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  • Clermont-Ferrand, Auvergne (Present-Day in France)
    Wednesday Nov 27, 1095
    Byzantine Empire

    Council of Clermont

    Clermont-Ferrand, Auvergne (Present-Day in France)
    Wednesday Nov 27, 1095

    On 27 November 1095, Pope Urban II called together the Council of Clermont, and urged all those present to take up arms under the sign of the Cross and launch an armed pilgrimage to recover Jerusalem and the East from the Muslims. The response in Western Europe was overwhelming.




  • Clos Lucé, Amboise, France
    Friday May 2, 1519
    Leonardo da Vinci

    Death

    Clos Lucé, Amboise, France
    Friday May 2, 1519

    Leonardo died at Clos Lucé on 2 May 1519 at the age of 67, possibly of a stroke.




  • Collegiate Church of Saint Florentin at the Château d'Amboise, Amboise, France
    Tuesday Aug 12, 1519
    Leonardo da Vinci

    Leonardo's remains

    Collegiate Church of Saint Florentin at the Château d'Amboise, Amboise, France
    Tuesday Aug 12, 1519

    On 12 August 1519, Leonardo's remains were interred in the Collegiate Church of Saint Florentin at the Château d'Amboise.




  • Paris, France
    Friday Nov 18, 1763
    Mozart

    Mozart with king Louis XV in Paris

    Paris, France
    Friday Nov 18, 1763

    On 18 November Mozart arrived at Paris. His family and he would end up living there for 5 months. The family was allowed to live in Rue St Antoine in the home of Count Maximilian Emanuel Franz von Eyck and gave a concert for Louis XV on 1 January 1764. The Mozart 's reputation followed them and they were fed by the aristocracy everywhere they went.




  • Paris, France
    Friday Jul 3, 1778
    Mozart

    His mother's death

    Paris, France
    Friday Jul 3, 1778

    After Mannheim, she had been unwell, complaining of a sore throat and ear infections, and while she was keen for them to move on, Leopold declined to countenance her return home, to recover there. Things quickly got worse in Paris. She began suffering from chills and a fever along with constant headaches and died on July 3.




  • Paris, France
    Monday Jul 13, 1778
    Mozart

    The Paris Symphony

    Paris, France
    Monday Jul 13, 1778

    On 12 June, his Symphony No. 31 in D — eventually nicknamed “The Paris Symphony” — newly written that month, was performed at the house of another local bigwig, Count Sickingen.




  • Paris, France
    Wednesday Sep 3, 1783
    George Washington

    Treaty of Paris

    Paris, France
    Wednesday Sep 3, 1783

    Washington resigned as commander-in-chief once the Treaty of Paris was signed, and he planned to retire to Mount Vernon. The treaty was ratified in April 1783, and Hamilton's Congressional committee adapted the army for peacetime. Washington gave the Army's perspective to the Committee in his Sentiments on a Peace Establishment. The Treaty was signed on September 3, 1783, and Great Britain officially recognized the independence of the United States. Washington then disbanded his army, giving an eloquent farewell address to his soldiers on November 2.


  • France
    Sunday Aug 26, 1792
    George Washington

    The National Assembly of France granted Washington honorary French citizenship

    France
    Sunday Aug 26, 1792

    The National Assembly of France granted Washington honorary French citizenship on August 26, 1792, during the early stages of the French Revolution.


  • Saorge, Alpes-Maritimes, France
    Thursday Apr 24, 1794
    Napoleon

    Battle of Saorgio

    Saorge, Alpes-Maritimes, France
    Thursday Apr 24, 1794

    The French army carried out Bonaparte's plan in the Battle of Saorgio in April 1794, and then advanced to seize Ormea in the mountains. From Ormea, they headed west to outflank the Austro-Sardinian positions around Saorge. After this campaign, Augustin Robespierre sent Bonaparte on a mission to the Republic of Genoa to determine that country's intentions towards France.


  • France
    Tuesday Sep 15, 1795
    Napoleon

    Bonaparte was removed from the list of generals in regular service

    France
    Tuesday Sep 15, 1795

    On 15 September, Bonaparte was removed from the list of generals in regular service for his refusal to serve in the Vendée campaign.


  • Paris, France
    Saturday Oct 3, 1795
    Napoleon

    Royalists declared a rebellion against the National Convention

    Paris, France
    Saturday Oct 3, 1795

    On 3 October, royalists in Paris declared a rebellion against the National Convention.


