup of 18 Fructidor

    Paris, France
    Monday Sep 4, 1797

    Bonaparte sent General Pierre Augereau to Paris to lead a coup d'état and purge the royalists on 4 September (Coup of 18 Fructidor).


  • Paris, France
    Dec, 1797
    Napoleon

    Bonaparte returned to Paris as a hero

    Paris, France
    Dec, 1797

    Bonaparte returned to Paris in December as a hero.


  • France
    1798
    Napoleon

    Napoleon decided on a military expedition to seize Egypt

    France
    1798

    Bonaparte decided that France's naval power was not yet strong enough to confront the British Royal Navy. Napoleon decided on a military expedition to seize Egypt and thereby undermine Britain's access to its trade interests in India.


  • Paris, France
    May, 1798
    Napoleon

    Bonaparte was elected a member of the French Academy of Sciences

    Paris, France
    May, 1798

    In May 1798, Bonaparte was elected a member of the French Academy of Sciences.


  • France
    Saturday Aug 24, 1799
    Napoleon

    Napoleon sailed for France

    France
    Saturday Aug 24, 1799

    On 24 August 1799, Napoleon took advantage of the temporary departure of British ships from French coastal ports and set sail for France, despite the fact that he had received no explicit orders from Paris.


  • France
    Saturday Nov 9, 1799
    Napoleon

    Coup d'état on 9 November 1799

    France
    Saturday Nov 9, 1799

    Despite the failures in Egypt, Napoleon returned to a hero's welcome. He drew together an alliance with director Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès, his brother Lucien, speaker of the Council of Five Hundred Roger Ducos, director Joseph Fouché, and Talleyrand, and they overthrew the Directory by a coup d'état on 9 November 1799 ("the 18th Brumaire" according to the revolutionary calendar), closing down the Council of Five Hundred.


  • France
    Tuesday Dec 24, 1799
    Napoleon

    Constitution of the Year VIII

    France
    Tuesday Dec 24, 1799

    Napoleon drafted the Constitution of the Year VIII and secured his own election as First Consul, taking up residence at the Tuileries.


  • Paris, France
    Friday Oct 10, 1800
    Napoleon

    Conspiration des poignards

    Paris, France
    Friday Oct 10, 1800

    The Conspiration des poignards (Daggers Conspiracy) or Complot de l'Opéra (Opera Plot) was an alleged assassination attempt against Napoleon Bonaparte. The members of the plot were not clearly established. Authorities at the time presented it as an assassination attempt on Napoleon at the exit of the Paris operahouse on 18 vendémiaire year IX (10 October 1800), which was prevented by the police force of Joseph Fouché. However, this version was questioned very early on.


  • Paris, France
    Wednesday Dec 24, 1800
    Napoleon

    Plot of the rue Saint-Nicaise

    Paris, France
    Wednesday Dec 24, 1800

    The Plot of the rue Saint-Nicaise, also known as the Machine infernale plot, was an assassination attempt on the life of the First Consul of France, Napoleon Bonaparte, in Paris on 24 December 1800. It followed the conspiration des poignards of 10 October 1800, and was one of many Royalist and Catholic plots. Though Napoleon and his wife Josephine narrowly escaped the attempt, five people were killed and twenty-six others were injured.


  • France
    1801
    Robert Fulton

    Fulton met Robert R. Livingston

    France
    1801

    In France, Fulton met Robert R. Livingston, who was appointed U.S. Ambassador to France in 1801. He also had a scientifically curious mind, and the two men decided to collaborate on building a steamboat and to try operating it on the Seine. Fulton experimented with the water-resistance of various hull shapes, made drawings and models, and had a steamboat constructed. At the first trial, the boat ran perfectly, but the hull was later rebuilt and strengthened. On August 9, 1803, when this boat was driven up the River Seine, it sank. The boat was 66 feet (20.1 m) long, with an 8-foot (2.4 m) beam, and made between 3 and 4 miles per hour (4.8 and 6.4 km/h) against the current.


  • Lunéville, France
    Monday Feb 9, 1801
    Napoleon

    Treaty of Lunéville

    Lunéville, France
    Monday Feb 9, 1801

    As a result, the Austrians capitulated and signed the Treaty of Lunéville in February 1801. The treaty reaffirmed and expanded earlier French gains at Campo Formio.


  • Amiens, France
    Thursday Mar 25, 1802
    Napoleon

    Treaty of Amiens

    Amiens, France
    Thursday Mar 25, 1802

    France and Britain signed the Treaty of Amiens in March 1802, bringing the Revolutionary Wars to an end. Amiens called for the withdrawal of British troops from recently conquered colonial territories as well as for assurances to curtail the expansionary goals of the French Republic.


