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  • Hungary
    Tuesday Dec 13, 1904

    Incandescent light bulb

    Sándor Just and Croatian Franjo Hanaman were granted a Hungarian patent for a tungsten Filament Lamp

    Hungary
    Tuesday Dec 13, 1904

    On 13 December 1904, Hungarian Sándor Just and Croatian Franjo Hanaman were granted a Hungarian patent (No. 34541) for a tungsten filament lamp that lasted longer and gave brighter light than the carbon filament. Tungsten filament lamps were first marketed by the Hungarian company Tungsram in 1904. This type is often called Tungsram-bulbs in many European countries. Filling a bulb with an inert gas such as argon or nitrogen slows down the evaporation of the tungsten filament compared to operating it in a vacuum. This allows for greater temperatures and therefore greater efficacy with less reduction in filament life.




  • Budapest, Hungary
    Thursday Oct 31, 1918

    Hungarian–Romanian War

    The Aster Revolution in Budapest

    Budapest, Hungary
    Thursday Oct 31, 1918

    On 31 October 1918, the Aster Revolution in Budapest brought Hungarian liberal aristocrat Mihály Károlyi, a supporter of the Allied Powers, to power. The Hungarian Royal Honvéd army still had more than 1.400.000 soldiers when Mihály Károlyi was announced as prime minister of Hungary. Károlyi yielded to U.S. President Woodrow Wilson's demand for pacifism by ordering the disarmament of the Hungarian army. This happened under the direction of Béla Linder, minister of war in the Károlyi government. Due to the full disarmament of its army, Hungary remained without a national defence at a time of particular vulnerability.




  • Hungary (then Kingdom of Hungary)
    Tuesday Nov 5, 1918

    Hungarian–Romanian War

    The Serbian Army Attack

    Hungary (then Kingdom of Hungary)
    Tuesday Nov 5, 1918

    On 5 November 1918, the Serbian army, with the help of the French army, crossed southern borders.




  • Pécs, Hungary
    Thursday Nov 14, 1918

    Hungarian–Romanian War

    Serbia Occupied Pécs

    Pécs, Hungary
    Thursday Nov 14, 1918

    The lines would apply until definitive borders could be established. Under the terms of the armistice, Serbian and French troops advanced from the south, taking control of the Banat and Croatia. Czechoslovakia took control of Upper Hungary and Carpathian Ruthenia. Romanian forces were permitted to advance to the River Maros (Mureș) . However, on 14 November, Serbia occupied Pécs.




  • Hungary
    Wednesday Mar 19, 1919

    Hungarian–Romanian War

    Hungary Received Notification of The New Demarcation Line

    Hungary
    Wednesday Mar 19, 1919

    On 19 March, Hungary received notification of the new demarcation line and demilitarized zone from French Lieutenant Colonel Fernand Vix (the "Vix note"). The Károlyi government would not accept the terms and this was a trigger for the coup d'état by Béla Kun, who formed the Hungarian Soviet Republic.




  • Hungary (then Kingdom of Hungary)
    Thursday Mar 20, 1919

    Hungarian–Romanian War

    Releasing Béla Kun

    Hungary (then Kingdom of Hungary)
    Thursday Mar 20, 1919

    The Károlyi government failed to manage both domestic and military issues and lost popular support. On 20 March 1919, Béla Kun, who had been imprisoned in the Markó Street prison, was released.




  • Hungary (then Kingdom of Hungary)
    Friday Mar 21, 1919

    Hungarian–Romanian War

    The Successful Communist Coup d'état

    Hungary (then Kingdom of Hungary)
    Friday Mar 21, 1919

    On 21 March, Béla Kun led a successful communist coup d'état. Károlyi was deposed and arrested. Kun formed a social democratic, communist coalition government and proclaimed the Hungarian Soviet Republic. Days later the Communists purged the Social Democrats from the government.


