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  • Westminster Hall, London, England, United Kingdom
    Tuesday Jan 20, 1265
    The palace of Westminster England

    Simon de Montfort's parliament

    Westminster Hall, London, England, United Kingdom
    Tuesday Jan 20, 1265

    The Palace of Westminster was the monarch's principal residence in the late Medieval period. The predecessor of Parliament, the Curia Regis (Royal Council), met in Westminster Hall (although it followed the King when he moved to other palaces). Simon de Montfort's parliament, the first to include representatives of the major towns, met at the Palace in 1265.




  • Berkhamsted Castle, Hertfordshire, England
    Saturday Apr 2, 1272
    Holy Roman Empire

    Richard's death (Richard of Cornwall)

    Berkhamsted Castle, Hertfordshire, England
    Saturday Apr 2, 1272

    After Richard's death (Richard of Cornwall) in 1272, Rudolf I of Germany, a minor pro-Staufen count, was elected. He was the first of the Habsburgs to hold a royal title, but he was never crowned emperor.




  • Northamptonshire, England, United Kingdom
    Sunday May 1, 1464
    Elizabeth Woodville

    Edward IV married Elizabeth

    Northamptonshire, England, United Kingdom
    Sunday May 1, 1464

    Edward IV had many mistresses, the best known of them being Jane Shore, and he did not have a reputation for fidelity. His marriage to the widowed Elizabeth Woodville took place secretly and, though the date is not known, it is traditionally said to have taken place at her family home in Northamptonshire on 1 May 1464.




  • Westminster Abbey, London, England, United Kingdom
    Friday May 26, 1465
    Elizabeth Woodville

    A Queen

    Westminster Abbey, London, England, United Kingdom
    Friday May 26, 1465

    Only the bride's mother and two ladies were in attendance. Edward married her just over three years after he had assumed the English throne in the wake of his overwhelming victory over the Lancastrians, at the Battle of Towton, which resulted in the displacement of King Henry VI. Elizabeth Woodville was crowned queen on 26 May 1465, the Sunday after Ascension Day.




  • Yorkshire, England, United Kingdom
    Monday Jun 25, 1483
    Elizabeth Woodville

    Execution in Pontefract Castle

    Yorkshire, England, United Kingdom
    Monday Jun 25, 1483

    On 25 June 1483, Gloucester had Elizabeth Woodville's son Richard Grey and brother Anthony, Earl Rivers, executed in Pontefract Castle, Yorkshire. By an act of Parliament, the Titulus Regius (1 Ric. III), it was declared that Edward IV's children with Elizabeth were illegitimate on the grounds that Edward IV had a precontract with the widow Lady Eleanor Butler, which was considered a legally binding contract that rendered any other marriage contract invalid. One source, the Burgundian chronicler Philippe de Commines, says that Robert Stillington, Bishop of Bath and Wells, carried out an engagement ceremony between Edward IV and Lady Eleanor.




  • United Kingdom
    Saturday Mar 1, 1484
    Elizabeth Woodville

    Elizabeth and her daughters came out of sanctuary after Richard III publicly swore an oath that her daughters would not be harmed

    United Kingdom
    Saturday Mar 1, 1484

    On 1 March 1484, Elizabeth and her daughters came out of sanctuary after Richard III publicly swore an oath that her daughters would not be harmed or molested and that they would not be imprisoned in the Tower of London or in any other prison. He also promised to provide them with marriage portions and to marry them to "gentlemen born". The family returned to Court, apparently reconciled to Richard III.




  • Leicestershire, England, United Kingdom
    Saturday Aug 22, 1485
    Elizabeth Woodville

    Battle of Bosworth Field

    Leicestershire, England, United Kingdom
    Saturday Aug 22, 1485

    In 1485, Henry Tudor invaded England and defeated Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field. As King, Henry VII married Elizabeth of York and had the Titulus Regius revoked and all found copies destroyed. Elizabeth Woodville was accorded the title and honours of a queen dowager.