  • France
    Monday May 10, 1802
    Napoleon

    The 1802 French constitutional referendum

    France
    Monday May 10, 1802

    In a new plebiscite during the spring of 1802, the French public came out in huge numbers to approve a constitution that made the Consulate permanent, essentially elevating Napoleon to dictator for life.


  • Paris, France
    1804
    Simón Bolívar

    Bolívar lived in France

    Paris, France
    1804

    Back in Europe in 1804, Bolívar lived in France and traveled to different countries.


  • France
    Nov, 1804
    Napoleon

    The 1804 French referendum

    France
    Nov, 1804

    Launching yet another referendum, Napoleon was elected as Emperor of the French by a tally exceeding 99%.


  • Notre Dame de Paris, France
    Sunday Dec 2, 1804
    Napoleon

    Napoleon's coronation

    Notre Dame de Paris, France
    Sunday Dec 2, 1804

    Napoleon's coronation, officiated by Pope Pius VII, took place at Notre Dame de Paris, on 2 December 1804.


  • Notre Dame, Paris, France
    Sunday Dec 2, 1804
    Simón Bolívar

    Bolívar witnessed the coronation of Napoleon in Notre Dame

    Notre Dame, Paris, France
    Sunday Dec 2, 1804

    While in Paris, Bolívar witnessed the coronation of Napoleon in Notre Dame, an event that left a profound impression on him. Even if he disagreed with the crowning, he was highly sensitive to the popular veneration inspired by the hero.


  • France
    1805
    Napoleon

    Napoleon's planned invasion of the United Kingdom

    France
    1805

    The main strategic idea involved the French Navy escaping from the British blockades of Toulon and Brest and threatening to attack the West Indies. In the face of this attack, it was hoped, the British would weaken their defense of the Western Approaches by sending ships to the Caribbean, allowing a combined Franco-Spanish fleet to take control of the channel long enough for French armies to cross and invade.


  • France
    1805
    Napoleon

    Grande Armée had grown to a force of 350,000 men

    France
    1805

    By 1805, the Grande Armée had grown to a force of 350,000 men, who were well equipped, well trained, and led by competent officers.


  • Paris, France
    Saturday Jul 12, 1806
    Holy Roman Empire

    The Confederation of the Rhine

    Paris, France
    Saturday Jul 12, 1806

    Napoleon reorganized much of the Empire into the Confederation of the Rhine, a French satellite. Francis' House of Habsburg-Lorraine survived the demise of the empire, continuing to reign as Emperors of Austria and Kings of Hungary until the Habsburg empire's final dissolution in 1918 in the aftermath of World War I. The Confederation of the Rhine ("Confederated States of the Rhine") was a confederation of client states of the First French Empire. It was formed initially from sixteen German states by Napoleon after he defeated Austria and Russia at the Battle of Austerlitz. The Treaty of Pressburg, in effect, led to the creation of the Confederation of the Rhine, which lasted from 1806 to 1813.


  • Fontainebleau, France
    Tuesday Oct 27, 1807
    Napoleon

    Treaty of Fontainebleau (October 1807)

    Fontainebleau, France
    Tuesday Oct 27, 1807

    Unhappy with this change of policy by the Portuguese government, Napoleon negotiated a secret treaty with Charles IV of Spain and sent an army to invade Portugal.


  • Paris, France
    1809
    Mona Lisa

    The first and most extensive recorded cleaning

    Paris, France
    1809

    The first and most extensive recorded cleaning, revarnishing, and touch-up of the Mona Lisa was an 1809 wash and revarnishing undertaken by Jean-Marie Hooghstoel, who was responsible for restoration of paintings for the galleries of the Musée Napoléon. The work involved cleaning with spirits, touch-up of colour, and revarnishing the painting.


  • France
    1809
    Napoleon

    Description de l'Égypte

    France
    1809

    The Egyptian expedition published the Description de l'Égypte in 1809.


  • France
    Wednesday Jan 10, 1810
    Napoleon

    Napoleon divorced Joséphine

    France
    Wednesday Jan 10, 1810

    Napoleon turned his focus to domestic affairs after the war. Empress Joséphine had still not given birth to a child from Napoleon, who became worried about the future of his empire following his death. Desperate for a legitimate heir, Napoleon divorced Joséphine on 10 January 1810 and started looking for a new wife.