  • Hungary
    Saturday Mar 22, 1919

    Hungarian–Romanian War

    Beginning The Retreat of The Hungarian Army behind The demilitarized Zone

    Hungary
    Saturday Mar 22, 1919

    A demilitarized zone was to be created, extending from the new demarcation line to 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) beyond the line. The demilitarized zone represented the extent of Romanian territorial requests on Hungary. The retreat of the Hungarian army behind the western border of the demilitarized zone was to begin on 22 March.


  • Hungary
    Friday Apr 4, 1919

    Hungarian–Romanian War

    Sending South African General Jan Smuts To Hungary

    Hungary
    Friday Apr 4, 1919

    On 4 April, South African General Jan Smuts was sent to Hungary. He carried the proposition that the Hungarian communist government under Kun abide by the conditions previously presented to Károlyi in the Vix note. Smuts' mission also represented official recognition of the Kun communist government by the Allied council.


  • Debrecen, Hungary
    Wednesday Apr 23, 1919

    Hungarian–Romanian War

    Romania occupied Debrecen

    Debrecen, Hungary
    Wednesday Apr 23, 1919

    On 23 April, Debrecen was occupied by Romanian forces.


  • Békéscsaba, Hungary
    Saturday Apr 26, 1919

    Hungarian–Romanian War

    Békéscsaba Fell To Romanian Forces

    Békéscsaba, Hungary
    Saturday Apr 26, 1919

    The Romanian Army began preparations for an assault on Békéscsaba. On 25–26 April, after some heavy fighting, Békéscsaba fell to Romanian forces.


  • Szolnok, Hungary
    Tuesday Apr 29, 1919

    Hungarian–Romanian War

    Breaking Through The Tisza River defense Lines

    Szolnok, Hungary
    Tuesday Apr 29, 1919

    The Hungarians retreated to Szolnok and from there across the Tisza River. They established two concentric defense lines extending from the Tisza River around Szolnok. Between 29 April and 1 May, the Romanian Army broke through these lines.


  • Tisza River, Hungary
    Thursday May 1, 1919

    Hungarian–Romanian War

    Romania controled The Entire East bank of The Tisza River

    Tisza River, Hungary
    Thursday May 1, 1919

    On the evening of 1 May the entire east bank of the Tisza River was under the control of the Romanian army.


  • Hungary
    Friday May 2, 1919

    Hungarian–Romanian War

    Hungary Sued For Peace

    Hungary
    Friday May 2, 1919

    On 2 May, Hungary sued for peace via a request delivered by his representative, Lieutenant Colonel Henrik Werth. Kun was prepared to recognize all of Romania's territorial demands; requested the cessation of hostilities; and asked for ongoing control of Hungarian internal affairs.


  • Miskolc, Hungary
    Tuesday May 20, 1919

    Hungarian–Romanian War

    Hungary Attacked Miskolc

    Miskolc, Hungary
    Tuesday May 20, 1919

    With cessation of hostilities, Kun worked to improve his battered international position. On 20 May 1919, a force under Colonel Aurél Stromfeld attacked and routed Czech troops from Miskolc.


  • Tisza River, Hungary
    Tuesday Jun 3, 1919

    Hungarian–Romanian War

    Romania was Forced Into Further Retreat

    Tisza River, Hungary
    Tuesday Jun 3, 1919

    On 3 June, Romania was forced into further retreat but extended its line of defence along the Tisza River and reinforced its position with the 8th Division, which had been moving forward from Bukovina since 22 May.


  • Hungary
    Monday Jun 23, 1919

    Hungarian–Romanian War

    Hungary Signed an armistice With Czechoslovakia

    Hungary
    Monday Jun 23, 1919

    On 23 June, Hungary signed an armistice with Czechoslovakia.


  • Hungary
    Friday Jul 4, 1919

    Hungarian–Romanian War

    The Hungarian Army Had Retreated South of The Hungarian–Czechoslovak demarcation Line

    Hungary
    Friday Jul 4, 1919

    By 4 July, the Hungarian Army had retreated 15 km south of the Hungarian–Czechoslovak demarcation line.