  • London, England, United Kingdom
    Saturday Feb 12, 1487
    Elizabeth Woodville

    Retired

    London, England, United Kingdom
    Saturday Feb 12, 1487

    Dowager Queen Elizabeth spent the last five years of her life living at Bermondsey Abbey, to which she retired on 12 February 1487.


  • London, England, United Kingdom
    Wednesday Jun 8, 1492
    Elizabeth Woodville

    Death

    London, England, United Kingdom
    Wednesday Jun 8, 1492

    Elizabeth Woodville died at Bermondsey Abbey, on 8 June 1492.


  • London, England
    Saturday Nov 5, 1605
    The palace of Westminster England

    The Gunpowder Plot

    London, England
    Saturday Nov 5, 1605

    The medieval House of Lords chamber, which had been the target of the failed Gunpowder Plot of 1605, was demolished as part of this work in order to create a new Royal Gallery and ceremonial entrance at the southern end of the palace.


  • United Kingdom
    Saturday Nov 5, 1605
    Halloween

    Guy Fawkes Night

    United Kingdom
    Saturday Nov 5, 1605

    The rising popularity of Guy Fawkes Night (5 November) from 1605 onward, saw many Halloween traditions appropriated by that holiday instead, and Halloween's popularity waned in Britain, with the noteworthy exception of Scotland.


  • London, England, United Kingdom
    Monday Oct 29, 1618
    The palace of Westminster England

    Sir Walter Raleigh was executed

    London, England, United Kingdom
    Monday Oct 29, 1618

    Sir Walter Raleigh was executed at the Palace of Westminster on 29 October 1618.


  • London, England
    Tuesday Apr 1, 1698
    April Fools' Day

    "see the Lions washed"

    London, England
    Tuesday Apr 1, 1698

    On April 1, 1698, several people were tricked into going to the Tower of London to "see the Lions washed".


  • London, United Kingdom
    Monday Apr 23, 1764
    Mozart

    Mozart meets King George III in London

    London, United Kingdom
    Monday Apr 23, 1764

    Mozart, the boy wondered, enchanted anyone who was everyone from noblemen to royalty. Leopold revealed his attention and was also no doubt grateful for the hard cash produced by his offspring. The King presented him with music from Wagenseil, Bach, Abel and Handel and at first sight he played them all. He played the King's own organ so well, that people said that playing his organ was better than playing his piano. He then accompanied the Queen in a poem, and the flute player in a piece of flute and piano.


  • Royal Hospital Chelsea, Chelsea, London SW3 4SR, United Kingdom
    Friday Jun 29, 1764
    Mozart

    Mozart in Ranelagh Gardens

    Royal Hospital Chelsea, Chelsea, London SW3 4SR, United Kingdom
    Friday Jun 29, 1764

    In aid of a newly established maternity hospital, Mozart performed his compositions on the harpsichord and organ at a benefit concert. The entry fee was 5 shillings.


  • 180 Ebury Street, London, United Kingdom
    Sunday Aug 5, 1764
    Mozart

    Composing his first two symphonies

    180 Ebury Street, London, United Kingdom
    Sunday Aug 5, 1764

    Leopold moved his family to recover from a chill and sore throat caught at an open-air concert at the house of the Earl of Thanet in Grosvenor Square, here on 5 August 1764. A blue plaque commemorates their stay. Mozart wrote his first two symphonies, K16 and K19, to keep himself busy.


  • London, England, United Kingdom
    Wednesday Nov 19, 1794
    George Washington

    Jay Treaty

    London, England, United Kingdom
    Wednesday Nov 19, 1794

    Hamilton formulated the Jay Treaty to normalize trade relations with Great Britain while removing them from western forts, and also to resolve financial debts remaining from the Revolution. Chief Justice John Jay acted as Washington's negotiator and signed the treaty on November 19, 1794; critical Jeffersonians, however, supported France. Washington deliberated, then supported the treaty because it avoided war with Britain, but was disappointed that its provisions favored Britain.