  • Paris, France
    Wednesday Mar 20, 1811
    Napoleon

    Napoleon II

    Paris, France
    Wednesday Mar 20, 1811

    On 20 March 1811, Marie Louise gave birth to a baby boy, whom Napoleon made heir apparent and bestowed the title of King of Rome. His son never actually ruled the empire, but given his brief titular rule and cousin Louis-Napoléon's subsequent naming himself Napoléon III, historians often refer to him as Napoleon II.


  • France
    1812
    Napoleon

    Napoleon expanded his Grande Armée to more than 450,000 men

    France
    1812

    By 1812, advisers to Alexander suggested the possibility of an invasion of the French Empire and the recapture of Poland. On receipt of intelligence reports on Russia's war preparations, Napoleon expanded his Grande Armée to more than 450,000 men.


  • France
    Wednesday Jun 24, 1812
    Napoleon

    Napoleon prepared for an offensive campaign against Russia

    France
    Wednesday Jun 24, 1812

    Napoleon ignored repeated advice against an invasion of the Russian heartland and prepared for an offensive campaign; on 24 June 1812 the invasion commenced.


  • Paris, France
    Mar, 1814
    Napoleon

    The leaders of Paris surrendered to the Coalition

    Paris, France
    Mar, 1814

    Napoleon withdrew back into France, his army reduced to 70,000 soldiers and little cavalry; he faced more than three times as many Allied troops.The French were surrounded: British armies pressed from the south, and other Coalition forces positioned to attack from the German states. Napoleon won a series of victories in the Six Days' Campaign, though these were not significant enough to turn the tide. The leaders of Paris surrendered to the Coalition in March 1814.


  • Luxembourg Palace, Paris, France
    Friday Apr 1, 1814
    Napoleon

    Alexander addressed the Sénat conservateur

    Luxembourg Palace, Paris, France
    Friday Apr 1, 1814

    On 1 April, Alexander addressed the Sénat conservateur. Long docile to Napoleon, under Talleyrand's prodding it had turned against him. Alexander told the Sénat that the Allies were fighting against Napoleon, not France, and they were prepared to offer honorable peace terms if Napoleon were removed from power.


  • Luxembourg Palace, Paris, France
    Saturday Apr 2, 1814
    Napoleon

    Acte de déchéance de l'Empereur

    Luxembourg Palace, Paris, France
    Saturday Apr 2, 1814

    The Sénat passed the Acte de déchéance de l'Empereur ("Emperor's Demise Act"), which declared Napoleon deposed. Napoleon had advanced as far as Fontainebleau when he learned that Paris was lost. When Napoleon proposed the army march on the capital, his senior officers and marshals mutinied.


  • Fontainebleau, France
    Monday Apr 4, 1814
    Napoleon

    They confronted Napoleon

    Fontainebleau, France
    Monday Apr 4, 1814

    On 4 April, led by Michel Ney, they confronted Napoleon. Napoleon asserted the army would follow him, and Ney replied the army would follow its generals. While the ordinary soldiers and regimental officers wanted to fight on, without any senior officers or marshals any prospective invasion of Paris would have been impossible.


  • France
    Wednesday Apr 6, 1814
    Napoleon

    Napoleon was then forced to announce his unconditional abdication

    France
    Wednesday Apr 6, 1814

    Bowing to the inevitable, on 4 April Napoleon abdicated in favor of his son, with Marie Louise as regent. However, the Allies refused to accept this under prodding from Alexander, who feared that Napoleon might find an excuse to retake the throne. Napoleon was then forced to announce his unconditional abdication only two days later.


  • Fontainebleau, France
    Monday Apr 11, 1814
    Napoleon

    Treaty of Fontainebleau (1814)

    Fontainebleau, France
    Monday Apr 11, 1814

    In the Treaty of Fontainebleau, the Allies exiled Napoleon to Elba, an island of 12,000 inhabitants in the Mediterranean, 20 km (12 mi) off the Tuscan coast. They gave him sovereignty over the island and allowed him to retain the title of Emperor. Napoleon attempted suicide with a pill he had carried after nearly being captured by the Russians during the retreat from Moscow. Its potency had weakened with age, however, and he survived to be exiled, while his wife and son took refuge in Austria.


  • Rueil-Malmaison, Kingdom of France
    Sunday May 29, 1814
    Napoleon

    Josephine death

    Rueil-Malmaison, Kingdom of France
    Sunday May 29, 1814

    A few months into his exile, Napoleon learned that his ex-wife Josephine had died in France. He was devastated by the news, locking himself in his room and refusing to leave for two days.


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