  • Hungary
    Friday Jul 11, 1919

    Hungarian–Romanian War

    The Coordinated Attack against Hungary

    Hungary
    Friday Jul 11, 1919

    The Allied council demanded that Romania leave Tiszántúl and respect the new borders. Romania said it would only do so after the Hungarian Army demobilized. Kun said he would continue to depend on the might of his army. On 11 July, the Allied council ordered Marshal Ferdinand Foch to prepare a coordinated attack against Hungary using Serb, French and Romanian forces. Hungary, in turn, prepared for action along the Tisza River.


  • Rakamaz, Hungary
    Sunday Jul 20, 1919

    Hungarian–Romanian War

    The Hungarians Army took Rakamaz

    Rakamaz, Hungary
    Sunday Jul 20, 1919

    On 20 July, in the northern arena, the Hungarians army took Rakamaz and some nearby villages. Troops of the Romanian 16th and 2nd Vânători divisions took back the villages shortly and regained Rakamaz the next day. The Hungarians renewed their efforts and, supported by artillery fire, retook Rakamaz and two nearby villages but could not break out of the Rakamaz bridgehead.


  • Szolnok, Hungary
    Sunday Jul 20, 1919

    Hungarian–Romanian War

    Hungarian Forces Established a Solid Bridgehead at Szolnok

    Szolnok, Hungary
    Sunday Jul 20, 1919

    On 20 July, Hungarian forces established a solid bridgehead on the east bank of the Tisza at Szolnok, opposed by the Romanian 91st Regiment of the 18th Infantry Division. The Hungarian army moved the 6th and 7th divisions across the Tisza River, formed up within the bridgehead, then attacked the Romanians in the first line of defense. The Hungarian 6th Infantry Division took Törökszentmiklós; the 7th Division advanced towards Mezőtúr and the 5th Division advanced towards Túrkeve.


  • Kunhegyes, Hungary
    Tuesday Jul 22, 1919

    Hungarian–Romanian War

    Hungarian Forces Crossed The Tisza River and Took Kunhegyes

    Kunhegyes, Hungary
    Tuesday Jul 22, 1919

    On 22 July, Hungarian forces crossed the Tisza River at a point 20 kilometres (12 mi) north of Szolnok and took Kunhegyes from the Romanian 18th Vânători Regiment.


  • Hódmezővásárhely, Hungary
    Wednesday Jul 23, 1919

    Hungarian–Romanian War

    Romanian Forces reoccupied Hódmezővásárhely

    Hódmezővásárhely, Hungary
    Wednesday Jul 23, 1919

    On 21–22 July, Hódmezővásárhely changed hands several times between Hungarian and Romanian troops of the 90th Infantry Regiment supported by the 1st Vânători Brigade. On 23 July, Romanian forces reoccupied Hódmezővásárhely, Szentes and Mindszent.


  • Túrkeve, Hungary - Mezőtúr, Hungary
    Wednesday Jul 23, 1919

    Hungarian–Romanian War

    The Hungarian Took Túrkeve and Mezőtúr

    Túrkeve, Hungary - Mezőtúr, Hungary
    Wednesday Jul 23, 1919

    On 23 July, Hungarian forces took Túrkeve and Mezőtúr.


  • Tiszafüred, Hungary
    Thursday Jul 24, 1919

    Hungarian–Romanian War

    The Romanian 20th Infantry Division Cleared The bridgehead at Tiszafüred

    Tiszafüred, Hungary
    Thursday Jul 24, 1919

    On 24 July, the Romanian 20th Infantry Division, brought in as reinforcements, cleared the bridgehead at Tiszafüred. Not being able to break out of Rakamaz, Hungarian forces fortified their positions and redeployed some troops. There was a lull in fighting in the north, as the Romanian troops did the same.