  • London, England, United Kingdom
    Thursday Jan 22, 1801
    The palace of Westminster England

    House of Lords of the United Kingdom

    London, England, United Kingdom
    Thursday Jan 22, 1801

    The Chamber of the House of Lords is located in the southern part of the Palace of Westminster. The lavishly decorated room measures 13.7 by 24.4 metres (45 by 80 ft).


  • London, England, United Kingdom
    Monday May 11, 1812
    The palace of Westminster England

    Spencer Perceval assassinated

    London, England, United Kingdom
    Monday May 11, 1812

    The previous Palace of Westminster was also the site of a prime-ministerial assassination on 11 May 1812. While in the lobby of the House of Commons, on his way to a parliamentary inquiry, Spencer Perceval was shot and killed by a Liverpool merchant adventurer, John Bellingham. Perceval remains the only British Prime Minister to have been assassinated.


  • Bristol, England, United Kingdom
    Saturday Feb 3, 1821
    Elizabeth Blackwell

    Birth

    Bristol, England, United Kingdom
    Saturday Feb 3, 1821

    Elizabeth was born on February 3, 1821, in Bristol, England, to Samuel Blackwell, who was a sugar refiner, and his wife Hannah (Lane) Blackwell.


  • Windsor Castle, Berkshire, England, United Kingdom
    Saturday Jun 26, 1830
    Buckingham Palace

    Death of George IV

    Windsor Castle, Berkshire, England, United Kingdom
    Saturday Jun 26, 1830

    On the death of George IV in 1830, his younger brother King William IV hired Edward Blore to finish the work.


  • London, England, United Kingdom
    Thursday Oct 16, 1834
    The palace of Westminster England

    A Fire

    London, England, United Kingdom
    Thursday Oct 16, 1834

    On 16 October 1834, a fire broke out in the Palace after an overheated stove used to destroy the Exchequer's stockpile of tally sticks set fire to the House of Lords Chamber. In the resulting conflagration both Houses of Parliament were destroyed, along with most of the other buildings in the palace complex. Westminster Hall was saved thanks to fire-fighting efforts and a change in the direction of the wind. The Jewel Tower, the Undercroft Chapel and the Cloisters and Chapter House of St Stephen's were the only other parts of the Palace to survive.


  • London, England, United Kingdom
    Thursday Oct 16, 1834
    Buckingham Palace

    Destruction of the Palace of Westminster by fire

    London, England, United Kingdom
    Thursday Oct 16, 1834

    After the destruction of the Palace of Westminster by fire in 1834, William considered converting the palace into the new Houses of Parliament.


  • London, England, United Kingdom
    Thursday Oct 16, 1834
    The palace of Westminster England

    Victoria Tower

    London, England, United Kingdom
    Thursday Oct 16, 1834

    The largest and tallest tower is 98.5-metre (323 ft) Victoria Tower, which occupies the south-western corner of the Palace. Originally named "The King's Tower" because the fire of 1834 which destroyed the old Palace of Westminster occurred during the reign of King William IV, the tower was an integral part of Barry's original design, of which he intended it to be the most memorable element. The architect conceived the great square tower as the keep of a legislative "castle" (echoing his selection of the portcullis as his identifying mark in the planning competition), and used it as the royal entrance to the Palace and as a fireproof repository for the archives of Parliament. Victoria Tower was re-designed several times, and its height increased progressively; upon its completion in 1858, it was the tallest secular building in the world.


  • London, England, United Kingdom
    Monday Apr 27, 1840
    The palace of Westminster England

    The new Pugin-Barry design

    London, England, United Kingdom
    Monday Apr 27, 1840

    The first stone of the new Pugin-Barry design was laid on 27 April 1840, by Barry's wife Sarah (née Rowsell).