  • Paris, France
    Monday Oct 5, 1795
    Napoleon

    1,400 royalists died and the rest fled

    Paris, France
    Monday Oct 5, 1795

    Napoleon ordered a young cavalry officer named Joachim Murat to seize large cannons and used them to repel the attackers on 5 October 1795 (13 Vendémiaire An IV in the French Republican Calendar); 1,400 royalists died and the rest fled.


  • Paris, France
    Wednesday Mar 9, 1796
    Napoleon

    Napoleon married Joséphine de Beauharnais

    Paris, France
    Wednesday Mar 9, 1796

    Napoleon was romantically involved with Joséphine de Beauharnais, the former mistress of Barras. The couple married on 9 March 1796 in a civil ceremony.


  • Paris, France
    Monday Sep 4, 1797
    Napoleon

    Coup of 18 Fructidor

    Paris, France
    Monday Sep 4, 1797

    Bonaparte sent General Pierre Augereau to Paris to lead a coup d'état and purge the royalists on 4 September (Coup of 18 Fructidor).


  • France
    Saturday Aug 24, 1799
    Napoleon

    Napoleon sailed for France

    France
    Saturday Aug 24, 1799

    On 24 August 1799, Napoleon took advantage of the temporary departure of British ships from French coastal ports and set sail for France, despite the fact that he had received no explicit orders from Paris.


  • France
    Saturday Nov 9, 1799
    Napoleon

    Coup d'état on 9 November 1799

    France
    Saturday Nov 9, 1799

    Despite the failures in Egypt, Napoleon returned to a hero's welcome. He drew together an alliance with director Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès, his brother Lucien, speaker of the Council of Five Hundred Roger Ducos, director Joseph Fouché, and Talleyrand, and they overthrew the Directory by a coup d'état on 9 November 1799 ("the 18th Brumaire" according to the revolutionary calendar), closing down the Council of Five Hundred.


  • France
    Tuesday Dec 24, 1799
    Napoleon

    Constitution of the Year VIII

    France
    Tuesday Dec 24, 1799

    Napoleon drafted the Constitution of the Year VIII and secured his own election as First Consul, taking up residence at the Tuileries.


  • Paris, France
    Friday Oct 10, 1800
    Napoleon

    Conspiration des poignards

    Paris, France
    Friday Oct 10, 1800

    The Conspiration des poignards (Daggers Conspiracy) or Complot de l'Opéra (Opera Plot) was an alleged assassination attempt against Napoleon Bonaparte. The members of the plot were not clearly established. Authorities at the time presented it as an assassination attempt on Napoleon at the exit of the Paris operahouse on 18 vendémiaire year IX (10 October 1800), which was prevented by the police force of Joseph Fouché. However, this version was questioned very early on.


  • Paris, France
    Wednesday Dec 24, 1800
    Napoleon

    Plot of the rue Saint-Nicaise

    Paris, France
    Wednesday Dec 24, 1800

    The Plot of the rue Saint-Nicaise, also known as the Machine infernale plot, was an assassination attempt on the life of the First Consul of France, Napoleon Bonaparte, in Paris on 24 December 1800. It followed the conspiration des poignards of 10 October 1800, and was one of many Royalist and Catholic plots. Though Napoleon and his wife Josephine narrowly escaped the attempt, five people were killed and twenty-six others were injured.


  • Lunéville, France
    Monday Feb 9, 1801
    Napoleon

    Treaty of Lunéville

    Lunéville, France
    Monday Feb 9, 1801

    As a result, the Austrians capitulated and signed the Treaty of Lunéville in February 1801. The treaty reaffirmed and expanded earlier French gains at Campo Formio.


  • Amiens, France
    Thursday Mar 25, 1802
    Napoleon

    Treaty of Amiens

    Amiens, France
    Thursday Mar 25, 1802

    France and Britain signed the Treaty of Amiens in March 1802, bringing the Revolutionary Wars to an end. Amiens called for the withdrawal of British troops from recently conquered colonial territories as well as for assurances to curtail the expansionary goals of the French Republic.


  • France
    Monday May 10, 1802
    Napoleon

    The 1802 French constitutional referendum

    France
    Monday May 10, 1802

    In a new plebiscite during the spring of 1802, the French public came out in huge numbers to approve a constitution that made the Consulate permanent, essentially elevating Napoleon to dictator for life.


  • Notre Dame de Paris, France
    Sunday Dec 2, 1804
    Napoleon

    Napoleon's coronation

    Notre Dame de Paris, France
    Sunday Dec 2, 1804

    Napoleon's coronation, officiated by Pope Pius VII, took place at Notre Dame de Paris, on 2 December 1804.