  • Kunhegyes, Hungary
    Thursday Jul 24, 1919

    Hungarian–Romanian War

    The Romanian Took Kunhegyes

    Kunhegyes, Hungary
    Thursday Jul 24, 1919

    On 24 July, the Romanian Army's northern maneuver group attacked. Elements of the 2nd Cavalry Division, supported by troops of the 18th Infantry Division, took Kunhegyes. The Romanian 1st Infantry Division attacked the Hungarian 6th Infantry Division and took Fegyvernek. The Romanian 6th Ddivision was less successful, being counterattacked on the left flank by the Hungarian reserve formations. Altogether, the attack pushed back the Hungarian army 20 kilometres (12 mi). Romanian forces were supported by the 2nd Vânători Division and some cavalry units when they became available.


  • Fegyvernek, Hungary
    Friday Jul 25, 1919

    Hungarian–Romanian War

    Hungarian Forces Counterattacked at Fegyvernek

    Fegyvernek, Hungary
    Friday Jul 25, 1919

    On 25 July, fighting continued. Hungarian forces counterattacked at Fegyvernek, engaging the Romanian 1st Infantry Division. With their lines breaking, Hungarian troops began a retreat towards the Tisza River bridge at Szolnok.


  • Hungary
    Sunday Jul 27, 1919

    Hungarian–Romanian War

    The Romanian Army Tested The Strength of The Hungarian Defense

    Hungary
    Sunday Jul 27, 1919

    After repelling the Hungarian attack, the Romanian army prepared to cross the Tisza River. From 27–29 July, the Romanian Army tested the strength of the Hungarian defense with small attacks. A plan was made to cross the Tisza River near Fegyvernek, where it makes a turn.


  • Tisza River, Hungary
    Tuesday Jul 29, 1919

    Hungarian–Romanian War

    The Romanian Army crossed the Tisza River

    Tisza River, Hungary
    Tuesday Jul 29, 1919

    On the night of 29–30 July, the Romanian Army crossed the Tisza River. Decoy operations were mounted at other points along the river, bringing intense artillery duels. Romanian forces held the element of surprise.


  • Budapest, Hungary
    Thursday Jul 31, 1919

    Hungarian–Romanian War

    Hungarian Army retreated Towards Budapest

    Budapest, Hungary
    Thursday Jul 31, 1919

    On 31 July the Hungarian army retreated towards Budapest.


  • Budapest, Hungary
    Sunday Aug 3, 1919

    Hungarian–Romanian War

    Entering Budapest

    Budapest, Hungary
    Sunday Aug 3, 1919

    Romanian forces continued their advance towards Budapest. On 3 August, under the command of General Rusescu, three squadrons of the 6th Cavalry Regiment of the 4th Brigade entered Budapest.


  • Győr, Hungary
    Monday Aug 4, 1919

    Hungarian–Romanian War

    The Romanian Forces Continued Their advance Into Hungary and Stopped at Győr

    Győr, Hungary
    Monday Aug 4, 1919

    Until midday on 4 August, 400 Romanian soldiers with two artillery guns held Budapest. Then the bulk of the Romanian troops arrived in the city and a parade was held through the city center in front of the commander, General Moşoiu. Romanian forces continued their advance into Hungary and stopped at Győr. As of 8 August, the Romanians had captured 1,235 Hungarian officers and 40,000 soldiers, seized 350 guns—including two with a caliber of 305 mm—332 machine guns, 52,000 rifles and 87 airplanes.


  • Budapest, Kingdom of Hungary
    Monday Oct 16, 1944

    World War II

    Operation Panzerfaust

    Budapest, Kingdom of Hungary
    Monday Oct 16, 1944

    German forces undertaken military operation to ensure the Kingdom of Hungary would remain a German ally. The operation was on 15 October 1944.


  • Budapest, Kingdom of Hungary
    Monday Oct 30, 1944

    World War II

    Budapest Offensive

    Budapest, Kingdom of Hungary
    Monday Oct 30, 1944

    Soviets launched a massive assault against German-occupied Hungary. The offensive lasted from 29 October 1944 until the fall of Budapest on 13 February 1945.