  • Liverpool, England, United Kingdom
    Saturday Aug 16, 1845
    Frederick Douglass

    Douglass sailed for Liverpool "Feelings"

    Liverpool, England, United Kingdom
    Saturday Aug 16, 1845

    Douglass's friends and mentors feared that the publicity would draw the attention of his ex-owner, Hugh Auld, who might try to get his "property" back. They encouraged Douglass to tour Ireland, as many former slaves had done. Douglass set sail on the Cambria for Liverpool, England on August 16, 1845. He traveled in Ireland as the Irish Potato Famine was beginning. The feeling of freedom from American racial discrimination amazed Douglass: Eleven days and a half gone and I have crossed three thousand miles of the perilous deep. Instead of a democratic government, I am under a monarchical government. Instead of the bright, blue sky of America, I am covered with the soft, grey fog of the Emerald Isle [Ireland]. I breathe, and lo! the chattel [slave] becomes a man. I gaze around in vain for one who will question my equal humanity, claim me as his slave, or offer me an insult. I employ a cab—I am seated beside white people—I reach the hotel—I enter the same door—I am shown into the same parlour—I dine at the same table—and no one is offended ... I find myself regarded and treated at every turn with the kindness and deference paid to white people. When I go to church, I am met by no upturned nose and scornful lip to tell me, 'We don't allow niggers in here!' He also met and befriended the Irish nationalist Daniel O'Connell, who was to be a great inspiration.


  • Norfolk, England, United Kingdom
    Sunday Jan 7, 1849
    David Copperfield

    A Visit to two Cities

    Norfolk, England, United Kingdom
    Sunday Jan 7, 1849

    On 7 January 1849, Dickens visited Norwich and Yarmouth in Norfolk, with two close friends, John Leech (1817–1864) and Mark Lemon (1809–1870). Leech was an illustrator at Punch, a satirical magazine, and the first illustrator for A Christmas Carol by Dickens in 1843. Lemon was a founding editor of Punch, and soon a contributor to Household Words, the weekly magazine Dickens was starting up; he co-authored Mr Nightingale's Diary, a farce, with Dickens in 1851. The two towns, especially the second, became important in the novel, and Dickens informed Forster that Yarmouth seemed to him to be "the strangest place in the world" and that he would "certainly try my hand at it". During a walk in the vicinity of Yarmouth, Dickens noticed a sign indicating the small locality of Blunderston, which became in his novel the village of "Blunderstone" where David is born and spends his childhood.


  • England, United Kingdom
    Wednesday Aug 22, 1849
    David Copperfield

    Changes in detail occur during the composition

    England, United Kingdom
    Wednesday Aug 22, 1849

    Changes in detail occur during the composition: on 22 August 1849, while staying on the Isle of Wight for a family vacation, he changed on the advice of Forster, the theme of the obsession of Mr Dick, a secondary character in the novel. This theme was originally "a bull in a china shop" and became "King Charles's head" in a nod to the bicentenary of the execution of Charles I of England.


  • United Kingdom
    Sunday Mar 31, 1850
    David Copperfield

    Household Words

    United Kingdom
    Sunday Mar 31, 1850

    Although plunged into the writing of his novel, Dickens set out to create a new journal, Household Words, the first issue of which appeared on 31 March 1850. This daunting task, however, did not seem to slow down the writing of David Copperfield: I am "busy as a bee", he writes happily to the actor William Macready.


  • London, England, United Kingdom
    Thursday Aug 15, 1850
    Libraries

    Public Libraries Act 1850

    London, England, United Kingdom
    Thursday Aug 15, 1850

    Although by the mid-19th century England could claim 274 subscription libraries and Scotland, 266, the foundation of the modern public library system in Britain is the Public Libraries Act 1850.