  • Notre Dame, Paris, France
    Sunday Dec 2, 1804
    Simón Bolívar

    Bolívar witnessed the coronation of Napoleon in Notre Dame

    Notre Dame, Paris, France
    Sunday Dec 2, 1804

    While in Paris, Bolívar witnessed the coronation of Napoleon in Notre Dame, an event that left a profound impression on him. Even if he disagreed with the crowning, he was highly sensitive to the popular veneration inspired by the hero.


  • Paris, France
    Saturday Jul 12, 1806
    Holy Roman Empire

    The Confederation of the Rhine

    Paris, France
    Saturday Jul 12, 1806

    Napoleon reorganized much of the Empire into the Confederation of the Rhine, a French satellite. Francis' House of Habsburg-Lorraine survived the demise of the empire, continuing to reign as Emperors of Austria and Kings of Hungary until the Habsburg empire's final dissolution in 1918 in the aftermath of World War I. The Confederation of the Rhine ("Confederated States of the Rhine") was a confederation of client states of the First French Empire. It was formed initially from sixteen German states by Napoleon after he defeated Austria and Russia at the Battle of Austerlitz. The Treaty of Pressburg, in effect, led to the creation of the Confederation of the Rhine, which lasted from 1806 to 1813.


  • Fontainebleau, France
    Tuesday Oct 27, 1807
    Napoleon

    Treaty of Fontainebleau (October 1807)

    Fontainebleau, France
    Tuesday Oct 27, 1807

    Unhappy with this change of policy by the Portuguese government, Napoleon negotiated a secret treaty with Charles IV of Spain and sent an army to invade Portugal.


  • France
    Wednesday Jan 10, 1810
    Napoleon

    Napoleon divorced Joséphine

    France
    Wednesday Jan 10, 1810

    Napoleon turned his focus to domestic affairs after the war. Empress Joséphine had still not given birth to a child from Napoleon, who became worried about the future of his empire following his death. Desperate for a legitimate heir, Napoleon divorced Joséphine on 10 January 1810 and started looking for a new wife.


  • Paris, France
    Wednesday Mar 20, 1811
    Napoleon

    Napoleon II

    Paris, France
    Wednesday Mar 20, 1811

    On 20 March 1811, Marie Louise gave birth to a baby boy, whom Napoleon made heir apparent and bestowed the title of King of Rome. His son never actually ruled the empire, but given his brief titular rule and cousin Louis-Napoléon's subsequent naming himself Napoléon III, historians often refer to him as Napoleon II.


  • France
    Wednesday Jun 24, 1812
    Napoleon

    Napoleon prepared for an offensive campaign against Russia

    France
    Wednesday Jun 24, 1812

    Napoleon ignored repeated advice against an invasion of the Russian heartland and prepared for an offensive campaign; on 24 June 1812 the invasion commenced.


  • Luxembourg Palace, Paris, France
    Friday Apr 1, 1814
    Napoleon

    Alexander addressed the Sénat conservateur

    Luxembourg Palace, Paris, France
    Friday Apr 1, 1814

    On 1 April, Alexander addressed the Sénat conservateur. Long docile to Napoleon, under Talleyrand's prodding it had turned against him. Alexander told the Sénat that the Allies were fighting against Napoleon, not France, and they were prepared to offer honorable peace terms if Napoleon were removed from power.


  • Luxembourg Palace, Paris, France
    Saturday Apr 2, 1814
    Napoleon

    Acte de déchéance de l'Empereur

    Luxembourg Palace, Paris, France
    Saturday Apr 2, 1814

    The Sénat passed the Acte de déchéance de l'Empereur ("Emperor's Demise Act"), which declared Napoleon deposed. Napoleon had advanced as far as Fontainebleau when he learned that Paris was lost. When Napoleon proposed the army march on the capital, his senior officers and marshals mutinied.


  • Fontainebleau, France
    Monday Apr 4, 1814
    Napoleon

    They confronted Napoleon

    Fontainebleau, France
    Monday Apr 4, 1814

    On 4 April, led by Michel Ney, they confronted Napoleon. Napoleon asserted the army would follow him, and Ney replied the army would follow its generals. While the ordinary soldiers and regimental officers wanted to fight on, without any senior officers or marshals any prospective invasion of Paris would have been impossible.