  • Budapest, Kingdom of Hungary
    Tuesday Feb 13, 1945

    World War II

    Fall of Budapest

    Budapest, Kingdom of Hungary
    Tuesday Feb 13, 1945

    The Siege of Budapest was the 50-day-long encirclement by Soviet and Romanian forces of the Hungarian capital of Budapest. The city unconditionally surrendered on 13 February 1945. It was a strategic victory for the Allies in their push towards Berlin.


  • Lake Balaton, Kingdom of Hungary
    Sunday Apr 15, 1945

    World War II

    Operation Spring Awakening - Last German major offensive

    Lake Balaton, Kingdom of Hungary
    Sunday Apr 15, 1945

    In early March, in an attempt to protect its last oil reserves in Hungary and to retake Budapest, Germany launched its last major offensive against Soviet troops near Lake Balaton. In two weeks, the offensive had been repulsed. The operation lasted from 6 to 16 March, while the Soviet counter attack took place between 16 March to 15 April 1945.


  • Hungary
    Sunday Nov 4, 1945

    Hungarian Revolution of 1956

    1945 Hungarian parliamentary election

    Hungary
    Sunday Nov 4, 1945

    Toward the end of World War II, the Soviet Army occupied Hungary, with the country coming under the Soviet Union's sphere of influence. Immediately after World War II, Hungary was a multiparty democracy, and elections in 1945 produced a coalition government under Prime Minister Zoltán Tildy.


  • Hungary
    Wednesday Jul 18, 1956

    Hungarian Revolution of 1956

    Rákosi was deposed as General Secretary of The Hungarian Working People's Party

    Hungary
    Wednesday Jul 18, 1956

    After Khrushchev's "secret speech" of February 1956, which denounced Stalin and his protégés, Rákosi was deposed as General Secretary of the Party and replaced by Ernő Gerő on 18 July 1956.


  • Hungary
    Saturday Oct 6, 1956

    Hungarian Revolution of 1956

    László Rajk was Reburied

    Hungary
    Saturday Oct 6, 1956

    On 6 October 1956, László Rajk, who had been executed by the Rákosi government, was reburied in a moving ceremony that strengthened the party opposition.


  • Budapest, Hungary
    Monday Oct 22, 1956

    Hungarian Revolution of 1956

    Resurrect MEFESZ Student Union

    Budapest, Hungary
    Monday Oct 22, 1956

    By 22 October 1956, Technical University students had resurrected the banned MEFESZ student union.


  • Budapest, Hungary
    Tuesday Oct 23, 1956

    Hungarian Revolution of 1956

    Technical University Students Staged a demonstration

    Budapest, Hungary
    Tuesday Oct 23, 1956

    Technical University students staged a demonstration on 23 October that set off a chain of events leading directly to the revolution.


  • Budapest, Hungary
    Tuesday Oct 23, 1956

    Hungarian Revolution of 1956

    Protesters Convened Next To The Statue of József Bem

    Budapest, Hungary
    Tuesday Oct 23, 1956

    On the afternoon of 23 October 1956, approximately 20,400 protesters convened next to the statue of József Bem—a national hero of Poland and Hungary.


  • Budapest, Hungary
    Tuesday Oct 23, 1956

    Hungarian Revolution of 1956

    Ernő Gerő Requested Soviet Military Intervention

    Budapest, Hungary
    Tuesday Oct 23, 1956

    During the night of 23 October, Hungarian Working People's Party Secretary Ernő Gerő requested Soviet military intervention "to suppress a demonstration that was reaching an ever greater and unprecedented scale". The Soviet leadership had formulated contingency plans for intervention in Hungary several months before.