  • England, United Kingdom
    Friday Aug 16, 1850
    David Copperfield

    Dora Annie Dickens

    England, United Kingdom
    Friday Aug 16, 1850

    His third daughter was born on 16 August 1850, called Dora Annie Dickens, the same name as his character's first wife. The baby died nine months later after the last serial was issued and the book was published.


  • England, United Kingdom
    Monday Oct 21, 1850
    David Copperfield

    Torn and Happy

    England, United Kingdom
    Monday Oct 21, 1850

    Dickens marked the end of his manuscript on 21 October 1850 and felt both torn and happy like every time he finished a novel: "Oh, my dear Forster, if I were to say half of what Copperfield makes me feel to-night, how strangely, even to you, I should be turned inside out! I seem to be sending some part of myself into the Shadowy World".


  • England, United Kingdom
    Friday Nov 1, 1850
    David Copperfield

    The 64 chapters have all been published

    England, United Kingdom
    Friday Nov 1, 1850

    "The Personal History, Adventures, Experience, and Observation of David Copperfield the Younger, of Blunderstone Rookery" was published from 1 May 1849 to 1 November 1850 (3 chapters per month) in 19 monthly one-shilling installments, containing 32 pages of text and two illustrations by Hablot Knight Browne ("Phiz"), with a title cover, simplified to The Personal History of David Copperfield. The last installment was a double-number. On the other side of the Atlantic, John Wiley & Sons and G P Putnam published a monthly edition, then a two-volume book version.


  • Hamilton Crescent, Partick, Scotland
    Wednesday Nov 30, 1870
    FIFA World Cup

    The First official international football match

    Hamilton Crescent, Partick, Scotland
    Wednesday Nov 30, 1870

    The first official international football match was played in 1872 in Glasgow between Scotland and England, although at this stage the sport was rarely played outside Great Britain.


  • Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
    Sunday Jan 14, 1872
    Greyfriars Bobby

    Death

    Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
    Sunday Jan 14, 1872

    Bobby is said to have sat by the grave for 14 years. He died in 1872 and a necropsy by Prof Thomas Walley of the Edinburgh Veterinary College concluded he had died from cancer of the jaw.


  • Oxford, England, United Kingdom
    Monday Nov 30, 1874
    Winston Churchill

    Birth

    Oxford, England, United Kingdom
    Monday Nov 30, 1874

    Churchill was born on 30 November 1874 at his family's ancestral home, Blenheim Palace in Oxfordshire. As direct descendants of the Dukes of Marlborough, his family were among the highest levels of the British aristocracy. His father, Lord Randolph Churchill, had been elected Conservative MP for Woodstock in 1873. His mother, Jennie, was daughter of Leonard Jerome, a wealthy American businessman.


  • Newcastle upon Tyne, England
    Wednesday Dec 18, 1878
    Incandescent light bulb

    The Newcastle Chemical Society Meeting

    Newcastle upon Tyne, England
    Wednesday Dec 18, 1878

    On 18 December 1878, a lamp using a slender carbon rod was shown at a meeting of the Newcastle Chemical Society.


  • Newcastle upon Tyne, England, United Kingdom
    Friday Jan 17, 1879
    Incandescent light bulb

    Swan gave a working demonstration

    Newcastle upon Tyne, England, United Kingdom
    Friday Jan 17, 1879

    Swan gave a working demonstration at The Newcastle Chemical Society meeting on 17 January 1879.


  • Mosley Street, Newcastle upon Tyne, England
    Monday Feb 3, 1879
    Incandescent light bulb

    The First Street in the world to be lit by an Incandescent Lightbulb

    Mosley Street, Newcastle upon Tyne, England
    Monday Feb 3, 1879

    The first street in the world to be lit by an incandescent lightbulb was Mosley Street, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom. It was lit by Joseph Swan's incandescent lamp on 3 February 1879.


  • Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, England, United Kingdom
    Tuesday Jun 5, 1883
    John Maynard Keynes

    Birth

    Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, England, United Kingdom
    Tuesday Jun 5, 1883

    John Maynard Keynes was born in Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, England, to an upper-middle-class family.


  • London, England, United Kingdom
    Saturday Jan 24, 1885
    The palace of Westminster England

    Fenian bombs

    London, England, United Kingdom
    Saturday Jan 24, 1885

    The New Palace became the target of Fenian bombs on 24 January 1885, along with the Tower of London.


  • London, England
    Tuesday Sep 4, 1888
    Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi

    Travelling to London

    London, England
    Tuesday Sep 4, 1888

    On 4 September, he sailed from Bombay to London. His brother saw him off.Gandhi attended University College, London which is a constituent college of University of London.


  • White Lodge, Richmond Park, London, England, United Kingdom
    Saturday Jun 23, 1894
    Edward VIII

    Birth

    White Lodge, Richmond Park, London, England, United Kingdom
    Saturday Jun 23, 1894

    Edward was born on 23 June 1894 at White Lodge, Richmond Park, on the outskirts of London during the reign of his great-grandmother Queen Victoria.


  • Green Drawing Room of White Lodge, London, England, United Kingdom
    Sunday Jul 15, 1894
    Edward VIII

    Baptised

    Green Drawing Room of White Lodge, London, England, United Kingdom
    Sunday Jul 15, 1894

    He was baptised Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David in the Green Drawing Room of White Lodge on 16 July 1894 by Edward White Benson, Archbishop of Canterbury.


  • London, England, United Kingdom
    Thursday Jan 24, 1895
    Winston Churchill

    Lord Randolph Churchill died

    London, England, United Kingdom
    Thursday Jan 24, 1895

    His father died in January 1895, soon after Churchill finished at Sandhurst.


  • Birmingham, England, United Kingdom
    Sunday Jan 12, 1896
    X-ray

    First use under clinical conditions

    Birmingham, England, United Kingdom
    Sunday Jan 12, 1896

    The first use of X-rays under clinical conditions was by John Hall-Edwards in Birmingham, England on 11 January 1896, when he radiographed a needle stuck in the hand of an associate.


  • Birmingham, England, United Kingdom
    Friday Feb 14, 1896
    X-ray

    First surgical operation

    Birmingham, England, United Kingdom
    Friday Feb 14, 1896

    On February 14, 1896, Hall-Edwards was also the first to use X-rays in a surgical operation.


  • London, England, United Kingdom
    Monday Jul 23, 1900
    W. E. B. Du Bois

    Du Bois attended the First Pan-African Conference

    London, England, United Kingdom
    Monday Jul 23, 1900

    In 1900, Du Bois attended the First Pan-African Conference, held in London from July 23 to 25.


  • Osborne, East Cowes, United Kingdom
    Tuesday Jan 22, 1901
    Edward VIII

    Death of Queen Victoria

    Osborne, East Cowes, United Kingdom
    Tuesday Jan 22, 1901

    Edward was tutored at home by Helen Bricka. When his parents traveled the British Empire for almost nine months following the death of Queen Victoria in 1901, young Edward and his siblings stayed in Britain with their grandparents, Queen Alexandra and King Edward VII, who showered their grandchildren with affection.


  • England, United Kingdom
    Sunday Mar 17, 1901
    St. Patrick's Day

    Introduction to England

    England, United Kingdom
    Sunday Mar 17, 1901

    In England, the British Royals traditionally present bowls of shamrock to members of the Irish Guards, a regiment in the British Army, following Queen Alexandra introducing the tradition in 1901.


  • London, England, United Kingdom
    Tuesday May 31, 1904
    Winston Churchill

    Churchill crossed the floor

    London, England, United Kingdom
    Tuesday May 31, 1904

    On 31 May 1904, Churchill crossed the floor, defecting from the Conservatives to sit as a member of the Liberal Party in the House of Commons.


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