  • France
    Wednesday Apr 6, 1814
    Napoleon

    Napoleon was then forced to announce his unconditional abdication

    France
    Wednesday Apr 6, 1814

    Bowing to the inevitable, on 4 April Napoleon abdicated in favor of his son, with Marie Louise as regent. However, the Allies refused to accept this under prodding from Alexander, who feared that Napoleon might find an excuse to retake the throne. Napoleon was then forced to announce his unconditional abdication only two days later.


  • Fontainebleau, France
    Monday Apr 11, 1814
    Napoleon

    Treaty of Fontainebleau (1814)

    Fontainebleau, France
    Monday Apr 11, 1814

    In the Treaty of Fontainebleau, the Allies exiled Napoleon to Elba, an island of 12,000 inhabitants in the Mediterranean, 20 km (12 mi) off the Tuscan coast. They gave him sovereignty over the island and allowed him to retain the title of Emperor. Napoleon attempted suicide with a pill he had carried after nearly being captured by the Russians during the retreat from Moscow. Its potency had weakened with age, however, and he survived to be exiled, while his wife and son took refuge in Austria.


  • Rueil-Malmaison, Kingdom of France
    Sunday May 29, 1814
    Napoleon

    Josephine death

    Rueil-Malmaison, Kingdom of France
    Sunday May 29, 1814

    A few months into his exile, Napoleon learned that his ex-wife Josephine had died in France. He was devastated by the news, locking himself in his room and refusing to leave for two days.


  • Grenoble, France
    Tuesday Mar 7, 1815
    Napoleon

    Here I am. Kill your Emperor, if you wish

    Grenoble, France
    Tuesday Mar 7, 1815

    The 5th Regiment was sent to intercept Napoleon and made contact just south of Grenoble on 7 March 1815. Napoleon approached the regiment alone, dismounted his horse and, when he was within gunshot range, shouted to the soldiers, "Here I am. Kill your Emperor, if you wish". The soldiers quickly responded with, "Vive L'Empereur!". Ney, who had boasted to the restored Bourbon king, Louis XVIII, that he would bring Napoleon to Paris in an iron cage, affectionately kissed his former emperor and forgot his oath of allegiance to the Bourbon monarch. The two then marched together towards Paris with a growing army. The unpopular Louis XVIII fled to Belgium after realizing he had little political support.


  • Paris, France
    Monday Mar 20, 1815
    Napoleon

    Hundred Days

    Paris, France
    Monday Mar 20, 1815

    Napoleon arrived in Paris on 20 March and governed for a period now called the Hundred Days.


  • Paris, France
    Thursday Jun 22, 1815
    Napoleon

    Napoleon abdicated on 22 June in favor of his son

    Paris, France
    Thursday Jun 22, 1815

    Napoleon returned to Paris and found that both the legislature and the people had turned against him. Realizing his position was untenable, he abdicated on 22 June in favor of his son.


  • Paris, France
    Thursday Jun 29, 1815
    Napoleon

    Coalition forces swept through Paris

    Paris, France
    Thursday Jun 29, 1815

    Napoleon left Paris three days later and settled at Josephine's former palace in Malmaison (on the western bank of the Seine about 17 kilometres (11 mi) west of Paris). Even as Napoleon traveled to Paris, the Coalition forces swept through France (arriving in the vicinity of Paris on 29 June), with the stated intent of restoring Louis XVIII to the French throne.


  • Rochefort, France
    Saturday Jul 15, 1815
    Napoleon

    Napoleon surrendered to Captain Frederick Maitland

    Rochefort, France
    Saturday Jul 15, 1815

    Napoleon heard that Prussian troops had orders to capture him dead or alive, he fled to Rochefort, considering an escape to the United States. British ships were blocking every port. Napoleon surrendered to Captain Frederick Maitland on HMS Bellerophon on 15 July 1815.


  • Paris, France
    Tuesday Dec 15, 1840
    Napoleon

    Funeral

    Paris, France
    Tuesday Dec 15, 1840

    In 1840, Louis Philippe I obtained permission from the British to return Napoleon's remains to France. On 15 December 1840, a state funeral was held. The hearse proceeded from the Arc de Triomphe down the Champs-Élysées, across the Place de la Concorde to the Esplanade des Invalides and then to the cupola in St Jérôme's Chapel, where it remained until the tomb designed by Louis Visconti was completed.