  • Budapest, Hungary
    Tuesday Oct 23, 1956

    Hungarian Revolution of 1956

    The Incident at Radio Budapest building

    Budapest, Hungary
    Tuesday Oct 23, 1956

    A large crowd gathered at the Radio Budapest building, which was heavily guarded by the ÁVH. The flash point was reached as a delegation attempting to broadcast their demands was detained and the crowd grew increasingly unruly as rumours spread that the protesters had been shot. Tear gas was thrown from the upper windows and the ÁVH opened fire on the crowd, killing many. The ÁVH tried to re-supply itself by hiding arms inside an ambulance, but the crowd detected the ruse and intercepted it. Hungarian soldiers sent to relieve the ÁVH hesitated and then, tearing the red stars from their caps, sided with the crowd. Provoked by the ÁVH attack, protesters reacted violently. Police cars were set ablaze, guns were seized from military depots and distributed to the masses and symbols of the Communist regime were vandalised.


  • Budapest, Hungary
    Wednesday Oct 24, 1956

    Hungarian Revolution of 1956

    Imre Nagy Replaced András Hegedüs as Prime Minister

    Budapest, Hungary
    Wednesday Oct 24, 1956

    On 24 October, Imre Nagy replaced András Hegedüs as Prime Minister. On the radio, Nagy called for an end to violence and promised to initiate political reforms that had been shelved three years earlier. The population continued to arm itself as sporadic violence erupted.


  • Budapest, Hungary
    Wednesday Oct 24, 1956

    Hungarian Revolution of 1956

    Soviet Tanks were stationed outside the Parliament

    Budapest, Hungary
    Wednesday Oct 24, 1956

    By noon, on 24 October, Soviet tanks were stationed outside the Parliament, and Soviet soldiers guarded key bridges and crossroads. Armed revolutionaries quickly set up barricades to defend Budapest, and were reported to have already captured some Soviet tanks by mid-morning.


  • Budapest, Hungary
    Thursday Oct 25, 1956

    Hungarian Revolution of 1956

    A mass of Protesters Gathered in Front of The Parliament Building

    Budapest, Hungary
    Thursday Oct 25, 1956

    On 25 October, a mass of protesters gathered in front of the Parliament Building. ÁVH units began shooting into the crowd from the rooftops of neighbouring buildings. Some Soviet soldiers returned fire on the ÁVH, mistakenly believing that they were the targets of the shooting. Supplied by arms taken from the ÁVH or given by Hungarian soldiers who joined the uprising, some in the crowd started shooting back.


  • Kecskemét, Hungary
    Friday Oct 26, 1956

    Hungarian Revolution of 1956

    The Military Action Towards The demonstrations in Front of The Office of State Security and The Local Jail

    Kecskemét, Hungary
    Friday Oct 26, 1956

    In the town of Kecskemét on 26 October, demonstrations in front of the office of State Security and the local jail led to military action by the Third Corps under the orders of Major General Lajos Gyurkó, in which seven protesters were shot and several of the organizers were arrested.


  • Csepel, Budapest, Hungary
    Saturday Oct 27, 1956

    Hungarian Revolution of 1956

    The Army Units Were brought In To Secure Csepel and Restore Order

    Csepel, Budapest, Hungary
    Saturday Oct 27, 1956

    On 27 October, army units were brought in to secure Csepel and restore order.


  • Hungary
    Sunday Oct 28, 1956

    Hungarian Revolution of 1956

    A Ceasefire Was Arranged

    Hungary
    Sunday Oct 28, 1956

    Hungarian general Béla Király, freed from a life sentence for political offences and acting with the support of the Nagy government, sought to restore order by unifying elements of the police, army and insurgent groups into a National Guard. A ceasefire was arranged on 28 October.


  • Hungary
    Monday Oct 29, 1956

    Hungarian Revolution of 1956

    There Were 71 Cases of Armed Clashes between The Army and The Populace In Fifty Communities

    Hungary
    Monday Oct 29, 1956

    From 24 to 29 October, however, there were 71 cases of armed clashes between the army and the populace in fifty communities, ranging from the defence of attacks on civilian and military objectives to fighting with insurgents depending on the commanding officer.


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