  • France
    Monday Nov 5, 1849
    Elizabeth Blackwell

    Blackwell lost sight in her left eye

    France
    Monday Nov 5, 1849

    On 4 November 1849, when Blackwell was treating an infant with ophthalmia neonatorum, she spurted some contaminated solution into her own eye accidentally and contracted the infection. She lost sight in her left eye, causing her to have her eye surgically extracted and thus lost all hope of becoming a surgeon.


  • Paris, France
    Tuesday Jan 1, 1850
    Alfred Nobel

    To Paris to further the work

    Paris, France
    Tuesday Jan 1, 1850

    As a young man, Nobel studied with chemist Nikolai Zinin; then, in 1850, went to Paris to further the work.


  • France
    Tuesday Jul 19, 1870
    Bicycle

    the Franco-Prussian war

    France
    Tuesday Jul 19, 1870

    Despite having a strong market share, the Franco-Prussian war of 1870 destroyed the velocipede market in France.


  • Paris, France
    Tuesday Apr 25, 1876
    Statue of Liberty

    La Liberté éclairant le monde

    Paris, France
    Tuesday Apr 25, 1876

    Arranged events designed to appeal to the rich and powerful, including a special performance at the Paris Opera on April 25, 1876, that featured a new cantata by composer Charles Gounod. The piece was titled La Liberté éclairant le monde, the French version of the statue's announced name.


  • Paris, France
    Friday Jul 4, 1884
    Statue of Liberty

    Ferdinand de Lesseps

    Paris, France
    Friday Jul 4, 1884

    Laboulaye died in 1883. He was succeeded as chairman of the French committee by Ferdinand de Lesseps, builder of the Suez Canal. The completed statue was formally presented to Ambassador Morton at a ceremony in Paris on July 4, 1884, and de Lesseps announced that the French government had agreed to pay for its transport to New York.


  • France
    Monday Mar 30, 1885
    Eiffel Tower

    Eiffel presented his plans to the Société des Ingénieurs Civils

    France
    Monday Mar 30, 1885

    On 30 March 1885, Eiffel presented his plans to the Société des Ingénieurs Civils; after discussing the technical problems and emphasising the practical uses of the tower, he finished his talk by saying the tower would symbolise: Not only the art of the modern engineer, but also the century of Industrand Science in which we are living, and for which the way was prepared by the great scientific movement of the eighteenth century and by the Revolution of 1789, to which this monument will be built as an expression of France's gratitude.


  • France
    Saturday May 1, 1886
    Eiffel Tower

    Lockroy announced an alteration to the terms of the open competition being held for a centrepiece to the exposition

    France
    Saturday May 1, 1886

    Little progress was made until 1886, when Jules Grévy was re-elected as president of France and Édouard Lockroy was appointed as minister for trade. A budget for the exposition was passed and, on 1 May, Lockroy announced an alteration to the terms of the open competition being held for a centrepiece to the exposition, which effectively made the selection of Eiffel's design a foregone conclusion, as entries had to include a study for a 300 m (980 ft) four-sided metal tower on the Champ de Mars. (A 300-meter tower was then considered a herculean engineering effort).


  • France
    Wednesday May 12, 1886
    Eiffel Tower

    Commission was set up to examine Eiffel's scheme and its rivals

    France
    Wednesday May 12, 1886

    On 12 May, a commission was set up to examine Eiffel's scheme and its rivals.


  • France
    Saturday Jan 8, 1887
    Eiffel Tower

    Contract was signed

    France
    Saturday Jan 8, 1887

    After some debate about the exact location of the tower, a contract was signed on 8 January 1887. This was signed by Eiffel acting in his own capacity rather than as the representative of his company, and granted him 1.5 million francs toward the construction costs: less than a quarter of the estimated 6.5 million francs. Eiffel was to receive all income from the commercial exploitation of the tower during the exhibition and for the next 20 years. He later established a separate company to manage the tower, putting up half the necessary capital himself.


  • Paris, France
    Friday Jan 28, 1887
    Eiffel Tower

    Work on the foundations started

    Paris, France
    Friday Jan 28, 1887

    Work on the foundations started on 28 January 1887. Those for the east and south legs were straightforward, with each leg resting on four 2 m (6.6 ft) concrete slabs, one for each of the principal girders of each leg. The west and north legs, being closer to the river Seine, were more complicated: each slab needed two piles installed by using compressed-air caissons 15 m (49 ft) long and 6 m (20 ft) in diameter driven to a depth of 22 m (72 ft) to support the concrete slabs, which were 6 m (20 ft) thick. Each of these slabs supported a block of limestone with an inclined top to bear a supporting shoe for the ironwork.


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